Slike strani



Mr. White and the donors of the original endowment ical Society, will form committee to of the garden. Plans are now being prepared for the sider and report on matters referred to it by the completion of the buildings, only one-fifth of which council. In addition to these special committees, a has been erected.

general committee is in course of formation which

will consist of about twenty members, two being The death is announced on July 23 of Dr. Edmund

nominated by each of the co-operating societies. The Owen, consulting surgeon to St. Mary's and other

function of this general committee will be to deliberate hospitals. He was also surgeon-in-chief to the St.

on all questions of general policy with reference, not John Ambulance Brigade. Dr. Owen was in 1867 merely to questions directly relating to the war, but appointed demonstrator and in 1876 lecturer in

also to all matters on which it is desirable to have anatomy at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School. In

the opinion of a body thoroughly representative of addition to numerous more technical works, he pub- every department of chemical science. lished in 1890 a "Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.” The article on “Surgery" in the current In the course of a statement on the work of the edition of the “Encyclopædia Britannica ” was from Ministry of Munitions, made in the House of Comhis pen. He was a member of the council of the mons on July 28, Mr. Lloyd George said :-"I have Royal College of Surgeons for sixteen years, and a just completed arrangements to constitute an Invenvice-president of the college. He became a member tions Branch of the Ministry of Munitions, and I hope of the British Medical Association early in his career,

it will do for inventions for land warfare what Lord and in 1883 he was secretary of the Section of Surgery Fisher's Board is doing for naval warfare. The War at the Liverpool meeting, from which date he took Office is handing over the whole question of Army an increasingly important part in its affairs. In 1906 inventions to the Minister of Munitions, and careful he delivered the Bradshaw lecture on cancer, and in

arrangements are being made to secure that the new 1911 the Hunterian oration.

branch will keep in close touch both with Lord

Fisher's to avoid duplication and overlapping, and The following additional lists have reached us of also with War Office experts and Army authorities, members of scientific staffs on active service with

who must, of course, have an ultimate voice in decidH.M. Forces :-DUBLIN : Geological Survey of Ire- ing whether a particular invention is of practical serland :—T. Haigh, professional assistant (chemist and vice to the conditions of actual warfare in the present soil analyst), Sergt. 7th Batt. Royal Dublin Fusiliers; campaign. I have appointed Mr. C. W. Moir, a disH. T. Kennedy, geologist, Lieut. Royal Scots Fusi- tinguished engineer, who has already given valuable liers; R. L. Valentine, geologist, Lieut. 8th Batt. assistance to my Department on a voluntary basis, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. LONDON : Geological Sur- to take charge of the new branch, and he will not vey :-C. H. Cunnington, geologist, 2nd Lieut. ; only have an expert staff to deal with any project R. J. A. Eckford, fossil collector, Lance-Corpl. ; that may reach him, but also a panel of scientific

a R. du B. Evans, geologist, 2nd Lieut. (wounded and consultants to assist on technical and scientific points. prisoner); P. A. Frisby, assistant clerk, Sergt. ; D. Hal- | I think to save disappointment I ought to say that it dane, fossil collector, Sergt. ; W. B. R. King, geologist, ought to be clearly understood that only a very small Lieut. ; R. W. Pocock, geologist, 2nd Lieut.; H. H. minority of inventions are of practical value, especially Read, geologist, private; J. E. Richey, geologist, and under the stringent conditions of modern warfare. Lieut.; A. P. Stewart, general assistant, private; Many projects fail from technical defects, many others, T. H. Whitehead, geologist, Lieut.—Dr. E. N. da C. | although technically perfect, are unsuitable for the Andrade, who held a John Harling fellowship in the practical conditions of war. The new branch will University of Manchester at the outbreak of war, and have justified its existence if one project in a hundred, was engaged in physical researches, though not on or even one in a thousand, turns out to be of practical the teaching staff, is a 2nd Lieut. in the Royal Gar- utility in the present emergency." rison Artillery.

