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Tons
100

2000

£ Annual value of dyestuffs used in England

the present time the German output of coal-tar about

2,000,000 trade in which these dyes are

equals, if it does not exceed, that of England. employed

The German production of artificial perfumes is

200,000,000 Workmen dependent on this trade 1,500,000

said to amount to a value of about 2,500,000l. Total value of dyestuffs imported (1913)

1,892,055 annually. In this department of applied chemistry, from Germany 1,730,821

again, one of the first steps was made by the late

Sir William Perkin, by the synthesis in 1868 of Thus less than 1/10th of the annual value of the coumarin, the much-valued odoriferous principle of dyestuffs consumed in England is produced in this woodruff (Asperula odorata). country. Thus, by controlling the dyestuff industry, The great magnitude of the German coal-tar colour Germany indirectly holds in her grip the much larger textile industry.

industry may be gathered from the fact that the two The manner in which the coal-tar colour industry

groups into which the principal firms are associated

have at the present time a total share-capital of about has extinguished the cultivation of madder more 12,000,000l., on which a dividend of about 28 per cent. especially in France, since 1870, and has caused the cultivation of indigo in British India to dwindle

is paid. In 1912 Germany produced dyestuffs to the

value of 12,500,000l., of which to the value of almost to nothing since 1897, are now well-known 10,000,000l. were exported. facts in commercial history. They will be fully appreciated by a study of the following figures :

The proposal of the Government to assist the

British coal-tar colour industry is being watched with At the time of the discovery of artificial alizarin

the greatest interest both by manufacturers and (the dyestuff contained in madder) in 1869, the total chemists. The problem of relieving the immediate production of natural alizarin amounted to between

shortage during the war must be carefully distin500 and 750 tons (2,250,000l.), and in 1870 France had

guished from the later problem of securing the 50,000 acres under madder cultivation.

independence of the home-industry after the war by: The production of artificial alizarin was

greatly increasing the British output. The realisation

of the latter object will be attended with the greatest In 1873

possible difficulty. The industry will require 1877

750
* nursing for a great many years.

The under1884

1350 1900

taking must be possessed of such elasticity that it (4/5ths of this produced in Germany).

can ramify into other branches of chemical or other

industry whenever advantageous opportunities arise Again, with regard to indigo, in 1896 the world's for such departures. Chemists must form an integral production of plantation-indigo was valued at about part of the directorate, which must be prepared to 4,000,oool., of which four-fifths were obtained from spend large sums of money on judiciously conceived British India.

and well-organised research, for which the sum of Export of Indigo from British East Indies.

100,000l. in ten years, hitherto mentioned by the

Government, is ridiculously inadequate. The under£

taking must, moreover, be freed from all hampering 1896

3,569,670 1899

legislation with regard to restrictions in the use of 1,980,319

alcohol, ether, chloroform, and other chemicals. In 1,234,837

short, the rehabilitation of the industry in this country 1905

556,405 I908

424,849

will not be effected by following the precept “business 1911

225,000 as usual,” but by pursuing a policy which is quite the 1913-14

60,000—70,000

reverse of what is implied by that undignified phrase. Since the introduction of artificial indigo the price of indigo has been reduced by more than one-half, but BRITISH ASSOCIATION DISCUSSION OF since the outbreak of the war the price of indigo has advanced by 350 per cent.

THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SPECIES. Much inconvenience has been experienced also in AN N outstanding feature of the Melbourne meeting the shortage of artificial drugs and consequent high

of the British Association was the joint debate prices, more especially at the beginning of the war, by Sections K and D (Botany and Zoology) on the as even the simplest of these products were almost nature and origin of species. Prof. F. O. Bower, exclusively made in Germany. The manufacture of President of Section K, took the chair. some of these is, however, now being successfully Dr. A. B. Rendle pointed out the need of a workcarried on in England.

