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members of scientific staffs are on active service with G. Sims Woodhead on “Some of the Micro-biological H.M. Forces :-Plymouth : Marine Biological Associa- Problems of the Present War." Prof. Woodhead distion's Laboratory :-L. R. Crawshay,

Crawshay, naturalist, cusses the question of antiseptic versus aseptic surgery, Lance-Corpl. ist King Edward's Horse; E. W. Nel- and is convinced that for the treatment of wounds son, naturalist, Lieut.-Commander, Royal Naval Divi- received on the battlefield antiseptics should be used. sion; J. H. Orton, naturalist, 2nd Lieut. Royal Garri- The sterilisation of water by means of chlorine and son Artillery; E. Ford, assistant naturalist, 2nd Lieut. causation of cerebro-spinal fever are other subjects 4/2 London Royal Fusiliers. Kingston, Derby: Mid- dealt with in this interesting address. land Agricultural and Dairy College :-J. H. Beale,

THE lately issued report, No. 3, of the Danish lecturer in horticulture, Lance-Corpl, 2/7th Batt. Sherwood Foresters; F. Knowles, soil analyst, private,

Oceanographical Expeditions, 1908-10, is mainly 2/7th Batt. Sherwood Foresters; H. M. McCreath, occupied by K. Stephensen's account of the Isopoda, assistant lecturer in agriculture, 2nd Lieut. 8th Royal species being illustrated by clear outline drawings.

Tanaidacea, Cumacea, and Amphipoda, many of the Scots Fusiliers; J. G. W. Stafford, assistant lecturer in dairying, 2nd Lieut. 11th West Riding Regiment; Sternoptychidæ is noteworthy for its detailed distri

P. Jespersen's paper on deep-sea fishes of the family J. C. Wallace, lecturer in horticulture, Corpl. motor

butional maps. Madame P. Lemoine describes the despatch rider, Cavalry Corps, Expeditionary Force.

Calcareous Algæ, illustrating her work with strucThe Cambridge University Reporter of July 13 pub- tural figures and a well-printed photographic plate. lishes the report of the Antiquarian Committee for

At a meeting of the council of the Ray Society, held 1914. In spite of some delay caused by trade disputes,

on July 22, Prof. E. B. Poulton, vice-president, in the good progress has been made in the erection of the

chair, it was resolved to issue for 1916 the second second section of block ii. of the new museum. The divisions of the building will be named after generous comprising the flower, with twenty-seven plates,

volume of Mr. W. C. Worsdell's “Plant-Teratology," benefactors : Messrs. C. E. Keyser, C. C. Babington, several being coloured, and about ninety text-figures, and A. A. Bevan. Other donors have provided funds

completing the work; and also the second part of for the fittings of the new building, but the lack of

vol. iii. of Prof. McIntosh's “British Marine Anneshowcases still retards the work of arrangement, and

lids," consisting of twenty-eight plates with descripit is difficult to prevent damage to specimens stored

tions, six uncoloured plates being substituted temaway in boxes. A long list of accessions to the collection is given, and the master and fellows of Trinity porarily for coloured plates, which cannot at present

be obtained on account of the war. College are thanked for permitting the transfer on deposit of all the ethnological and antiquarian speci- A LARGE number of the Annals of the South African mens which had accumulated in the college library. Museum (vol. xiii., part 4), published in April, is filled There is still ample opportunity for other benefactors

with a paper by Mr. M. Connolly, on South African to contribute to this laudable undertaking.

Mollusca, which he modestly entitles “Notes." The PREHISTORIC cultural centres in the West Indies most important of these is a mongraph of the Dorforms the subject of a brief essay in the Journal of

casiinæ-a distinctively tropical and South African subthe Washington Academy of Sciences for June. Re- family of snails, which are fully described, with marking that the American Indian did not reach

anatomical details, and a suggestive distributional America until he had arrived at the Neolithic stage

discussion in which the author supports the theory of of culture, and did not make acquaintance with the

an ancient tropical continental tract stretching from use of metals until introduced after the discovery of

South America by Africa and the Indian Ocean to

Australia. America by Columbus, he goes on to point out that as a conseqence of this prolonged use of stone they