SCIENCE in Oxford has suffered a further loss by the In response to the circular letter referring to offers death of Dr. A. J. Herbertson, of Wadham College, of service connected with the war, sent to fellows of professor of and reader in geography. A native of Scotthe Chemical Society on July 1 (see NATURE, July 8, land, Prof. Herbertson prepared himself for his scienp. 523) more than 900 forms have been received, tific career by a course of study in Germany, where together with many letters and suggestions. In that he graduated as Ph.D. of the University of Freiburg. letter it was stated that in dealing with these replies Appointed reader at Oxford in 1905 and professor in the council would have the assistance of special com- 1910, he was enabled by the liberality of the Royal mittees, each of which would be formed by a kindred Geographical Society, and with the support of the society. The following societies are co-operating :- University, to establish and equip a department reRoyal Agricultural Society, Biochemical Society, presenting not unworthily a branch of natural knowSociety of Chemical Industry, Society of Dyers and ledge which it must be confessed had up to ten years Colourists, Faraday Society, Institute of Chemistry, ago received scant recognition in Oxford. It is not Institute of Metals, Institution of Mining and too much to say that to the zeal and energy of the late Metallurgy, Pharmaceutical Society, Physical Society, professor is mainly due the flourishing condition of Society of Public Analysts. Each of these the school of geography now housed in the wellsocieties will nominate six experts who, together known building which was for so long the abode of with two members of the council of the Chem- the late Sir Henry Acland. He spared no effort in urging upon the University the importance of his tribe and collect all available information about the subject, whether from the scientific or the historical community in his charge. In reply to this circular point of view. He secured the services of able col- about 600 reports of varying interest and value have leagues, and by his own powers of organisation and been received. As a first instalment, Mr. J. A. Robertthe unceasing labour which he brought to bear upon son, librarian, Philippine Library, Manila, has comhis work, he succeeded in vindicating for geography piled a monograph on the Igorots of Lepanto, pubsoi thing like its proper place in the studies of the lished in the Philippine Journal of Science for Novem. University. Prof. Herbertson had done good service ber, 1914, giving a number of interesting facts on the as a member of the Royal Commission on Canals and social life, manners and customs, magic and religion Waterways, and in 1910 he was president of the Sec- of this tribe. The report is provided with a biblio. tion of Geography of the British Association. His graphy and some useful photographs, and may be numerous publications are well known to all geo-recommended to ethnologists. graphers, two of particular scientific importance being

The Pioneer Mail of June 18 reports an interesting an “Atlas of Meteorology" (with Mr. J. G. Bartholo

lecture delivered at Simla by Capt. Acton, health mew) and “The Distribution of Rainfall over the Land." His death took place on July 31, at fifty years

officer, on snakes and snake-charmers. Many snake

charmers pretend that they owe their immunity to of age, after a somewhat protracted period of illhealth.

graduated doses of venom, but examination of several

individuals failed to verify this statement. The snake. UNDER the title of "War, Wounds, and Disease," charmer at the Calcutta Zoological Gardens rubs Sir William Osler has published a very useful little venom into any cut he receives, but he uses perarticle in the July number of the Quarterly Review. manganate and anti-venene whenever he is bitten. He takes for his text a dismal old saying, that Unless graduated injections could be carried on for a “Disease, not battle, digs the soldier's grave.” It year, or at least six months, they would not be suff. dug that grave deep for the Walcheren Expedition : cient to resist the huge dose of venom from a cobra's 23,000 deaths from disease, against 217 killed in bite. Many of them often carry about the nonaction.

Again, in the Russo-Turkish war of 1829, poisonous John's earth snake, which is shown to the there were 40,000 Russians in the hospitals. Sir

credulous as double-headed. As a matter of fact, William Osler reproduces here a very notable diagram, immunity is secured by careful handling of the reptiles, from an article by Kozlovski, showing the losses from the charmers being taught the art from early youth. disease, and the losses of killed and wounded, in the Their remedies fall into three classes : snake-stones; Crimean and other wars. We are often told that the

drugs and herbs like arsenic, antimony, arislotochia, Japanese, in the Russo-Japanese war, were notably and opium; invocations and magical formulæ. “It free from disease; but it appears, from Capt. Cul- is,” he observed, “a well-recognised principle in medimann's paper in the Journal of the R.A.M.C., vol. cal science that any disease which has a host of xiii., that they had no fewer than 51.4 of their strength reputed cures means only one thing—that there is no on the sick list. In the present war, we are justly cure, and that the disease has a small death-rate. proud and thankful that the incidence of disease has

About 90 per cent. of the cases survive whatever been light, thanks to the splendid work of the Army remedy is employed, and this large percentage gives Medical Department and the Army Transport Service. sufficient excuse for reputed cures." Sir William Osler directs attention to the very large proportion of our wounded who are able to return to

Some interesting notes on the habits of the fourtheir arduous duty; it is no fewer than 60 per cent.