ing unit for the classification of the world's flora. A Again, the shortage of organic chemicals required working systematist or monographer recognised for research purposes, which practically all come from certain characters common to a number of individuals Germany, is occasioning most serious difficulties in as limiting varieties, species, and genera from one our university laboratories,

another. Such expert work was difficult, and inFor the manufacture of dyestuffs and similar clined to be at times individualistic, but was necessynthetic products Germany was formerly largely de- sary if systematic botany was to exist. Dr. Rendle pendent on England for the raw material-coal tar. showed himself a thorough supporter of the wellBut in this case, again, the ambition of Germany to known Darwinian explanation of the origin of species become in all respects independent and self-contained by natural selection. The living organism is eminhas led her in recent years to make the most ently adapted to its environment or is epharmonic. strenuous efforts to recover the maximum amount of Slight gradual changes in the organism due to incoal-tar both from the manufacture of gas and from ternal causes, influenced or not by slight changes in coke-ovens, which endeavour has been assisted by environment, accumulate and become inherited. If the enormous growth in her iron and steel industries. these changes are pronounced, e.g., sports or monThus in 1897 Germany obtained only 52,000 tons of strosities, they are likely to be detrimental to the coal-tar from coke-ovens, whilst in 1908 she obtained individuals possessing them. To grow plants under no fewer than 632,400 tons from that source, besides alien conditions generally requires care and freedom 300,000 tons from the manufacture of gas. Thus at from competition. He thought experiments con

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ducted under control in the laboratory or greenhouse enough to account for the production and continupartook too much of the nature of hospital treatment, ance of a variety. There must be selection too. and that conclusions based on such work were scien- Prof. Benjamin Moore caused his audience much tifically unsound. The open field of nature was the amusement by stating that although he had been more trustworthy as the interplay of forces there had compared in the President's address to Harry nothing personal in it. He could not accept the Lauder's schoolboy who took from his pocket a theory offered by De Vries and others of the origin washer and said * that's to mak' a motor-car," yet of species by mutation, namely, by the inheritance if he were starting to collect materials for building of striking changes suddenly appearing, that is to a motor-car he would rather begin with a washer say, discontinuous variations, as distinguished from than a pot of enamel paint. Workers at different the non-heritable fluctuations of slight degree. The levels on the subject of evolution were apt to despise inheritance of the discontinuous variations gives rise one another's work or misunderstand it. The problem by a process of segregation to the elementary species of the origin of species, just like the problem of the of De Vries. The Darwinian species arises, on the origin of atoms, was fundamentally a chemical contrary, by selection by an aggregation of slight problem, and in its study the effects of energy transgradual epharmonic changes.

formations acting from without upon the living cell Dr. Rendle took as an example of the difference of acting as a catalyst must be taken into account. The interpretation under the two opposing views the work outside sources of energy formed the environment, of Jordan on the Drabas and of Wettstein on alpine and this environment acted as a directive, screening, meadows. He showed no sympathy for Lotsy's view and selective factor causing small variations. of the origin of species by crossing. The resulting Prof. E. A. Minchin said that speaking quite forms would be in 90 per cent. of the cases of the generally and ignoring for the moment intermediate nature of monstrosities, and incapable of perpetuat- and transitional forms, he believed that two principal ing themselves. They would be too, as regards en- grades of evolution would be recognised in the Provironment, unharmonic. In conclusion, he considered tista, exemplified by the Bacteria and Protozoa respecthe latest suggestion made by Prof. Bateson, that tively. In the bacteria the full structure of the cell new forms arise by the omission of a character, to has not been attained, and there are no sexual probe full of difficulties. On this view the highest

In the Protozoa, on the other hand, the phase of evolution would correspond with the dis- individual is a complete and typical cell, and sexual appearance of all characters, while the primitive phenomena occur. In the bacteria the so-called organisms must have been inconceivably complex. species are groups of individuals in which the varia

Prof. A. Dendy, President of Section D, considered bility is indefinite and uncontrolled. In the Protozoa that species arise by a process of fundamental evolu- the variations are reduced to common level by tion, in which environment plays a leading part, and sexual blending, and fixed species occur. He believed that the adaptations are inherited. The epigenetic that in the unicellular Protista one of the effects of characters are, however, modified by sexual repro- the sexual powers is to produce true species by conduction, giving permutations and combinations, fol- trolling and levelling down variability. lowing Mendelian laws, which are superposed on the Mr. J. T. Cunningham expressed the view that modifications due to Darwinian evolution.

