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ANNOUNCEMENT is made that the board of directors of British Dyes (Limited) is establishing a Research Department, and has invited Dr. G. T. Morgan, F.R.S., of the Royal College of Science for Ireland, Dublin, to become the head of the department. The board has resolved to appoint a Technical Committee, which will consist of Dr. M. O. Forster, F.R.S. (chairman), Dr. J. C. Cain, Dr. G. T. Morgan, F.R.S., and Mr. J. Turner. An Advisory Council, under the chairmanship of Prof. Meldola, F.R.S., is also to be appointed, and the following gentlemen have been invited to become members :-Prof. J. N. Collie, F.R.S., University College, London; Prof. A. W. Crossley, F.R.S., King's College, London; Prof. Percy F. Frankland, F.R.S., the University, Birmingham; Prof. A. G. Green, F.R.S., the University, Leeds; Prof. G. G. Henderson, Royal Technical College, Glasgow; Prof. J. T. Hewitt, F.R.S., East London College, London; Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S., University College, Nottingham; Prof. A. Lapworth, F.R.S., the University, Manchester; Prof. A. G. Perkin, F.R.S., the University, Leeds; Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., the University, Oxford; Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S., the University, Cambridge; Prof. J. F. Thorpe, F.R.S., Royal College of Science, South Kensington; and Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S., the University, Sheffield. The members of the Technical Committee will ex officio be members of the Advisory Council.
BRIGADIER-GENERAL T. E. WILCOX has published in the Sunday Oregonian, Portland, of May 9, an account of an expedition made in 1883, in which he took part, for the exploration of the Great Plateau of the Columbia, a region occupying approximately 22,000 square miles in the Washington State. It seems once to have formed the bed of Lake Lewis, whose waters were in early times held back by the mountain masses now broken through at the cascades of the Columbia. The original native population was swept away by smallpox introduced by the voyageurs of the Hudson Bay Company, and only a few remain, who live mostly by hunting and trapping.
THE National Geographic Magazine is dealing in succession with the areas involved in the great war. In the June number an interesting account by Mrs. F. C. Albrecht of the frontier cities of Italy is very timely. Much attention is naturally given to the architectural glories of Verona, with its Duomo and the statue of Madonna Verona looking down on the women haggling over their vegetables in the marketplace. In a second article Karl Stieler describes Venice, and we can only express a hope that its buildings may be saved from Zeppelin attacks. The number contains eighty-seven superb photographs and two maps, and supplies an admirable account of a lovely country now involved in the perils of war.
THE Indian Journal of Medical Research for April (vol. ii., No. 4) contains several papers of considerable interest in tropical medicine and pathology. Major Christophers deals with the nature and significance of the spleen rate and other splenic indices, with a mathematical analysis of the data. A note of some
importance by Major Greig deals with a case of infection of a reservoir of drinking-water in Calcutta through a cholera "carrier," i.e., a native who, though well, harboured the cholera microbe. Owing to systematic bacteriological examination of the water, the infection was detected, and the source of it, the carrier," was found and isolated.
THE National League for Physical Education and Improvement held a meeting at the Mansion House on Tuesday, July 6, to inaugurate a campaign to prevent the spread of epidemics by insects in war time. A series of six lectures upon the subject commenced on July 12. Lectures have also been given at the Child Welfare and Mothercraft Exhibition at the Passmore Edwards Settlement, and the importance of the fly as a disseminator of infantile disease has been emphasised at the exhibition. The Zoological Society's exhibition on the fly continues, and a lecture will be given at the society's office every Wednesday from July 14 on methods of controlling flies. The lectures are open to the public, and tickets can be obtained free on application to the society. Prof. H. Maxwell-Lefroy is responsible for the statement that flies are increasing rapidly, and in his lecture will deal with methods of control; the next three months will be important, and already the blow-fly has become an intolerable pest at the Front. Local exhibitions and lectures are being organised at Nottingham, Reading, Cardiff, and other places, and the public interest in this problem appears to be increasing.