The last number (vol. xii., No. 76) of the Quekett attained a higher standard of excellence in

Microscopical Club's Journal contains an account by the use of this material, both in the fashion

Mr. R. T. Lewis of the early history of the club, ing of tools and architecture, than

which, founded on July 7th, 1865, has just celebrated attained by the Neolithic peoples of the Old

its fiftieth birthday. Its first president was Dr. E. World. In discussing the remains left by the

Lankester, and among his successors may be menaboriginal inhabitants of the West Indies he insists

tioned T. H. Huxley, W. B. Carpenter, A. D. Michael, that three cultural epochs must be recognised-the and B. T. Lowne. Prof. A. Dendy now occupies the cave-dwellers, the agriculturists, and the Caribs. The chair of the club, and his suggestive address on the most primitive of these is found represented by objects biological conception of individuality is printed in the found in the floors of caves or in the numerous shell

same number. The complexity and difficulty of the heaps scattered from Cuba to Trinidad. But the subject is well illustrated by his references to the wellCaribs seem to have been preceded everywhere by the known "border" cases of the Siphonophora, Cestoda, Arawaks, as is shown by the fact that pottery of Annelida, and the communities of social insects, as high excellence has been found on all the islands

well as to abnormal instances of "double personality" inhabited by Caribs who, being a nomadic people, had in human beings. not acquired this art.

We have received the first number of vol. ix, of the The Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society for Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. 11 June (part 3) contains the presidential address by Prof. scarcely seems that it is as much as eight years ago





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that Sir Edward Schäfer founded this new physiological similar charge was levelled, some years ago, against journal, and we wished it good-speed. The publication the cormorants of the Murray River in Australia, retains the high standard insisted upon by its editor, where, to increase the salmon supply, a huge colony of and the present number, among the interesting papers cormorants was wiped out. But the unexpected which it contains, is specially noteworthy as showing happened. The salmon disappeared with the birds. the activity of physiological laboratories in British It was then found that the latter had been feeding on dominions beyond the seas. One of these comes from crabs and eels, which in turn fed upon salmon eggs Winnipeg, and deals with vasomotor reflexes (by Prof. and fry. With the extermination of their enemies they Swale Vincent and Dr. A. T. Cameron); the other

increased in such numbers that scarcely a salmon egg is by Prof. Jolly, of the South African College, Cape remained, the fry from such as did escape were eaten Town, and treats of the electro-cardiogram; in his by the eels. Those responsible for the massacre of the attempt to unravel the meaning of the component

cormorants are now repentant ! parts of the curve he makes the interesting sugges- In the Philippine Journal of Science (vol. x., Sec. C, tion, and supports it by experimental arguments, that No. 2, March, 1915) Mr. E. D. Merrill publishes the the two phases of metabolism (anabolism and kata- second instalment of his “Studies on Philippine bolism) which have opposite electrical expressions are Rubiaceæ." The paper consists of critical notes on responsible for the alternating direction of the varia

the genera Mycetia, Chasalia, Psychotria, and tions seen in the electro-cardiogram. Both Profs.

Grumilea in particular, with descriptions of forty-two Swale Vincent and Jolly are former assistants in Sir new species in various genera. The genus Pravinia, Edward's department at Edinburgh.

hitherto known from Borneo and Celebes with two Those interested in the study of spiders, and of

species in each locality, is now found to be repre

sented in Negros, Philippines, by a Indian spiders in particular, will welcome the first of

new species, what is intended to be a long series of “Notes on

P. everettii. Some ninety distinct species of the genus Indian Mygalomorph Spiders" in the Records of the

Psychotria are already known from the islands. Indian Museum, vol. xi., part 3, by the assistant MR. Y. TOKUGAWA contributes a paper on the superintendent of the museum, Mr. F. Gravely. The physiology of pollen to the Journal of the College of author makes stimulating comments

the Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, vol. xxxv., Ischnocoleæ of the subfamily Aviculariinæ, December 17, 1914, a copy of which has just reached well represented in the Indian Peninsula, since