horned spider-crab (Pisa tetraodon) appear in the Then, after noting the unhappy frequency of illnesses Zoologist for July, by Mr. H. N. Milligan. The author's from exposure-pneumonia, bronchitis, rheumatism- observations were made upon captive specimens in the he reviews the diseases of infection, most of which, in aquaria in the Horniman Museum, where this species other wars, have been so terrible : wound-infection,

appears to thrive. The facts recorded refer mainly tetanus, gas-gangrene, typhus, cerebro-spinal fever, to the behaviour under the stimulus of fear, the typhoid, cholera, and venereal disease; and to these manner of attaching seaweed and other foreign he adds a note on cases of over-strained and over

bodies to the shell, and the apparently abnormal relish borne nerves." Happily, he is able to give a very

which the females exhibit for their own eggs, which good report of the general health of the Army; but

are devoured almost as soon as laid. Since these are he warns us that the danger is not yet past. “On

of a bright vermilion colour, and very conspicuous, the whole, the country may be congratulated on the

they would seem to be warningly coloured in so far comparatively small part disease has so far played in

as other egg-eating animals are concerned. Whether the great war. There has been no epidemic on a Pisa tetraodon habitually devours its own eggs when large scale; and with effective measures it may

at large there is at present no means of discovering. be hoped that we shall escape the terrible experiences

Two admirable essays, the one on the “Home Life of South Africa and the Crimea."

of the Kestrel,” by Mr. Oswald Wilkinson, the other The United States Government in the Philippine · Hobbies in the Vale of White Horse," by the Rev. Islands has displayed laudable zeal in collecting in. J. G. Cornish, appear in Wild Life for July. In each formation on the ethnography of the native races. In case a most careful study of the nesting habits and 1911 the Governor-General directed that each provin- care of the young is given, and these notes are supple. cial governor should call together the old men of each mented by a series of very beautiful photographs.



Mr. Wilkinson speaks of wood-pigeons as forming or the legal defence of existing fishing rights. Their a common article in the dietary of the kestrel. From work has been mainly that of the imposition of rethe great size and weight of this bird, in relation to strictions and prohibitions on methods of fishing. the kestrel, one cannot resist a suspicion that he is The committees are subject to the general control of really referring to the turtle-dove. The wanton de- the central authority (the Board of Agriculture and struction, both of the kestrel and the hobby, by game- Fisheries), but the latter possesses no power to initiate keepers, gives one cause for rejoicing that at least legislation. The Inshore Fisheries Committee, which occasionally they escape the varied and often brutal reported in 1914, recommended the practical abolition engines of destruction which, in spite of Preservation of the District Committees and the transfer of the Acts, are still in common use. This persecution is actual power of regulation to the central authority. It the more reprehensible because these birds, like owls, also recommended various schemes of local organisadestroy immense numbers of mice and rats, whereas tion and co-operation, and with the assistance of the the amount of game destroyed is negligible, as anyone Development Fund some of these have been begun. can discover for himself who will take the trouble Mr. Reynolds describes very shortly the steps that to examine the pellets thrown up according to the are being taken in Devon and Cornwall to revive and custom of raptorial birds. Not one pellet in ten stimulate the smaller fisheries, mainly by means of thousand will be found to contain remains of partridge loans of money to the men. A grant from the Deor pheasant.

velopment Fund has also been made to the Fisheries The annual report of the Scottish Marine Biological Organisation Society, so that this body has been able

to provide a staff for the promotion of the industry. Association for 1914 contains a record of the work done at the Millport Marine Station during that year. In the July number of the Journal of Anatomy and The most important investigations to which reference Physiology Prof. F. Wood Jones makes a welcome is made in the superintendent's report are those of contribution to our knowledge of the external genital Dr. J. F. Gemmill on the development of Asterias system of Chelonian reptiles. He regards the external rubens, the detailed paper on which has appeared in genitalia of turtles and tortoises as representative of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. a very generalised and primitive type. The comOther work of interest is the systematic investigation mencement of the Chelonian type of copulatory organ of a sandy shore undertaken by Mr. R. Elmhirst and is to be seen amongst certain of the Amphibia; the Prof. L. A. L. King, and the study of the regeneration same type occurs as an embryological stage in mamof legs in Crustacean Decapods by Mr. J. H. Paul.

mals. The author regards it as probable that "the

mammalian stock arose early from some basal meetTwo papers by Dr. C. G. Joh. Petersen make up

ing point of the Amphibians and the sculate reptiles." the Report of the Danish Biological Station, No. xxiii, 1915. The first is on the animal communities of the