THE South African Journal of Science for June contains an article by Mr. C. W. Mally, which shows the good results obtained with poisoned bait in controlling house-flies. The bait used is made up of one pound of sodium arsenite with ten pounds of sugar and ten gallons of water; experience proves this to be an extremely effective poison for the house-fly out of doors, and only a few applications are needed. The liquid is applied with a syringe to non-absorbent surfaces, to pieces of canvas, manure heaps and rubbish tips. Bunches of twigs, of trees the leaves of which when plucked do not crinkle and drop off, are dipped in the solution and hung up where the flies congregate; the flies drink the poison and die literally in heaps. In military camps the method has been applied with success, and, in the absence of suitable trees, pieces of canvas have been sprayed and hung up, and the bait has been sprinkled near manure heaps and other places where flies gather; the bait is, of course, a human poison, but in military camps there is no risk in its use. The only alternatives, in Mr. Mally's opinion, are the accumulation of all manure in constructions from which flies cannot escape, or the treatment of all manure heaps with chemicals to prevent flies breeding. The first is expensive, though useful, because the enclosures can be so made as to let flies in but not out, the manure thus serving as a trap; the second is impracticable, because so little is known about it. In South Africa the use of arsenical baits for fruit flies has shown that an apparently reckless use of arsenic is not attended with risk to human beings; the poison bait method is therefore adopted where in England the fear of the consequences would
prevent its even being considered. Mr. Mally emphasises the cheapness, simplicity, and effectiveness of the method, and demonstrates its value in military camps especially.
THE Natural History Department of the British Museum has lately issued another (No. 12) of the handy little sets of "Instructions for Collectors," the subject of the pamphlet being "Worms," in a wide sense, the groups mentioned and illustrated ranging zoologically from the Cestoda to Balanoglossus. localities where specimens of various classes and orders may be looked for, and the best way of collectting, killing, and preserving them are clearly explained. Especial attention is directed to the desirability of obtaining parasites, and the beginner is warned of the possibility of his meeting with wormlike parasites that are not worms-such as Pentastoma and various Crustacea. The "instructions" have been drawn up by Mr. H. A. Baylis; they will be useful to all museum officers who can set collectors at work in securing zoological specimens, whether at home or. abroad.
WHEN the Zoological Society of Scotland was founded, for the purpose of establishing a zoological park, war-clouds had not even begun to form. When the storm burst on us the society had but just come into being. The council, then, is to be congratulated on being enabled to announce, in its second annual report, that all things considered its record is a very satisfactory one. Though naturally seriously hampered just now for lack of funds, progress is still being made in the housing of the animals. The results so far obtained in this direction in many cases surpass anything yet accomplished, either in London or Dublin. This success is due, in part, to natural advantages of environment, and in part to the possibility of improvement on the models of the older institutions. The admirable "acclimatisation house," for example, was modelled on the new small mammals' house of the London Zoological Gardens. From the beautiful photographs which appear in this report, it is plain that the gardens at Edinburgh have set a standard of housing that will be difficult to follow, at any rate from a spectacular point of view.
A VALUABLE contribution to the knowledge of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), based on the study of a foetal specimen, is made by Dr. F. E. Beddard in the Annals of the Durban Museum, vol. i., part 2. Having regard to the high degree of specialisation which characterises the adult, it is not surprising to find that this specimen-which measured but 20 in. in length-presents many striking points of likeness to the pigmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), and the more generalised Delphinidæ. Such were particularly noticeable in regard to the head, which, in the first place, was strikingly small in comparison with the rest of the body, since it measured but one-quarter instead of one-third of the total length, which is the proportion in the adult. In old bulls, especially, the upper much overhangs the lower jaw; in this fœtus the snout did not project beyond the mandible, though the characteristic truncation was already complete. While in the adult but one nostril (the left) persists, in
this specimen Dr. Beddard found unmistakable vestiges of the right also. In regard to the paddle, it is to be hoped that Dr. Beddard will soon publish a figure of the dissected limb, since in the adult the terminali phalanges enclosed within the apex of the limb are commonly wanting, from what cause remains to be discovered. Some important observations are also included in this memoir on the anatomy of the lungs and intestines, which raise some difficult morphological points not likely to be solved in the immediate future.
MR. E. D. MERRILL continues his descriptions of new or noteworthy Philippine plants in vol. x., No. 1, of the Philippine Journal of Science. Ninety new species belonging to thirteen natural families are described; the genera Aquilaria, Koompassia, Melilotus, Neptunia, Cymodocea, Diplanthera, Hanguána, Urceola, Vallaris, and Protium, are recorded for the first time from the archipelago.
