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THE RESERVOIR OF T. gambiense (Congo SLEEPING- THE TYPE OF TRYPANOSOMES FOUND IN THE INFECTED SICKNESS).
Flies. Besides man, who is probably the most important Fig. 5 represents the developmental forms of_T. reservoir of the virus, native cattle and the antelope pecorum found in labial cavity of G. morsitans. The living on the lake-shore in Uganda were found to first seven figures represent early forms in the labial harbour the parasites in their blood.
cavity. These were seen adhering singly by their The prophecy that the fly would become harmless flagella to the labrum. shortly after the natives were removed from the lake The next group contains the ordinary forms found shore has unfortunately proved wrong, and before the clinging by their flagellar ends to the labrum. . It islands are repopulated some other measure will have will be seen that they have assumed the crithidial to be taken to get rid of the fly danger.
stage, a stage which seems to be a sine quâ non in
the final stages of the cycle of development of all the GROUP B.—THE T. pecorum GROUP.
pathogenic trypanosomes, and the interpretation of
which is still obscure. The small blood forms are from 1.-T. pecorum.
the hypopharynx of dead infective flies. They repre. The first of this small group, which only consists sent the final stage in the cycle of development and are of two species, is T. pecorum. It is probably the most the only infective forms. On the same figure are seen important trypanosome disease of domestic animals drawings of the labrum and hypopharynx of a fly in Central Africa.
infected with this trypanosome.
While the labial Morphology.
cavity is seen to contain clusters of large ribbon-like Fig. 2 shows the general appearance of the trypano- trypanosomes, the hypopharynx is swarming with the some. It is the smallest of all the African pathogenic trypanosomes, varying from 9 to 18 microns in length, with an average of 14 microns.
This trypanosome does not seem to be very fatal
Fig. 5.- Developmental forms of Trypanosoma pecorum found in the to horses, mules, or donkeys. In Nyasaland there labial cavity and hypopharynx of iniected flies. a, Labrum. b, Hypo. was no opportunity of testing it on horses, but out of pharynx. five donkeys four recovered. Two-thirds of the cattle, and seven-eighths of the goats, succumbed.
small infective forms. From these drawings the ease
and facility with which a tsetse-fly can infect an animal Tue CARRIER OF T. pecorum.
will be readily understood. The chief carrier of T. pecorum is G. morsitans.
II.-T. Simiae. In Nyasaland, this parasite was the commonest of the
This species of trypanosome is remarkable for trypanosomes with which G. morsitans was infected.
the virulence it displays towards the monkey and the There were fifty-six experiments, and 10,081 tsetse-flies
domestic pig; killing these animals in an incredibly (G. morsitans) were employed. In the fifty-six ex
short period of time, whereas it is harmless to oxen, periments T. pecorum was found forty-six times, more
antelope, dogs, and the smaller experimental animals. than twice as often as T. brucei. Nine monkeys,
Curiously enough it affects goats and sheep, although thirty-four dogs, and thirty-five goats were infected.
oxen and antelope escape. This gives a proportion of 4:6 per 1000 flies infected with T. pecorum.
In the whole range of the trypanosome diseases of animals there is surely nothing so striking as the
rapidly fatal action of T. simiae on the domestic pig. THE CYCLE OF DEVELOPMENT OF T. pecorum IN
In nine experiments the average duration was only G. morsitans.
5:3 days. This not from the time of the appearance This trypanosome belongs to Group B, in which of the trypanosome in the blood, but from the date development takes place first in the gut and then of the infection. Further, this rapid action is not the passes forward into the labial cavity of the proboscis, result of an exaltation of virulence by numerous and finally reaches the salivary duct or hypopharynx passages through the pig, but natural to the trypanowhere the trypanosomes revert to the original blood form and become infective. There is no infection of Another interesting point in regard to this species the salivary glands.
is that, so far as is known, the warthog is the only
animal among the wild game which harbours it. In regard to the transference of the virus from sick It is probable that it will also be found in the blood of to healthy animals by the fly, this has been mat the bush-pig, but that has not been done yet. clearer and easier of comprehension by the discovery
of the part which the salivary glands and hypsGROUP C.-THE T. vivax GROUP, pharynx play in the various modes of development
It resul The three species forming this group have a strong that it would almost appear impossible for an infec
which the trypanosomes undergo in the fly. family resemblance, and but for size might almost be included in one species.
tive fly to pierce even momentarily the skin of a
healthy susceptible animal without causing infection. 1.-T. vivax.