He finds that suitable osmotic pressure and suitfrom their many primitive characters they afford able nourishment are essential for the growth of the an insight into many evolutionary problems which yet pollen tube, and that cane-sugar alone is not sufficient await investigation. The Indian genera of this group for its growth. Among inorganic salts those of the seem to present a marked sexual dimorphism, all the

heavy metals are more injurious than thcse of the known males being distinguished by the more or less lighter to the growth of the pollen. The pollen tube extensive and conspicuous development of white hair finds its way to the canals of the style and to the on the feet, especially the anterior ones. His views micropyle owing to the presence of a chemotropic subon nomenclature and certain aspects of systematics stance. A fact of interest which is brought out is that seem to be yet in a state of flux.

the pollen grains of monocotyledons can germinate on All who are in any way concerned with the problems

the stigmas of dicotyledonous plants, and vice versa, of economic ornithology, or of pisciculture, should

though pollen grains frequently fail to germinate on read the report of Mr. P. A. Taverner on the “Double

the stigmas of plants nearly related to those whence. crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and its

the pollen was obtained. Relation to the Salmon Industries on the Gulf of St. Science for May 28 contains an interesting paper Lawrence,” issued by the Canada Department of on disease resistance in plants, being a lecture deMines (Biological Series No. 5, April, 1915). It is livered by Dr. Otto Appel, of Berlin, at various unione of the most admirable summaries of its kind ever versities in the United States in October, 1914. The issued, and is the result of an inquiry instituted by author points out that disease in plants is usually the Geological Survey into the complaints of those in- combated by killing the parasite before it enters the terested in the salmon fisheries of the destruction host, but the main theme of the lecture concerns the caused to the fisheries by the ravages of the cor- control of disease by breeding disease-resisting plants. morants. The full account of a prolonged and im- As illustrations of the latter method of control, the partial investigation is given in this bulletin, and the breeding of rust-resistant wheats, the introduction of verdict arrived at shows conclusively that the harm Coffea robusta as a plant less susceptible to attacks attributed to this bird is absolutely without founda- of Hemileia vastatrix, and the grafting of the tion. The author shows that while a small percentage European vine on resistant American stocks in dealing of parr are undoubtedly eaten by cormorants, the bulk with Phylloxera are cited among other cases. There of the food of these birds is furnished by far less agile is no mention in the paper of the extensive work on fish, having for the most part no economic value. wheats undertaken successfully by Prof. Biffen at The greatest enemies of young salmon, in the rivers, Cambridge to produce immune varieties of wheat, are older salmon, and the greatest toll on their nor is Dr. Appel's statement correct that rust has numbers is taken during their sojourn in the sea by disappeared with the destruction of Barbery bushes, enemies which have yet to be determined. A precisely since the summer or uredo-spores have been found

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capable of surviving the winter and infecting the the peat industries (v. Nos. 30, 71, 151, and 154). A young wheat in spring. Breeding from plants pos- report now before us (“Investigations of the Peat sessing mechanical or other advantages tending to Bogs and Peat Industry of Canada, 1911-12," by A. v. prevent the attacks of fungi is, however, as Dr. Appel Anrep; Department of Mines, Canada, No. 266, suggests, likely to prove one of the most fruitful Bulletin No. 9) deals with the amount and methods of controlling disease in plants.

the quality of the peat contained in nine bogs The Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society

situated along the line of the River St. Law. (vol. xl., part 3) contains several useful horticultural

rence in the province of Quebec. It gives surface papers, and one of particular interest on the double

and section-maps of the bogs, and includes a detailed stock, its history and literature, by Miss E. R.

examination of the quality of the peat over the whole Saunders. The double stock is referred to first by

range of the bogs, which cover an area of about Dodoens in 1568, and is figured by de l'Obel in 1581.