IN an article in the Indian Forester for May an account is given of experiments made to test the power of germination of teak seeds when Sown (1) after charring in a forest fire, (2) untreated, and (3) after being soaked in COWdung fifteen days. The charred seeds collected from a burnt teak forest germinated profusely within a fortnight of sowing, and it is suggested that the best means of ensuring regeneration of teak is to prepare raised seed beds in burnt areas where teak is to be planted, and to sow charred seeds therein. seedlings tend to die in large numbers if they have to be transported for long distances.
Kew Bulletin No. 4 is mainly occupied by an im portant paper on "Some Additional Species of Meconopsis," by the director, Sir David Prain, who is the authority on this interesting genus of Papaveraceæ which form SO striking a feature of the flora of the Himalaya, Thibet, and Western China. This, the third monographic account of the genus by Sir David, has been necessitated owing to the introduction of several new species from China, and to the remarkable enthusiasm displayed by cultivators both in the formerly known Himalayan species and in those recently discovered by Messrs. Forrest, Ward, and Captain Bailey. In 1896 the number of known species was 23; in 1907 it had risen to 27, and now 40 species are recognised. In the paper a key has been drawn up for all the species, and the new species are described. Visitors to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, have been rewarded by seeing many of the species growing to perfection, especially those with brilliant blue flowers, and in the rock-garden at Kew there has also been a good display of several interesting species during the late spring.
IT has long been recognised that when an earthquake originates beneath the ocean and is accompanied by a large displacement of the ocean floor, waves on the surface of the sea necessarily result. Such a series of "tidal waves" (as they are generally but erroneously called) overwhelmed the north-east coast of Japan in 1896; and certain features as observed at Miyako suggested to Messrs. K. Sano and K. Hasegawa the investigation of the following
hydrodynamical problem: on the wave produced by the sudden depression of a small portion of the bottom of a sea of uniform depth. This they show to be nearly the same as a somewhat different problem in which a small part of the surface is subjected to a short-lived impulsive pressure. The numerical calculations are long and laborious, and a comparison of the results of the calculation with what was observed at Miyako lead to the following conclusions:— (1) There is good agreement between the calculated and observed time intervals from the beginning of the earthquake to the arrival at Miyako of the first wave crest; (2) there is a fair agreement between the calculated and observed time intervals from the beginning of the earthquake to the arrival of the second wave crest; (3) calculation and observation agree in assigning the greatest crest to the second wave. The paper is published in the Bulletin of the Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan, vol. ii., No. 3, 1915.
REMAINS of the gigantic horned dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous formations of Alberta, western Canada, have been collected so assiduously during the last few years, both by Canadians and Americans, that it is now possible to realise how numerous and varied were these strange land-reptiles. While describing a new genus, Eoceratops, which he thinks may be ancestral to many of the others, Mr. Laurence M. Lambe has just published a tabular synopsis of the group, defining the various forms that seem to be distinguishable (Canada, Geological Survey, Museum Bulletin, No. 12, Geological Series, No. 24). Sometimes the great bony frill over the neck is continuous, sometimes it is pierced with vacuities; while the shape and size of the bony bosses round its rim are remarkably varied. There seems to have been a tendency in the horned dinosaurs to produce a separate bony boss on each prominence of the upper part of the skull, and scarcely any two specimens are alike. The nasal horn-core proves to be especially complex, being formed of the tips of the two nasal bones fused with a pair of superposed bony bosses. In one of the newly discovered skulls this nasal horn-core is in the shape of a forwardly turned hook. Mr. Lambe's paper is illustrated by numerous drawings of important specimens in the Canadian Geological Survey collection at the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa.
THE Department of Revenue and Agriculture of the Government of India has issued a memorandum on the meteorological conditions prevailing in the Indian monsoon region before the advance of the south-west monsoon of 1915, with an estimate of the probable distribution of the monsoon rainfall in 1915. The memorandum has been drawn up by Dr. G. C. Simpson. A clear statement is given of each factor supposed to have a controlling influence on the conditions. High pressure over South America during the period March to May is found to be favourable to the monsoon; the conditions under this head are said to be distinctly unfavourable. Low pressure in Australia, Indian Ocean, and Africa in May is favourable to monsoon rainfall in India, while a deficiency in rainfall at Zanzibar and in the adjacent parts of East Africa also has a good effect; the conditions in this region are
said not to be sufficiently pronounced to exert any marked influence. The effect of an excess of snowfall accumulation upon the monsoon rainfall of India as a whole is to diminish it in the early portion of the season; while no effect on the rainfall of August and September can be detected; it is estimated that the snowfall is not likely to exert a prejudicial effect on the monsoon, but the prolongation of the winter conditions may indicate the late arrival of the monsoon and unsteadiness during the first part of the season. The conclusion arrived at is that while the monsoon of 1915 may not be so good as that of 1914, there are no indications of a serious deficiency in the total rainfall. The Arabian Sea current is likely to be less active than the Bay current.