IN 1913 Sir Edward Schäfer accepted an invitation sea-bottom in the Skagerak, the Christiania fjord,

from the Leland Stanford Junior University, Caliand the Danish waters, and is a continuation of

fornia, to deliver the Laue medical lectures. He chose similar studies already published by the author dealing

for his subject the endocrine glands—that is, the with the communities found in Danish waters. The

organs of the body which form internal secretions. investigations were made by means of the bottom

His name is so closely associated with researches on

these glands, especially the adrenal and pituitary sampler designed by Dr. Petersen. The second paper is called, " A Preliminary Result of the Investigations and those who did not have the opportunity of hear

bodies, that his choice was an almost obvious one, on the Valuation of the Sea,” and in it an attempt

ing Sir Edward are now able to read his lectures, as is made to give numerical estimates of the annual production of various marine organisms, including in a pamphlet of ninety-four pages, which is simply

they have been published by the Stanford University fishes, in the Kattegat. Whilst undue importance is

packed with information expressed in lucid style, and not intended to be given to the actual figures put

admirably arranged. We can highly recommend the forward, the method followed by Dr. Petersen is one

booklet to those who wish to obtain a brief history which will doubtless be capable of great development of our knowledge on this interesting subject, and an in the future.

authoritative statement of the stage it has reached at THE July number of the Quarterly Review contains present. We note that the author employs his new an article by Mr. Stephen Reynolds dealing in a nomenclature for the substances usually grouped general way with the question of the inshore fisheries, i together as hormones; so far the new words have not but referring specially to the two Departmental Re- ** caught on,” but perhaps the present publication will ports published in 1914. The author traces the various stimulate other physiologists to adopt them. The causes which have led to the decadence of sea-fishing same mail brings us another publication in the same by small boats on various parts of the coasts of Eng. | series, “The Hæmolymph Nodes of the Sheep,” by land and Wales. In his opinion the decentralisation A. W. Meyer, from the anatomical department of the of administration brought about by the creation of the Stanford University. The subject is not altogether District Fishery Committees has had a prejudicial effect. unrelated to the endocrine glands, though it is at preThese bodies are not really representative of the fish- sent doubtful whether these nodes, or accessory ing interests; and they are, with one or two excep- spleens, as they may roughly be termed, form any tions, unprovided with sufficient resources to enable internal secretion. Dr. Meyer, however, treats the them to carry on constructive work, scientific research, I subject mainly from the anatomical point of view, and his paper is illustrated with some very beautiful draw- general interest. The fact that the ash or flue-dust ings.

from saw-mills which burn wood as fuel contains from An interesting contribution to our knowledge of

5 to 9 per cent. of potash, is not generally realised, abnormalities in the reproduction of vertebrates has

and no attempt has been made hitherto to store or been made by Mr. R. Curtis in a paper on the relation

utilise this material, which certainly has a manurial of simultaneous ovulation to the production of double

value, especially at the present time. In September

. yolked eggs in the domestic fowl (Journ. Agric. Re

last the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries organised search, vol. iii., No. 5). Such eggs may have (1) the

a series of experiments on the preservation of fruit entire set of egg-envelopes common to the two yolks,

and vegetables by drying, canning, and other methods, or (2) the chalaziferous layers separate and the thick

and preliminary experiments were made by Dr. Hamilalbumen common, or (3) entirely separate albumen

ton at Studley College, and by Mr. C. S. Martin at envelopes and only the membrane and shell common.

Dunnington Heath. This work has now been de. Of the eggs examined, 71 per cent. belonged to the

veloped, and two experimental factories are being second type. In only very few cases

carried on at Dunnington Heath and Broom Junction.

was there evidence of simultaneous ovulation, and the author A CATALOGUE of earthquakes felt in the Philippine believes that “the fusion of follicles and a resulting

Islands during 1914 has been issued by the C.S. common blood-supply is by no means the usual cause