34,000 acres. The portions of the various bogs suited Speculations as to the origin and mode of production

for the manufacture of peat-moss litter on the one of double stocks have been varied and frequent, and

hand, or peat fuel on the other, are indicated on the it is only owing to the Mendelian methods of analysis

maps which accompany the report. The author also that light has been thrown on the subject. It appears

considers in detail the engineering and commercial that there are two fundamentally distinct types of

problems connected with the utilisation of the peat in single stocks-one of which gives rise only to single

the case of each bog. Although the report is stocks, and the other which yields both doubles and primarily of local interest, one cannot fail, on reading singles, the proportion of doubles being from 53-57

it, to be struck with the contrast between the thorough

with which the Canadian Government is per cent. How the doubles arose from the race of

grappling with the peat question and the apathy of singles some two hundred and fifty years ago is un

the Irish Government towards the same problem. known, but the ratio of doubles to singles yielded by

Interesting statistics of the peat industries of these singles appears to be constant for all strains. In these ever-sporting singles it has been proved that

Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Russia are given.

Apart from the fact that Russia uses from 2$ to all the pollen grains and some of the ovules lack a factor which produces singleness, and by the mating especially to Irishmen, to learn that the Holmgaard

4 million tons of peat fuel yearly, it is of some interest, of such deficient pollen grains and ovules together the double-flowered form results.

factory at Naestved, in Denmark, uses about 5000 tons

It has further been found that the double-flowered seedling grows more

of peat briquettes yearly in the manufacture of glass. strongly than that of the single-flowered plant.

THE Royal Observatory at Hong-Kong has issued An official guide to the Botanic Gardens, Dominica, I its report for 1914, dealing with meteorological, maghas recently been issued (price 6d.), to which we would netic, and time observations. The principal features direct the particular att tion of all interested in of the weather during the year are said to be the botany and in the tropical economic products of the

absence of violent typhoon winds, the relatively high world. The guide consists of some forty-four pages, temperature in January, February, and March, and with a good index, a map of the gardens, and a excessive rains in July, September, and November, number of interesting illustrations. The area under with a relatively dry August, and a rainless January. cultivation is now about 60 acres, and consists of the The highest temperature was 94° on August 31, comgarden proper of 44 acres, with experiment grounds pared with 97° for the previous thirty-one years, and and nurseries. In the latter are raised the lime, cacao, the lowest temperature was 47° on January 1, commango, Para rubber, coffee, and other plants, which pared with 32° in previous records. July was by far are supplied at cost price to the planting community, the wettest month, with a rainfall of 26-31 in., and and it is here that the grafting of cacao, limes, etc.,

the total for the year was 100-22 in. The greatest and other experiments are carried out which have wind velocity for any hour was forty-two miles on made the Dominica Gardens renowned. To the September 3, and the greatest squall velocity on the botanist, however, the garden proper is the more im

same day was at the rate of forty-eight miles an hour. portant feature. Here may be seen a multitude of A map of the Far East and the Daily Weather Report interesting and useful trees and shrubs remarkably is regularly issued, containing observations from about well grown and displayed, and in the guide particulars forty stations in China, Indo-China, Japan, and the of the various plants and notes on their economic value Philippines. A daily weather forecast is also given are given. In 1892, a year after the garden was

as for Hong-Kong and district, the Formosa Channel, formed, Mr. Joseph Jones was sent out from Kew, and the south coast of China between Hong-Kong and has now been curator for thirty-three years. It is to Hainan, and the south coast of China between Hong. his skill and devotion that Dominica now possesses for Kong and Lamocks. its size one of the finest tropical botanic gardens in the world. Mr. Jones is to be congratulated on having Physical and Natural History Society of Geneva

The recently published Compte rendu of the produced so excellent and useful a guide, which will be much appreciated.

for the year 1914, shows that the activities of the

society have not been seriously affected by the war. DURING the past seven years the Canadian Govern- The society consists of sixty-six ordinary members and ment has published several reports on the peat bogs about the same number of honorary and free memof the Dominion and the efforts it has made to develop bers. The scientific papers for the year cover sixty


Dec. of centre

Number of



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four pages, and are chiefly devoted to physics. tories situated all over the world. The section which Amongst the most important are Prof. Tommasina's

was undertaken was that lying between 31° and 41° contributions to theoretical physics, mainly criticising containing the measures will be issued in thirty-six

of south declination. The publication of the volumes "late the theory of relativity, and the measurements of the volumes, each containing six hours of right ascension if lor electronic charge by MM. Schidlof and Karpowicz. for one degree of declination, but the volumes will not 3. Using drops of mercury of radii between 10-s and necessarily be published in numerical rotation. Under 10-5 centimetre produced by an atomiser, they find

the direction of the Acting Government Astronomer, that the light falling on the drops causes an appre.