recent discoveries concerning internal secretions or Prof. W. Bateson, President of the Association, did hormones gave evidence of a physiological process not himself attach so much importance as some of

which would make the transmission of functionally the speakers to the standardisation of the term produced modifications possible. species. He thought it hopeless to expect definite Dr. F. A. Dixey thought that the principle of conclusions as to the nature and origin of species segregation of the gametes, especially as reinforced along the lines advocated by Dr. Rendle.

by the President's suggestion of " fractionation," has The reason that unquestionable judgments could thrown light on the persistence of some forms and not be reached was obviously that the physiological the appearance of others. It would seem that adaptanature of specific difference was still unknown. tion can only be satisfactorily accounted for on the the absence of this knowledge the delimitation of basis of selection applied to small inheritable variaspecies must be arbitrary. Many, following Darwin,

tions. hold that the distinction between species and variety Mr. R. P. Gregory and Dr. G. C. Druce also was a matter of degree. That might be so, but he spoke.

T. J. (the speaker) inclined to doubt it. No one, however, as yet had evidence on which a confident opinion as to that fundamental point could be based.

FORTHCOMING BOOKS OF SCIENCE.

Such evidence, if indeed attainable, could be reached only IN

N addition to the forthcoming books of science reby physiological experiment-experiments in breeding ferred to in recent issues of NATURE we notice the providing as yet the most hopeful line. No amount following publishers' announcements :-D. Appleton of inspection of specimens, living or dead, could and Co.-The Fundamentals of Plant Breeding, J. M. decide specific limits. Names must, of course, be Coulter; Psychology, General and Applied, H. Mungiven, and freely. Systematists perhaps do well to sterberg; Sanitation in Panama, W. C. Gorgas. indicate which names they regard as prerogatively The Cambridge University Press.-The Teachspecific; but it should clearly be understood that ing of Mathematics, Prof. T. P. Nunn (Camthese decisions were pragmatical and matters of con- bridge Handbooks for Teachers). J. M. Dent venience, and they should not be offered as indica- and Sons, Ltd.-An Introduction to

the Study tions of physiological significance.

of African Languages, Prof. Meinhof,

,

, transProf. E. B. Poulton thought there was too much lated by A. Werner; Elementary Experimental Statics, assumption in the distinction drawn by De Vries I. B. Hart. G. G. Harrap and Co.-Scientific between his non-heritable fluctuations and his dis- Management in Education, Dr. J. M. Rice; An Induscontinuous heritable variations as regards their herit- trial Geography of Britain, W. J. Claxton T. C and ability. He (Prof. Poulton) agreed with Prof. Dendy E. C. Jack.-Ġerman Culture, edited by Prof. W. P. in laying stress on the importance of sexuality in Paterson, the aim being to give an estimate of what producing new patterns by the endless combinations Germany has contributed to higher life and thought of units. He thought environment alone was not in the various departments of knowledge. The fol

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lowing subjects will be dealt with, among others :- to our wealthy Indians to endow medical research, so German Science, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson ; German that their poor but capable fellow-countrymen may Philosophy, Prof. A. D. Lindsay ; Political Philosophy have something to look forward to as reward for and Politics, Prof. D. H. Macgregor; German scientific toil. There are plenty of subjects for reHistory and Character, Prof. R. Lodge; Modern In- search which ought to be endowed, chairs in our ventions, V. E. Johnson; Electricity, W. H. McCor- medical schools and universities that ought to be estabmick; Engineering, G. Knox. Longmans and Co.- lished. All our Indian universities are at present mere The Development and Present Position of Biological