Another important feature is the proof brough:
forward that T. brucei and T. rhodesiense are the This is the cause of one of the most important cattle diseases in Uganda. We did not meet with it Finally, in regard to the prevention of these trx
We in Nyasaland, where its place seems to be taken by panosome diseases of man and domestic animals. T. caprae. It is, however, widely distributed in Cen- have seen that the wild game in the fly country is tral Africa. It has been reported from Senegal and heavily infected. It is impossible to doubt that they the Sudan in the north to Rhodesia in the south. It are the reservoir and source of many of these diseases. is easily recognised on account of its extreme activity
There can be little doubt that if the wild game sere during life, its characteristic morphology in stained
driven out of the fly country trypanosome diseases specimens, and the fact that it only affects horses,
such as those caused by T. brucei and T. pecorum cattle, goats, and sheep, while monkeys, dogs, rabbits,
would disappear. guinea-pigs, rats, and mice are refractory. In Uganda
In regard to the measures of prevention against the tsetse-flies on the lake shore were found to be the most important of all the trypanosome diseasesinfected with it, and it was also found in the blood Congo sleeping-sickness-it has been shown by experiof a bushbuck shot at the same place at which the
ence that the removal of the natives from the fly area flies were collected (see above and Fig. 3).
is a simple and efficacious way of stopping
epidemic. In these sparsely inhabited countries, where 11.-T. uniforme.
spare land and food are easily obtained, there is, as
a rule, no difficulty in effecting this migration. If it This trypanosome resembles T. vivax very closely is desired to go a step further and render the sleepingexcept that it is smaller. Up to the present it has sickness area habitable, then clearing and cultiva. only been found in Uganda. Its carrier there is G. tion must be resorted to. By these means, in all prob
ability, G. palpalis will be driven away, and with it the disease.
x about 700.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
INTELLIGENCE. Dr. H. G. Earle has been appointed to the chair of physiology in the University of Hong-kong.
DR. J. A. Menzies has been appointed professor of physiology in the University of Durham College of Medicine, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
In the prospectus of the University College of North Fig. 6.- Trypanosoma simiæ.
Wales a reference to Aeroplane and Other Re
searches " occurs in the schemes of study of the palpalis, and its reservoir the wild game on the lake
department of applied mathematics. In view of the
important part played by aeroplanes in the present shore.
war, we hope that Prof. Bryan will make every effort III.-T. Caprae.
to enlist the services of his pupils in the solution of
the many unsolved problems which he has enumerThis species has only been reported up to the present ated, and that he will encourage them to take up this from Lake Tanganyika and Nyasaland. It, like the work in preference to studies of a more examinational other two species belonging to this group, only affects character. We understand from Prof. Bryan that he cattle, sheep, and goats. Monkeys, dogs, and smaller would be glad to secure the assistance of students from experimental animals are immune.
other universities possessing the necessary training
in applied mathematics who are able and willing to CONCLUSION.
enter the college at Bangor for a post-graduate course This concludes the Croonian Lectures on the try
of research in the subjects in question. panosomes causing disease in man and domestic The prospectus of the University courses in the animals in Central Africa. These lectures deal with Municipal School of Technology, Manchester, for the but a small part of the subject, which has in the session 1915-16, which is now available, serves adcourse of the last twenty years grown to huge pro- mirably to give the inquiring student an excellent portions. Nothing has been said about medicinal idea of the resources and equipment of this great treatment, and even measures of prevention have been technical college. It will be remembered that a faculty left a good deal to the imagination. Taking a look of technology in the University of Manchester was back over the whole field the outstanding features may established in 1905, with the principal of the School be said to be, first, that some order is beginning to of Technology as dean of the faculty and with the reign in what was lately chaos in regard to the classi- heads of the mechanical and electrical engineering, fication of the pathogenic trypanosomes. They may applied chemistry, and architecture departments of the
. all now be referred to three groups and nine species. School of Technology as professors of the University.