Weather Bureau. The year was apparently unevent. for the production of a double-yolked egg." In the

ful, the total number of shocks recorded in the islands Report of the Maine Agric. Exp. Station for 1915 (pp. being 146. None of the earthquakes was of destruc65-80) Dr. R. Pearl and Mr. F. M. Surface describe tive strength, and only twenty-nine were of intensity a cow which assumed some of the secondary char- above the fourth degree of the Rossi-Forel scale. As acters of the male, developing thickness of neck and in all distinctly seismic countries, many of the dissmoothness of rump, and also behaving in many re

turbed areas were extremely elongated in form. The spects like a bull. This animal had been, before the Philippine earthquakes are, however, peculiar in strange change, a normal cow, having borne three possessing large disturbed areas. For instance, the calves and shown a high milk record. Post-mortem average area disturbed by earthquakes of intensity study showed cystic degeneration of the ovaries in 4 is 9660 square miles. In Great Britain, the correwhich no corpora lutea were being formed. Hence sponding figure is 260 square miles. the authors conclude that the corpus luteum is of im- The refined methods of modern seismology are well portance in maintaining female secondary characters exemplified in a paper by Prince Galitzin, presented in full development.

to the Paris Academy of Sciences on June 21 (Comptes We have received a copy of a paper on the fungus rendus, vol. clx., p. 810), dealing with the earthquake diseases of Hevea brasiliensis contributed by Mr. T. widely recorded on February 18, 1911. This disturbPetch, Government mycologist, Ceylon, to the Inter- ance has been prevented from falling into oblivion by national Rubber Congress held at Batavia yast year.

the fact that the survey work of a Russian officer It is reassuring to read that notwithstanding the vast has brought to light the simultaneous occurrence of a areas under Hevea cultivation, often under bad condi- cataclysmic land slide at Sarez, a situation well within tions, no very serious parasitic fungus has as yet been

of the epicentre determined from noticed. Fomes semitosus, the root disease, first

the records obtained at Tashkent, Tiflis, and Pulkowa. recorded by Ridley at Singapore in 1904, which was It is easy to calculate the energy (E) liberated in this much feared, is proving to be of minor importance catastrophe from estimates of the weight of the disas the plantations increase in age and as the jungle rupted mountain and the average vertical fall, whence stumps on which it flourishes disappear. The stem in c.g.s. units E=2.1 to 6.0 x 10°3 ergs. Prince Galitzin diseases, of which six have been recorded, are perhaps

next determines the energy by means of the Pulthe most dangerous. Three of these, pink disease kowa seismographic records, and obtains finally (Corticum salmonicolor), die-back (caused especially E=4-3 x 1023 ergs. The two values by Botryodiplodia theobromae), a well-known cacao cisely the

order of magnitude; hence the disease, and canker due to Phytophthora faberi, are

conclusion is drawn that the landslip at Sarez was especially to be feared. It is suggested that Bordeaux the cause, and not the effect, of the earthquake of mixture may prove effective as a preventive to canker. February 18, 1911, which thus presents a unique case

where the energy liberated at the epicentre, here The annual report of the agricultural and horticultural research station of the University of Bristol,

identical with hypocentre, is known. otherwise known as the National Fruit and Cider The Department of Agriculture and Technical InInstitute, at Long Ashton, contains a series of papers struction for Ireland has reissued the explanatory on cider and perry, mainly by Prof. B. T. B. Barker memoir of the Geological Survey of Ireland, illustrat. and Mr. Otto Grove; papers on the treatment of ing parts of the counties of Armagh, Fermanagh, and plant disease, by Mr. A. H. Lees; on economic myco- Monaghan (H.M. Stationery Office, Dublin, 1914; logy, by Mr. S. P. Wiltshire; on fruit culture trials, pp. i-iv +26; coloured map; price 31d.), The by Prof. Barker; and on soils and manures, by Mr. memoir describes the country around the town of C. T. Gimingham. Among these papers one on the Monaghan, one-inch map sheet 58. The issue of a use of pure yeast in the fermentation of cider by Mr. larger and cheaper edition has provided an opportunity Grove, and a note by Mr. Gimingham on the use of to add a chapter on the relation of the soils to agri. the waste from saw-mills as a source of potash have a culture in the district, and to describe the drumlins,





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here so well developed. The provision of a small- becoming convex and displaying iridescent colours. scale coloured map of the “solid” geology marks an In one experiment a strip 2 mm. by 11 mm. and important advance on the earlier edition. Plate ii., o'oi mm. thick was exposed for a month to the a rays which should face p. 16, is absent from the copy we coming from a mica-covered capsule containing two have examined.