skeletons; wi no one here ta up the rôle of beggar Chemistry, Prof. F. G. Hopkins; The Polysaccharides, and try to extract a few lakhs of rupees from the A. R. Ling; Colloids, W. B. Hardy; Respiratory Ex- hoards of his wealthy and aristocratic friends? We change in Animals, Dr. A. Krogh; Protamines and know that there is plenty of money to be had when Histones, Dr. A. Kossel; Organic Compounds of the heart of the nation is touched, as witness the Arsenic and Antimony, Dr. G. T. Morgan; Lecithin magnificent response to the appeals made for war and Allied Substances, Dr. H. Maclean; The Orna- funds by H.E, the Viceroy and our own Governor of mental Plant Pigments, A. G. Perkin; Chlorophyll Madras. It must be your part, gentlemen of light and Hæmoglobin, H. J. Page (Monographs on Bio- and leading, to inspire similar enthusiasm in the good chemistry); Electric Waves, Prof. G. W. Pierce; The cause of university endowment. India wants to have, Emission of Electricity from Hot Bodies, Prof. O. W. not only more chairs and lectureships endowed, but Richardson ; Colloidal Solutions, Prof. E. F. Burton; also research scholarships or fellowships established; Atmospheric lonization, Prof. J. C. McLennan (Mono- fellowships available for the student and the research graphs on Physics); Electrolytic Dissociation Theory, worker, so that he may live in reasonable comfort, Dr. J. C. Philip; The Physical Chemistry of Flames, and be able to devote his whole energy to the work J. E. Coates; Clays, Dr. J. W. Mellor ; Catalysis of without anxiety for those depending on him. Gas Reactions, D. L. Chapman; The Electro-Chem- " I should like here to point out that we in Madras istry of Non-Aqueous Solutions, J. W. McBain; Cata- have made a beginning in this direction owing to the lysis in Liquid Systems, Dr. G. Senter; Hydrates in enlightened liberality of the Rajah of Pithapuram, who Solution, Prof. E. A. Washburn; The Rare Earth has presented 50,000 rupees for the expenses of an Metals, Dr. J. F. Spencer; The Molecular Volumes of inquiry into diabetes, that fell disease which carries Liquid Chemical Compounds, G. Le Bas; Adsorption, off so many of the best brain workers in this part of 1. Lefebure and A. "M. Williams (Monographs on

India. This is an example which I trust will often Inorganic and Physical Chemistry). J. Nisbet and be followed in the future; it can lead to nothing but Co., Ltd.–The Operative Treatment of Chronic In- good for India and her peoples. testinal Stasis, Sir W. A. Lane. Sir Isaac Pitman ** You will remember what our late beloved Kingand Sons, Ltd.-Experimental Physics, A. Cowling.

Emperor said with reference to tuberculosis :- If T. Fisher Unwin.-Rubber Recueil : Papers on preventible, why not prevented?' We may say the Rubber, its Botany, Culture, Preparation, and Com- same of all these diseases, They are preventible;

why are they not prevented?! For their prevention we require research and research workers. Research

workers are, after all, human beings and must be THE SECOND INDIAN SCIENCE

able to support themselves and their families by their

labours. Who will come forward and help us? India CONGRESS.

needs this help, and we cannot look to Government THE HE second Indian Science Congress was held in for more than a small part of the money required.

Madras from January 14-16. It may be remem- Government has done magnificent work of late years bered that the suggestion to hold a Science Congress in establishing laboratories, and subsidising research in India on the lines of the British Association was all over the land, but much more is required. We first made some three years ago by Prof. MacMahon, want scholarships and fellowships with pensions for of Lucknow, and Prof. Simonsen, of Madras. The our best research workers. Endowments for this purfirst meeting was held a year ago in Calcutta. pose will do more to keep alive the memory of the The Hon. Surgeon-General W. B. Bannermann,

donors than the erection of chattrams or other tradiI.M.S., C.S.I., was president this year, and delivered tional forms of charity. It will not merely do this on address entitled “The Importance of a Knowledge but will confer an inestimable benefit on the inarticuof Biology to Medical, Sanitary, and Scientific Men late millions of India, who do not even know that Working in the Tropics." After dealing with the they can be delivered from the various diseases that scourges of India and recent research as to the nature afflict them, and are scarcely conscious of their existof plague, malaria, and so on, the president remarked :-" It has been said that Indians have not “But we not only require research workers, we want yet distinguished themselves as they might in the an organisation that will help to educate the people domain of medical research. That is no doubt true, in the ordinary rules of health. There should be in but the reason is not far to seek. The leisured and each presidency an official whose business it is to look wealthy classes in India do not send their sons to our after the hygienic education of the common people. universities in any numbers, and when they do, cer- He should be in charge of a Bureau of Public Health, tainly not with the idea that they should spend the and his work should consist in preparing pamphlets rest of their lives in pure research work. Let us hope and popular lectures with lantern-slide illustrations, they will do so some day. It is, therefore, among the which could be lent to lecturers who would undertake sons of the middle class and often poor community to itinerate in the villages and talk to the common that we must look for the men with capacity and people. He should organise classes for the teachers inclination for such work.

our teachers' colleges, and he should gather * But these are the very men who, not being in together and popularise information from every quarindependent circumstances, must earn their living at ter. Such an official—who would have to be verv the earliest possible time. They cannot, therefore, be specially selected—would do an immense amount of expected to engage in scientific research which does good in educating the people, and without education not bring in money for daily bread or lead up to any we can hope for very little advance along the road to permanent appointment. I would, therefore, appeal health.

ence.

in

are.