Mr. H. B. Curlewis, four volumes of measures have ciable amount of evaporation, and in consequence a

recently been issued, and these cover the regions sum

marised in the following table :-* variable speed of fall in a constant electric field. They

Right also find that Cunningham's expression for the speed

of plate 135 of fall of drops is not applicable to drops of the size

IX. used. The experiments, which are not yet complete,

- 34


- 34 lend no support to the contention of Ehrenhaft that

22,475 Biz

- 34

20,498 electrical charges exist, not integral multiples of the XII. 18–24

- 34

14,793 electron.

Issued with these volumes is vol vi. of the meridian An important paper on the preparation and digestive observations containing a catalogue of 2025 stars beproperties of papain is communicated from the labora

tween 37° and 39° south declination. These stars tory of organic chemistry, Bureau of Science, Manila, Catalogue, and are distributed approximately at the

were selected as reference points for the Astrographic by Mr. David S. Pratt; it is published in the Philippine rate of three per square degree. Another volume conJournal of Science (vol. X., p. 1). Papain is the name sists of tables prepared for use in connection with given to the proteoclastic enzyme elaborated by Carica zones 32° to 40° south declination. These tables are papaya, L., and is secreted in the milky latex that published in order that they may be readily accessible forms a prominent characteristic of the plant. The

to those who are working in these zones. They are

for the conversion of R.A. and declination, into methods in use for preparing and drying the latex are standard conductors and of standard co-ordinates into

described in some detail, and its digestive activity R.A. and declination for plates having their centres in ic studied; suggestions are made for standardising the each of the above-mentioned degrees. those methods of evaluation. Although the market is in a peach, a way a limited one, the possibility of establishing a THE SCINTILLATION OF STARS.-A valuable article on

papain industry in the Philippine Islands should receive the scintillation of stars and the unsteadiness (“ boil

attention, as it does not necessitate a large investment ing") of the instrumental image is contributed by des of capital, and the time required is short before

M. G. Bigourdan, of the Paris Observatory, to the

Bulletin of the French Astronomical Society (June). returns may be expected.

M. Bigourdan attempts to demonstrate their identity. Science Progress for July contains papers on the

In comparing the two phenomena the effect of stellar structure of the universe by Mr. H. Spencer Jones (see

type, aurora borealis, and magnetic perturbations,

barometric pressure, proximity of clouds, influence of NATURE, July 15, p. 548), on the molecular structure

azimuth, and of twilight, are separately considered. and mode of oxidation of carbon, by Mr. Maurice There are no data regarding effect of azimuth on tremor Copisarow; on the role of reductase in tissue respira- of image, and the effect of twilight appears to be to tion, by Profs. D. F. Harris and H. J. M. Creighton;

increase scintillation and decrease boiling, otherwise on some eugenic aspects of the war, by Mr. A. G.

the two phenomena, it is concluded, present a true

parallelism. Double-star observers are recommended Thacker; and on the spinning properties of cotton,

to keep records of the degree of scintillation.
by Mr. W. Lawrence Balls. A short paper by Mr.
Bradford gives of ,


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of the discovery of their function, followed by the
isolation of the active principle, the determination of
its structure, and its subsequent synthesis, is one of
the most fascinating chapters in the history of bio-
chemistry and in the application of modern organic
chemistry to therapeutics. The present number of
Science Progress contains a novel feature in the form
of short reports by various specialists on recent ad-
vances in science. These reports are to be continued
every quarter, and should prove not one of the least
valuable features of our contemporary.