IN a paper on the temperature coefficient of magnetic permeability of irons within the working range, which appeared recently in the Journal of the Bureau of Standards, Mr. R. L. Stanford directed attention to the necessity of either working at a standard temperature, or determining the temperature coefficient of the actual material under test if results accurate to within I per cent. are to be obtained. On testing a number of rings of cast-iron, wrought-iron, and low carbon steels of about 10 cm. diameter and radial depth 0.5 to 1 cm. at temperatures between 3° C. and 88° C., he found that before consistent results could be obtained it was necessary artificially to "age" the specimens by heating and cooling them a number of times. This process generally necessitated the use of about 15 per cent. more magnetising force to produce the same induction-2000 to 16,000-in the aged specimen. For such specimens he finds that the temperature coefficient of permeability may be as high as 0-3 per cent. per degree, and that a neglect of the temperature effect may in a rise of 10° C. to 20° C. produce an error of 2 per cent, or more.
In a paper published in the Journal of Physiology for May 12, on the simple character of the yellow sensation, Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green brings forward, in a collected form, various arguments which have been urged in favour of this sensation being simple in contradistinction to the theory of Young-Helmholtz, which asserts that it is a sensation compounded of simple red and green. The chief support of the latter statement is the fact that a spectral yellow can be exactly matched by a superposition of red and green. Dr. Edridge-Green urges, however, that "it is wrong to assume that the physiological sensations are similarly constituted." In many of the experiments that have been made by other observers coloured papers have been employed instead of spectral colours. Even the most superficial experimentalist will now admit that this practice robs the results of definite scientific meaning. Dr. Edridge-Green has studiously kept to spectral colours, and his results deserve close attention. Amongst many other results he adduces the following:-(1) If the eye be fatigued with pure yellow spectral light the spectrum will appear to have lost its yellow, but the terminal red of the spectrum will not be affected. (2) If the eye be fatigued with red light even by looking through a red glass held against a light for one second, the red in the spectrum will not
be visible for some considerable time, but the eye may be fatigued for twenty minutes with yellow light without interfering with the visibility of the red light. (3) The eye may be fatigued with red or green without altering the hue of spectral yellow. This may be shown by wearing red or green glass spectacles which are transparent to yellow. (4) When a sodium flame is viewed after fatigue with spectral red light it is very little affected in the region of the after-image, though the green-blue after-image is very strongly marked on either side of the sodium flame, when the afterimage is larger than the flame. The fundamental phenomena of colour sensation are still very obscure. Perhaps the most difficult fact to explain away is the obvious simplicity of white, if it be indeed true that it is compounded of many tints.
BULLETIN No. 1 of the Chemical Section of the Wellcome Tropical Research 'Laboratories, Khartoum, contains a paper on the estimation of methyl alcohol in the presence of ethyl alcohol, by Mr. W. A. R. Wilks; in this paper the standard process of Thorpe and Holmes is slightly modified so as to increase the degree of accuracy. Bulletin No. 2 is a discussion of the applicability of papyrus to paper manufacture by Dr. W. Beam; it is concluded that after allowing for the collection and transport of the papyrus to Europe, there is a margin for profit for this substance as a raw material in the paper industry. Bulletin No. 3, by Dr. Beam, deals with tests for hashish, more particularly the test which depends upon the fact that the resinous matter, cannabinol,” of hashish produces a rich purple colour on treatment with a small amount of caustic alkali. The principal point to which attention is directed is that the extract of Cannabis indica does not usually respond to this test; the influence of soil, climate, method of cultivation, and curing seems to have much greater effect on the chemical composition of this plant than has hitherto been suspected.