"Until the usefulness of such a bureau is fully quired very careful investigation. A second investigaestablished, we can perhaps scarcely expect much help tion, that of implements, is one which is very much from Government, for it has plenty to do with the needed. A third method, to increase the utility of the public revenues, but I am quite sure they would view water which actually falls in our drier tracts, is the any endeavour to educate the masses with a sym- development of drought-resisting varieties of plants. pathetic eye."

Mr. F. M. Howlett, in his paper, termed “Chemical After the presidential address it was decided to hold Entomology," stated that insects are usually easy to the 1916 meeting in Allahabad, and Dr. W. N. F. influence by one sense, and one. alone. In the case Woodland was appointed the local hon. secretary. of one small fly a small trace of isovaleric aldehyde

In the Agriculture and Applied Science Section Dr. will bring many thousands of them to a place in a H. H. Mann, of Poona, presided, and his address short time, though none were present before. Among dealt with The Lines of Development of Indian the fruit-flies, the maggots of which are found in Agriculture."

many fruits, the scent is so well developed and so Agriculture in India, he said, is of two kinds. On distinct that each species seems to be attracted by a one hand you have an extensive agriculture, conducted different smell. without much capital, with primitive implements and Dr. Coleman, of Bangalore, read two papers on methods, and yielding poor results when compared the black rot of coffee, and the “koleroga" disease with any Western standard. On the other, you have of the areca palm. He thinks that it is likely that by a number of comparatively small, but highly organised treatment with Bordeaux mixture black rot of coffee industries, conducted largely by planters, growing can be checked. The second paper, on the areca palm special valuable crops, with adequate capital, and disease, told the story of one of the very fw successyielding exceedingly high returns.

ful campaigns in India against a destructive disease It is not generally realised how unsatisfactory of the betel nut, which threatened the industry in some the results of the average Indian agriculture really districts of Mysore.

We have no census of production in India as In the Physics Section, the contributions of the vet, and really satisfactory figures are not possible. chairman, Mr. C. V. Raman, on the velocity of restiBut in a few cases it is possible to give figures which tutions after impact between various elastic materials make us realise the position. In wheat production, and his speculations as to the type of air disturbance for instance, the yield per acre is certainly not more involved in the click of two billiard balls, aroused a than ten bushels per acre, and is probably nearer good deal of interest. Among other papers were :eight, or one-third of what might be considered as a Dr. D. N. Mallik, on a type of electric discharge in good crop; more especially in this case where so much the neighbourhood of a permanent magnetic pole; Dr. of the land devoted to it is irrigated and hence not

Royds, on spectrum series; Mr. C. Michie Smith, on dependent on a very variable rainfall. In the case of the climate of Kodaikanal; Mr. S. Appaswami, the cotton, the figure is equally striking, and in this case Madras Physics Department, the motion of violin the area and production are very fairly well known. strings; Mr. J. Evershed, of the Kodaikanal ObservaFrom twenty-two million acres, the produce runs to tory, on sun-spots and prominences. In all twelve above four million bales, or about 75 lb. of lint per acre, papers were read and discussed. while in America, with an equally uncertain rainfall, İn the Chemical Section Dr. P. C. Ray, of Calthe production reaches 200 lb. per acre. Again, if we cutta, presided, and fourteen papers were communitake an intensive crop grown very largely under cated. The chairman opened the proceedings by irrigation, like sugar-cane, the yield works out at giving a brief account of his recent work on the use under one ton of raw sugar per acre, as against a of nitrites and chloroacetic acid in causing tautomerisa. world's average of about two tons at least. In this tion in certain thio-derivatives, and in a further paper case the average in India is very much lowered by discussed the action of alkyl jodides on dimercurithe miserable outturn from Northern India, and the ammonium nitrite. Prof. J. J. Sudborough dealt with crop in Bombay and Madras is fairly up to the world's alcoholysis, and also gave an account of work which average. These figures are so striking that a new- he was carrying on with his students on the replacecomer to the subject is apt to think that improvement ment of sulphonic acid groups in aromatic compounds is easy, and that the raising of the standard of this during halogenation. Prof. Neogi and Mr. Chowhari cultivation towards that reached elsewhere is not very described their experiments on the conversion of difficult.