The dean and these professors are members of the which is the sum of a number of simple harmonic University, Senate. The University courses provided curves. The apparatus makes use of Kelvin's summaby the school lead to the degrees of Bachelor and tion wire and an approximate method of obtaining Master of Technical Science. These courses are con- harmonic motions which was rejected by him as introlled by the Senate of the University, through the sufficiently accurate. It was shown, however, in the board of the faculty of technology, which is composed previous paper that if the various parts be properly of the heads of departments in the School of Tech- proportioned, the error can be made very small
. The nology together with certain other professors and lec- more complete mathematical discussion in the present turers in the University. A new characteristic of the paper shows how it may be reduced to negligible present issue of the prospectus is the excellent sum- dimensions.-Prof. C. R. Marshall and Miss Elizabeth mary running to some ten pages of approved courses Gilchrist: The interaction of methylene jodide and which students proceeding to degrees in technical silver nitrate.-James W. Munro: The structure and science, or certificates in technology, are recommended life-history of Bracon hylobii, a study in parasitism. to follow. The account of the equipment of the The Hylobius abietis was the most dangerous insect laboratories, for which the school is justly renowned, enemy to forestry in Scotland. One way of fighting it gives particulars which serve as an index of the Javish was by the breeding and setting free of a parasitic and judicious expenditure incurred to make the college enemy. Such a parasite is Bracon hylobii.— Miss thoroughly complete and modern.
Augusta Lamont :
Elasmobranchs; the ampullary canals of the genus SOME of our universities have already taken steps Raia. to deal justly with the many young men who have
New South Wales. broken their academical work by joining the Army. Linnean Society, May 26.—Mr. A. G. Hamilton, The subject is dealt with at length in Engineering for president, in the chair.-W. N. Benson : The geology August 6. But few of these young men will be able
and petrology of the great serpentine-belt of New again to take up the threads of their studies when South Wales. Part iv.-The dolerites, spilites, and peace is proclaimed. They will have been face to face keratophyres of the Nundle district. This paper is a with actualities of most serious import, and will detailed account of the Middle Devonian igneous rocks, never again be able to resume the docile and attentive which were briefly discussed in earlier parts of this attitude which befits the student. It is most earnestly series. It is shown that the rocks are intrusive, when. to be hoped that before peace is declared the whole ever clear evidence of their mise-en-place is obtainof the academic and professional bodies of this country able, even though pillow-structure is well developed, a will come to some definite decision as to what is to be feature usually characteristic of flows. A remarkable their attitude to the young men who are faced with series of magnetite-albite rocks have been discovered the possibility of their careers being broken irretriev
among the keratophyres. They find their closest ably. The matter is not simple, as the claims both
analogy among the igneous rocks accompanying the of the public and of the young men have to be con- iron-ores of Lapland.-Dr. A. J. Turner : Further sidered; the former expect that diplomas shall not be notes on the Lepidoptera of Ebor Scrub, N.S.W. Two given to men lacking in the necessary attainments; later visits in February, 1915, resulted in the acquisiit would be outrageous to the latter if the future prizes tion of specimens of thirty-one species, of which only in life were allotted to those who stayed at hole. seven were obtained in 1914. Thirteen of the twentyEngineering suggests that the kind of knowledge four additional species are known from other localities; which might be expected reasonably from candidates nine are described as new; and two remain undeterwho have served in the Army is that which an ordinary mined. Two species, previously, undetermined, are candidate has retained three years after taking his described as new from more complete material.-F. H. diploma. In that time all tricks for examination Taylor : Contributions to a knowledge of Australian purposes have disappeared, leaving only that know
Culicidæ. No. II. Five species referable to the ledge which the man felt was really necessary for his
genera Stegomyia, Neomacleaya, Culicada, and Culex profession. We should like to add to the case which (two) are described as
The males of two is presented very ably by our contemporary, that it is species, previously unknown, are also described.—Dr. extremely desirable that all our universities and col
R. Greig-Smith: A new gum-levan-forming Bacterium. leges come to a common understanding, so that there The hitherto described bacteria capable of forming shall be equality of treatment for all the candidates
gum-levan from saccharose, are two in number. Å en retiring from the Army.