milligrams of mesothorium. The strip was supported The report of the Fernley Observatory at Southport at one end so as to be 3 mm. above the cover of the for the year 1914, prepared by Mr. Joseph Baxendell, capsule. It was found to have acquired a curvature equal meteorologist to the Southport Corporation, gives re

to that of a circle of radius 48 mm. and required a weight sults of considerable interest. The observations have of 460 milligrams applied to its middle point to straighten been systematically continued for the last forty-three it. When reading his paper Mr. Glew suggested that years, and the values give a good average for inter- the a particles arrested by the mica existed as occluded comparison. A table is given showing the diurnal helium in the strip, an opinion which has since been variation of the winds from different directions for the verified by Mr. J. H. Gardiner, who on heating a whole year, based on the observations of fifteen years strip in vacuo obtained the helium spectrum. to 1913, and a diagram shows the summer wind-direc

THE U.S. Department of Commerce has published tion frequencies for the same period. The great pre

a second edition of Circular No. 20 of the Bureau of valence in summer of sea winds, from west and north

Standards. The circular presents briefly, in its first west, is well indicated, and there is a much greater

section, the principles underlying the construction and prevalence of these winds in the day than in the night.

operation of commercial electrical measuring instruDetailed tables of the several meteorological elements

ments. This is followed by a particularly useful are given for 1914. The warmest month was August,

section on the performance of such instruments; the with a mean temperature of 60-6°, which, however, is

subjects discussed include accuracy, sensitivity, reliaonly 0.70 warmer than July, while the coldest month

bility, the effects of temperature change, temperatureis January, with the mean temperature 39.9o. The

coefficients, the effects of stray magnetic and electrotemperature during the year ranged from 80° to 22°.

static fields, the effects of imperfect elasticity of springs The rainfall for the year was 32.02 in., and the

and of friction, and the construction of scales. The wettest months were July and December, the per

information on the temperature-coefficients of volt. centage of the average being respectively 159 and 165.

meters and ammeters is very useful, and methods are The brightest month was June, with 234 hours' sun

suggested for compensating for ordinary temperature shine, whilst April and August were very nearly as

changes. The last section contains valuable hints on bright.

the testing of instruments; it discusses in detail the Vol. xxxv., part i., 1913, of the Annals of the

application of the potentiometer to the measurement Royal Central Office of Meteorology and Geodynamics of voltage and current. Owing to its smaller temof Rome contains a long memoir by Prof. Palazzo perature-coefficient, the Weston portable cell of the describing magnetic observations which he took during

unsaturated type is recommended as being preferable June, July, and August of 1913 in the Italian colony of to the Weston normal cell, in which saturated solution Eritrea bordering on the Red Sea. The principal is used. The circular may be obtained from the Superinstruments employed were a magnetometer and dip intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, circle by Dover. Observations were taken at sixteen Washington, D.C. stations situated between 14° 47' N. and 15° 47' N.

The valuable reports and other publications issued One of the stations was on an island in the Red Sea,

by the British Fire Prevention Committee have frethe others on the mainland, mostly at considerable

quently been referred to in these columns. The war heights, in one case 2410 metres above sea level. The

emergency work accomplished by the committee results are summarised on p. 75. A chart at the end shows the stations, and includes isogonals for 1° 30' during the past twelve months has been of a very

extensive character, and is a remarkable example of to 1° 50' W., isoclinals from 11° o' to 13° 0' N., and

what can be done entirely gratuitously by voluntary lines of equal horizontal intensity. The isoclinals are

workers. The following are special features of the nearly parallels of latitude. On p. 89 there is a record

work dealt with by the committee during the first year of results by other observers in Eritrea. At Massaua

of the war :-Fire Survey Force : At the outbreak of (Massowah), on the Red Sea, there were in all results

war, the committee formed a special Fire Survey from eight observers, including Prof. Palazzo, the

Force of 100 surveyors to undertake at short notice earliest going back to 1839. Conclusions are drawn

any fire surveys required by the Government in an from these as to the secular change. A summary of

honorary capacity. Above 900 establishments taken the results also appears in a short paper by Prof.

over for war emergency work all over the country Palazzo in the Rendiconti Accademia dei Lincei,

were surveyed by this force, with a total of more than January, 1915.

40,000 beds. Latterly re-surveys are made in cases of The July number of the Journal of the Röntgen special fire risk. Fire Warnings : The warning serSociety contains the paper which Mr. F. Harrison vice embraced the preparation and free issue of a Glew read before the Society in April, describing a large number of public “fire warnings " in connection new mechanical effect of the a rays from radio-active with the war emergency, disseminated by the combodies. Mr. Glew finds that if a very thin strip of mittee in the form of posters, circular letters, or as mica has one side exposed to a rays for a week or notices reproduced by the Press, etc. The total issue two the strip is bent, the side exposed to the rays I of posters and like publications exceeds 200,000. Fire

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