aliphatic nitrites into nitro-compounds. Prof. Joseph, This, however, is not the case. In no country per- of Colombo, gave an account of his and Mr. W. N. haps is progress more difficult. One is hindered at Rae's work on chromium phosphate. Profs. Gibson every point by unexpected difficulties. The lack of and Simonsen communicated two papers on stereoanything more than a minimum of capital has been chemical problems, in one of which the resolution of often considered as the most outstanding of these B-naphthotetrahydroquinaldine was described. hindrances, and it is very important, though not the The Section of Zoology was presided over by Dr. only one. The very great conservatism of the Indian N. Annandale, of the Indian Museum. The two most cultivators has often, also, been mentioned. In this important papers before the meeting were those on the matter, it may be stated very emphatically that Indian autotomy and regeneration of the tail in the housecultivators are

conservative than their gecko and on the zoanthids of Madras. They were situation demands. When a man is working on by Prof. W. N. F. Woodland, of Allahabad, and Prof. a minimum of capital, when any excess capital costs K. Ramunni Menon, of Madras, respectively. probably from 12 per cent. upwards for interest, when Dr. C. A. Barber, of Coimbatore, the chairman of the money is turned over only once or at most twice the Botany Section, in his opening address, took in a vear, it is the only policy to be extremely con- sugar and the sugar-cane as his subject. The history servative.

of the industry in Java was studied in detail as showThree methods of investigation seem important with ing a fine example of the application of scientific a view of improving matters. One of these is the work to sugar-cane problems. The question whether study of soil physics. It seems very important here, India (which now imports nearly a million tons each especially as several of our types of soil are peculiar. year) could hope to become an exporting country was that the methods of increasing their absorbing and answered in the negative. It was shown that India retaining capacity for water under our conditions re- was a quarter of a century behind Java, and was, in

not

more

an

fact, only just commencing scientific sugar-cane work. Recent work in India was discussed, especially the

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL efforts to improve the local varieties and the raising

INTELLIGENCE. of seedling sugar-canes in the newly founded cane- CAMBRIDGE.—The subject proposed for the Adams breeding station at Coimbatore. Mr. F. R. Parnell, Prize Essay for the period 1915-16 is “ The Course of of Coimbatore, read a very interesting paper on some Evolution of the Configurations possible for a Rotat. Mendelian characters of the paddy plant. Dr. W. ing and Gravitating Fluid Mass, including the DisBurns and Mr. S. H. Prayag described experiments cussion of the Stabilities of the Various Forms." The on inarching inflorescence of the mango when a union investigation of the forms that can be assumed by a was made and the fruit of one tree was thus borne mass of gravitating fluid endowed with motion of on a tree of another variety. Prof. P. F. Fyson dis- rotation was initiated by Newton with reference to cussed the phanerogamic flora of the patana regions the figure of the earth, developed by Maclaurin, of the Nilgiris and Pulrey Hills, pointing out the Clairaut, and Laplace, and extended by Jacobi. It affinities with Ceylon, the Vehasia, and Himalayan was consolidated in Lord Kelvin's hands, as regions.

example of the doctrine of the dissipation of energy, Other papers were by Mr. M. 0. Parthasarathy into a single problem illustrating the course of evoluIvengar, on the defoliation of some Madras trees; by tion of stellar and planetary systems. The sequence Dr. C. A. Barber and Mr. D. Vekataraman, on the of the forms that can be assumed by a rotating fluid depressed habit in the sugar-cane; and Mr. C. Tadul- mass, first announced partially by Lord Kelvin, has ingam on the Madras flora.