third has been isolated from the tissues of a seedling of Eucalyptus hemiphloia. It differs from Bac, levaniformans informing
spores; and from
Вас. SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
eucalypti in its power of fermenting dextrose, sac
charose, and lactose, with production of acid and gas. EDINBURGH.
-E. A. Briggs : Hydroids from New South Wales. Royal Society, July 5.—Sir E. A. Schäfer, vice- Sertularella longitheca, Bale, var. robusta, Ritchie president, in the chair. -Sir William Turner : A con- (fam. Sertularidæ), described from sterile specimens tribution to the craniology of the people of Scotland : dredged off the coast of New South Wales, is now Part ii., prehistoric, descriptive, and ethnographical. shown, from the examination of colonies bearing Judging from the size and general plan of the skull gonangia, not to be a variety of S. longitheca, but to of the prehistoric inhabitants of Scotland, he found be entitled to specific rank.-Dr. Th. Mortensen : Prenothing to show that these very remote ancestors were liminary note on the remarkable, shortened developnot people of great brain-power.-W. Evans : Mallo- ment of an Australian sea-urchin (Toxocidaris erythrophaga and Ixodidæ, Ectoparasites of birds from the grammus). The ova are large, opaque, and full of Scotia collections (Scottish National Antarctic Expedi- yolk, and float on the surface of the water. Cleavage tion). Interesting examples were recorded of the same is total and regular at first. The gastrula is free. species of parasite infesting closely allied species of swimming, the aboral end being turned upwards, birds.-Dr. J. R. Milne : Mathematical theory of the and containing most of the yolk. The postoral proharmonic synthetiser : part ii. Nine years ago the cesses are represented only by a rudimentary swelling, author described an instrument for drawing the curve and there is no sign of a Pluteus-stage; nor, appar
ently, is there any trace of a larval skeleton. The whole animal is ciliated, but the cilia are not collected into bands. The young sea-urchin develops on one side of the embryo, near the mouth. The aboral part serves as a food-reservoir, and becomes finally quite overgrown and enclosed within the urchin's body. The young animal may sink to the bottom or remain swimming at the surface.
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PAGE The Problems of Science. By G. B. M. Physical Chemistry of Molecules. By H. M. D. 640 The Fundamentals of Three Colour Photography. By C. J. . .
641 Medicines and their Manipulation
641 Mind in Animals. By J. J..
642 Our Bookshelf
642 Letters to the Editor:
The Principle of Similitude.-J. L.; Lord Rayleigh,
Series obtained from a Given Set of Observation's.
W. H. Dines, F.R.S.
Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S.
646 Fauna Antarctica. (Illustrated.)
649 Our Astronomical Column:
Absolute Scales of Photographic and Photovisual
655 Short Period Variable Stars
635 The Manchester Meeting of the British Association 655 The Study of Heredity. By G. H. C..
657 Biometrics and Man.
658 Reports on Mining Industries Trypanosomes Causing Disease in Man and Do.
mestic Animals in Central Africa. (Illustrated.)
By Sir David Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. . University and Educational Intelligence
664 Societies and Academies
665 Books Received
THURSDAY, AUGUST 19, 1915.