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astronomy shows that the activity of this institution has been well maintained during the period 1914-15. The analysis of meteorological statistics in pursuit of periodicities has been continued, and a cycle of 41-2 years has been traced in rainfall, etc. ; in this direction there has been opened up an unlimited vista of work. The director has continued to control the earthquake station at Shide, and very pertinently suggests that the work of the Oxford University might well be extended in the direction of geophysics. In connection with the International Chart several Belgians resident in Oxford have rendered assistance in the measurement of star photographs. The distribution of stars according to magnitude has been determined for the Oxford, Bord ix, Algiers, Cape, and Perth zones. Regional differences in the ratio of faint to bright stars thus revealed suggest the local presence of obscuring matter, and, when due allowance is made for this phenomenon the ratio seems to vary to a slight extent with galactic latitude.

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Perth Observatory of Western Australia was assigned
a region of the sky for the construction of the great
Astrographic Catalogue distributed among observa-

makers state that they have not detected any calibration errors in their instruments.

Another valuable feature is the enclosure of the scale and all working parts, so that they are protected from the salt vapours. The importance of this needs no emphasis to those who have had experience with instruments of this character. The corrosion of the

A NEW SACCHARIMETER. ONE NE of the many optical instruments which the

English opticians have allowed the Germans to supply almost entirely is the saccharimeter. This instrument used to be made by Browning, but in late years nearly every instrument purchased in England has come from Berlin from the firm of Schmidt and Haensch, who make several designs of large and small instruments. It is therefore a pleasure to find an English firm-Messrs. Bellingham and Stanley, of London-making a saccharimeter which introduces valuable improvements on the German design. The one to which we refer is of the half-shadow type with quartz compensating wedges, but instead of the usual long wedge of which the movement is read direct by a scale and vernier, this one has a short wedge of larger angle. The wedge is moved by a screw,

and the movement is read on a large drum with

open scale and sliding pointer.

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metal work—especially steel work—and of the scale, when as in the higher priced instruments this is engraved on silver or nikelin, under the action of the fumes in. a laboratory often renders the instrument

almost unusable in a few years. The instrument is mostly constructed of an aluminium alloy, protected by a black-stoved enamel, and no steel is used except for a small spring, which is entirely enclosed.

The optical work is of the first quality. The dividing line is sharp and clean, and the field evenly illuminated, so that adjustment for equality can be made without ambiguity, and with corre. sponding accuracy. The makers calibrate the scale at a number of points by direct reading against a polariser rotated on a divided circle. In the instrument examined the divisions were in half degrees “Ventzke” (of which 100 corre. spond to 34.68° of arc, for sodium light at 17:50. C.), and it was easy to estimate to tenths of a degree, i.e. to less than three minutes of arc. The design and workmanship

were all that could be desired The same firm is also making refractometers of the Abbe and Pulfrich type and other optical instruments.

New short-wedge saccharimeter.



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The whole length of the scale is

ft. instead of 11 or 2 in., and it can thus be read with great ease.

In instruments making use of a quartz wedge of the usual length (about 3 cm.), the scale is nearly always uneven, and unless calibrated introduces errors amounting to several tenths of a degree Ventzke. According to Landolt this is due to the quartz, which he describes as “a poor material optically"; he says that one seldom finds faultless plates, and that a pure wedge 3 cm. long is rare. Hence the value of the short wedge of Bellingham and Stanley which is less than half the usual length. The advantage of such a wedge, even if the quartz is not of special quality, is greater than would appear at first sight, since the field is due to the average effect of the whole of the light passed through the wedge, and this average will vary evenly through the small change of area of the wedge due to its movement, and thus the scale will be regular in spite of variations in the quartz; also it is easier to get repeated readings, owing to the greater ease with which the setting can be made with the fine adjustment given by the series, as compared with the usual rack and pinion motion. In fact, the

OUR OVERSEAS MUSEUMS. THE HE British Museum, the parent and model of the

museums scattered throughout our Empire, stands alone in that it has no journal of its own wherein to record the work done by its staff, though from time to time special memoirs and reports are published by the Trustees. There is much to be said for the publication of a museum journal, and not the least important of its functions would be to afford the general public an index of the magnitude and scope of its

work, which now only be estimated by laborious compilation from the annual "blue-book or the publications of the various learned societies.

A measure of the nature of the work performed by the staff of a properly organised museum can be gauged by a survey of the journals and “records" relating to the museums of our colonies and of our Indian Empire. For the most part the contents of such journals are of necessity of a highly technical


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