PROF. F. C. LEA and Mr. W. Norman Thomas have an article in Engineering for July 2 on the change in density of mild steel strained by compression beyond the yield point. Experiments were undertaken with a view of ascertaining how far changes of density occur in overstrained mild steel, and whether any change in density occurs with time after the straining-load is released. Preliminary experiments definitely indicated that a change of density was brought about by overstraining, and that the time factor was important. Until this was recognised it was difficult to get consistent results. For results to be comparable two conditions must be observed. First, if the specimens are loaded considerably beyond the yield point, the final loads must be kept on the specimens for the same time; in other words, the amount of strain, and thus the change in density, are dependent upon the time of loading. Secondly, the densities should be determined as soon after the loading as possible. Results show that an increase in density occurred during a rest period of from thirty-five to thirty-eight days after the load had been removed. Experiments are suspended meanwhile as Birmingham University is in use as a hospital.
We have received from Messrs. Charles Baker catalogue of microscopes and accessories, all of whic are manufactured at their factory in London. Th list includes several new models, amongst which are three instruments similar to the Continental designs, the prices of which compare very favourably with thos quoted abroad. Another instrument of interest is "the workshop metallurgical microscope." The catalogue is well produced and copiously illustrated.
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE.-If the distance of each star were known in addition to its position in the sky, our knowledge of the present structure of the universe would be complete. În order to deter mine the change in the structure, it would be only necessary to know the motions of the stars. We know the positions of a great number of the stars and their motions across the line of sight; we know also the velocities in the line of sight of a few, and the distances of a still smaller number. The data for the solution of the problem are therefore very meagre. Nevertheless, there are indirect methods of attacking the problem which may tend to lead one to an approximate solution, and it is these methods which form the subject of the very instructive article which appears in the July number of Science Progress by Mr. H. Spencer Jones, of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The idea, as he states, that the centre of our system is occupied by an immense sun, many thousands of times larger and more glorious than our own sun, and that round about it are millions of lesser suns of various sizes, together forming the nucleus of an immense spiral nebula, of which the spiral arms coll ing around the nucleus appear to us as the Milky Way, and that this to us immense system is but one, and perhaps a comparatively small, island universe amongst thousands or millions of other island universes in space, is an idea which by its magnificence appeals to the mind of man. What forms the substance of the article is the basis of truth upon which this conception is founded, and the straightforward and clear way in which the author has marshalled his evidence makes the article of particular interest.
THE NEBULOUS REGION NEAR OMICRON PERSEI.-It is due to photography and the portrait lens that our knowledge of the large diffused nebulæ and the dark regions of the sky has been gained, and it was only recently that Prof. E. E. Barnard's work in this field was referred to in this journal. Attention is now directed by him to the great nebulous region near Omicron Persei (Astrophysical Journal, May), a photograph of which he describes and illustrates. The photograph was specially taken to examine more closely this region for dark or partly luminous matter which produces the apparent vacancies. The attempt was successful after giving an exposure of 6 hours and 41 minutes with the Bruce 10- and 6-in. telescopes. Prof. Barnard describes the photograph in some detail, and points out the association of this region with that of the Pleiades, of which it forms part.
WORK AT THE LOWELL OBSERVATORY.-Among the many interesting contributions to the American Museum Journal (vol. xv., No. 5), two deal with the fine photographic work which is being carried on at the Lowell Observatory, this observatory being situated in Arizona at an elevation of 7250 ft., the finest site of any existing similar institution. The articles in question are on the subjects, "Oxygen and Water on Mars" and "The Photograph in Astronomy," and are
written by the director of the observatory, Prof. Percival Lowell and Mr. E. C. Slipher respectively. The illustrations are a distinguishing feature of both communications; they show the great 24-in. refracting telescope and the dome in which it is housed; comparison spectra of the moon and Mars demonstrate the difference in darkness of the water-vapour band indicating the presence of water vapour in the atmosphere of Mars. Photographs of the planets Saturn and Jupiter give one an idea of the great advances made in recording their surface features and satellite phenomena, while the spectrum of the latter planet affords a means of measuring the speed of rotation by noting the slant of the lines. Photographs of nebulæ and comet 1910a are included among other illustrations.
THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. associations as to individuals there comes a time of trial, when their worth to the world is tested. The Museums Association, like other bodies, had to be proved by this year of war, and if it hesitated fully to grasp the great occasion, yet it rose not ignobly towards it. Devoted to the arts and studies of peace, it would fain have withdrawn awhile from the turbulence, had not a fortunate rule insisted on at least a general business meeting. Still wishing to be inconspicuous, it chose London as its place of assembly on July 7-8, proposing to do little more than prolong the official life of its officers and council who, it was thought, had been robbed of their opportunities by the war. Happily for the association, some wider imaginations took a stronger line, and determined to show that the association and its constituent museums could now serve the nation better than ever. Happily, too, the hospitality of the Victoria and Albert Museum, gracefully offered by the Board of Education through Sir Cecil Smith, dragged the conference from its selfsought obscurity.