Henry James, written with the copiousness and verve which characterise all his work. It is
followed by a short article by M. J. H. Rosny THE BOOK OF FRANCE.
aîné, on British character and policy, translated The Book of Frunce. In Aid of the French Par- by Mr. Thomas Hardy, in which, in a few pregliamentary Committee's Fund for the Relief of
nant paragraphs, our national excellences and the Invaded Departments. Edited by Winifred shortcomings are dealt with in a manner as disStephens. Pp. xvi + 272. (London: Macmillan criminating and tactful as it is just and true. An and Co., Ltd.; Paris : E. Champion, 1915.) essay on the mentality of the Germans, by M. René
Boylesve, translated by Dr. W. G. Hartog, is a HE catastrophe which has overtaken the keen and incisive psychological analysis of the
world, and threatens to shake the very Teutonic mind, written with detachment, and foundations of society, is destined to create a wholly dispassionate—an admirable example of the literature which has no parallel in history. This clear, penetrative insight of French criticism of is inevitable, for-such is the irony of the situa- the highest order. How true it all is Germany tion-the nations that are engaged in this will yet come to realise in the awakening which stupendous struggle are the most cultured and is inevitably in store for her, no matter what the most civilised peoples on this earth, and to them fortune of war may bring. Perhaps the most the production and consumption of literary food arresting and striking contribution to the work is is scarcely less necessary than the production and the “Debout pour la Dernière Guerre ! ” by M. consumption of their daily bread. Appetite Anatole France, done into nervous, palpitating grows by what it feeds upon. Already the output English by Mr. H. G. Wells. How true is all of war books has reached a colossal proportion, this ! and imagination boggles at the attempt to estimate
"The prophetic nightmares of our scientific the dimensions to which it will ultimately attain. fantastics are being lamentably realised; they come Many of these books are, of course, ephemeral about us monstrously alive, surpassing the horror productions, created to satisfy a passing but no of Dis, Malebolge, and all that the poet beheld in less insistent demand-books which are no books,
the Kingdom of Misery. But it is not Martians as Charles Lamb would say—and in no true sense
but German professors who accomplish these literature. But this can in no wise be said of the
things. They have given this war a succession of
forms that testify continually to their genius for book before us. Although of no great magnitude grotesque evil, first the likeness of the wateror weight, and put together to serve an immediate
spout and typhoon that brought them to the Marne and special purpose—to raise money, as Miss and defeat irreparable, then the sullen warfare of Winifred Stephens tells us, for French sufferers the caverns, then the conflict of metals and from German barbarity—it is of the very quint- chemicals. . . . A philosophical doctor, who sits essence of literature—literature of the purest,
beside me and reads as I write, interrupts : "Be most delicate, and most highly finished type. It
last method they will take to bacteriological war; is the joint production of some of the most dis- after the poison gas and the jet of fire they tinguished literary craftsmen on both sides of the
will fight as disease cultures. We shall have to Channel—well-known English stylists translating create in every country a Ministry of Anti-Teutonic the work of some of the most brilliant writers in
Serums.' And to this their science has brought the French world of letters—and it is adorned by
them! I recall the mot of our good Rabelais : the brush and pencil of eminent French artists.
Knowledge without conscience is damnation.'” The work is therefore a timely and significant And how beautiful and how sublime is the inmonument to that generous and lively amity which vocation with which the whole ends! binds the two nations together in their joint resist
“O Britain, Queen of the Seas and lover of ance to the power of an evil domination, and we
justice; Russia, giant of the subtle and tender confidently share the hope—nay, we have the firm heart; beautiful Italy, whom my heart adores;
: conviction—that the book will live and be prized Belgium, heroic martyr; proud Serbia; and as a memorial of an episode in the greatest France, dear Fatherland, and all you nations who struggle which has ever been fought for light and
still arm to aid us, throttle and end for ever this liberty against darkness and oppression.
hydra, and to-morrow you will smile and clasp Amidst so much that is excellent it seems in
hands across Europe delivered.” vidious to make selections to illustrate the char- The short essay by M. Remy de Gourmont, acter of this remarkable production. The book translated by Mr. Thomas Hardy, gives a vivid opens with an appreciation of France by Mr. sketch of the condition of that fair land which has