been extended and systematised by the work of The meeting of the Geological Section was presided | Poincaré, and expanded in new directions by Sir G. H. over by Dr. W. F. Smeeth, State Geologist of Mysore, Darwin and other investigators. Further elucidation who read a paper on the geological history of southern of this succession of forms, especially in the direction India, and gave an account of the character and distribution of the various components of the great

in which a tendency appears for the mass to divide

into separate parts, is desirable, in view of its possible archæan complex as developed in Mysore. Babu bearing on the modes of evolution of double and H. C. Das Gupta described an occurrence of crystal- variable stars and the interpretation of other remarkline limestone from the Daltonganj' coalfield. Mr. E. able celestial objects. The case in which the mass is Masillamany dealt with certain basic dykes in Travan- in whole or in part in the gaseous state may also core, including gabbro, dolerites, and norites, the

present opportunities for investigations possessing petrology and field relationships of which were dis- astronomical interest. Some contribution to the cussed.

further theoretical development of this subject is asked The Section of Ethnography met under the chair- for. The prize is open to the competition of all manship of Mr. H. V. Nanjundayya, whose address

persons who have at any time been admitted to a was on some aspects of ethnographic work. He said that the lower castes are aspiring to a higher status;

degree in the University. The value of the prize is

about 2201. The essays must be sent to the ViceGotras are claimed, and customs which enable the Chancellor on or before the last day of December, observer to recognise the lower caste are suppressed.

1916. According to legend the Castes claim descent from God, but actually Castes are considered to be tribal OXFORD.-On March 9 Congregation approved the distinctions. By the adoption of Samskaras of higher appointment of Dr. H. M. Vernon, fellow of Magcastes and practising them for several generations dalen College, as University lecturer in chemical higher status is claimed, and renders investigation a physiology for four years, in succession to Dr. Ramsmatter of considerable difficultv. Dr. Annandale, in a den, fellow of Pembroke College, who has been elected paper entitled "Anthropometric Notes of Calcutta to the post of Johnson professor of biochemistry at Eurasians," dwelt on the importance of regarding Liverpool University. Congregation has also physical anthropology from a zoological point of view. approved the re-appointment of Dr. J. W. Jenkinson, He expressed the opinion that the primary classifica- Exeter College, as University lecturer in comparative tion of the races of man should be conducted on exactly and experimental embryology for five years. the same lines that would be adopted in investigating The Hebdomadal Council has lately put out an imthose of any other species. Unfortunately the char- portant statement dealing with the financial position acteristic features of the different human races were of the University as affected by the war. It is estistill very imperfectly known, and existing systems of mated that, after allowance has been made for a conanthropometry were unsatisfactory in many respects. siderable saving in the conduct of examinations, the He had no new system to expound, but laid stress on: statutable and necessary expenditure for the current the value of a large series of photographs taken on a year will exceed the ordinary receipts by at least definite system and illustrating as far as possible the 15,000l. This deficit may be reduced by various exactual external structure. He put forward a proposal pedients, such as savings in respect of grants, and the for a photographic survey of the people of Calcutta, suspension of repayment of loans (should the necessary and especially of those of mixed race. Dr. Ketkar, of powers be granted by the Bill now before Parliament), Bombay, read a paper on Indian sociology as a theo- to a sum of about 60ool. The remainder may ultiretical and applied science. Dr. S. C. Roy read a mately have to be made good by borrowing ; but before paper on totem worship amongst the Oraons. The the necessity for this step arises, the situation will, it author showed that Kachchapa (tortoise) must have is hoped, be to some extent relieved by the voluntary given rise to the Gotra, now known as Kasyapa. The contributions of many of the officers and other memexistence of a wooden figure of the tortoise and pig bers of the University. seemed to bear out the theory suggested by him. Other papers in this section were contributed by Mr. Gopinatha Rau, on viragals and mastigals—the memo- It is stated in Science that Dr. William J. Mayo rial stones set up in honour of heroes who fell in and Dr. Charles H. Mayo, of Rochester, Minn., the battle and women who died for their husbands; Mr. distinguished surgeons, have decided to establish a L. K. Ananta Krisna Iyer read papers on prehistoric 200,000l. foundation for medical research and to place monuments in Cochin, and on the Vettuvans of North the foundation, under certain restrictions, in the hands Malabar.

of the University of Minnesota.

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