At the outset the dominant note was struck by Dr. Bather (Natural History Museum), Mr. Butterfield (Hastings), and Mr. G. W. Prothero (Central Committee for National Patriotic Organisations). Both now and for a long future the situation is changed, and museums, they said, must meet it. Working by their special methods, they can stimulate enthusiasm, ward off discouragement, teach people how to help the forces at sea and in the field, how to fight disease and its causes, how to economise with profit to the nation as well as to themselves, how to supplement our food-supply; and, looking further ahead, they can indicate within the Empire sources of supply for our industries, can furnish manufacturers with foreign models, and, above all, can help in the physical and mental upbringing of the coming generation, to whom they must hand on undimmed the lamp of peaceful learning.
The sort of exhibits by which this important work might be accomplished are sketched in an editorial already published in the Museums Journal for July. Many of them were dealt with in more detail by speakers in the discussion (especially Messrs. Howarth, of Sheffield, Bolton, of Bristol, Woolnough, of Ipswich, Deas, of Sunderland, and Williamson, of Derby), or formed the subject of separate papers. Thus Dr. Grant Ogilvie (Science Museum) showed how the conditions of life and the earning powers of the community might be improved by a carefully thoughtout scheme of exhibits linking up the fundamental principles of science and the elementary materials of art with the industries of each locality; the visitor is more interested in things connected with his daily
activities, and the museum sends him back with more intelligent interest in those activities. On the true scientific foundation must be based appropriateness of design, carried out by sound workmanship; and so Mr. H. H. Peach, of the Leicester Art School, expounded the objects of the newly-formed Design and Industries Association, and indicated the help that the museum might best give in its attempt to organise the artistic faculty in union with the technical ability and commercial enterprise of the nation.
As regards industries, museums have also their own interests to serve; glass jars and other apparatus, metal trays and cases, formalin and various reagents, are among the museum material hitherto obtained chiefly from Germany, owing to the inability or unwillingness of British manufacturers to meet the demands of curators. A committee was appointed to approach manufacturers with a statement of probable requirements and to invite tenders. We trust that this committee will consult with those committees of the British Science Guild which are doing similar work (NATURE, July 8, p. 520).
But dearth of men will be a greater danger than dearth of material, and, as was forcibly pleaded by Nurse Prior, museums might well follow the example of Leicester, and devote a section to children's welfare, showing by concrete examples the right and the wrong ways of nursing, feeding, and clothing babies.
And then these children will have to be educated, a task in which the museum will take no small share. Of all peaceful activities the education of the young is the one that most needs to be kept going, and day by day we realise afresh that the thing seen is more forcible than the thing heard.
It was thus most fitting that the conference should conclude with a discussion between museum curators and representatives of the Education Section of the British Association. The case of the educationists was presented in a profound yet lucid address by Prof. Green, of Sheffield, who urged the claims of the children and other uninstructed visitors. For them are not wanted the analysis and system of the specialist, but a free synthetic treatment that shall bring each object into relation with the outer world, and particularly that world which is known to the child. The difficulty raised by Mr. Madeley, that each visitor brings a different world of his own, shows that labels are insufficient to give the synthesis needed for each case. We must have recourse to the human interpreter, and the question is-in what form? The best interpreter ought to be the trained teacher already familiar with the child's mind and world; but, unfortunately, the elementary-school teacher must himself be taught how to use a museum. Two means of effecting this were suggested: Prof. Green would present the teachers with a printed guide, showing them how to utilise the exhibits. Mr. Spurley Hey, director of education for Manchester, had selected the most suitable teachers and handed them over to the directors of museums to be trained as they thought best for the purpose of taking pupils round. This might partly meet the financial difficulties, which were emphasised by Messrs. Bolton and Woolnough. Modes of cooperation between museums and teaching institutions of higher rank were suggested by Dr. Bather, and other solid contributions to the discussion were being made by speakers of varied experience, when the meeting was brought to an abrupt conclusion.
During its first quarter of a century this association has, we gather, proved of service to its members; if now they will act up to the ideals set before them at this twenty-sixth annual meeting, it should prove of no less service to the nation.