Slike strani

IN w.

Prionina, by F. C. Craighead. In the Journ. Agric.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF Research (vol. iv., No. 3) W. S. Pierce describes

CORUNDUM.1 weevils of the genus Diaprepes, which injure sugar

N the Summary report of the Geological Survey of cane in the West Indies, and gives details as to their variation and life-history.

tion to the occurrence of corundum crystals in the The gipsy moth (Porthetria dispar) imported from township of Carlow, Hastings County, Ontario, ard France into Massachusetts in 1869 continues to occupy

to the probable economic importance of the discover;. the attention of American entomologists; Mr. A. F.

This announcement led to the opening up of what has Burgess describes the means adopted in the New England States for checking its ravages (Bull. U.S. bed

become the largest corundum mining industry in the

world. In 1910 an important memoir by Adams and Dept. Agric., 204). His account is iilustrated by an

Barlow on the general geology of the district in which interesting set of maps showing the present range of

the corundum-deposits occur was published by the the species in New England, and also of some of its natural enemies which have been imported from

Geological Survey (Geology of the Haliburton and

Bancroft Areas, Memoir No. 6), but the details as to Europe, of which the large ground-beetle, Calosoma

these deposits were reserved for fuller treatment than sycophanta, is the most formidable. Reference is also

was possible at that time. They are now given in the made to the strange "wilt-disease which at times fortunately becomes epidemic among the caterpillars.

present volume, together with a general account of

the occurrences of the mineral in other parts of the It has been made the subject of a special research by world. Mr. R. W. Glaser (fourn. Agric. Research, vol. iv.,

Apart altogether from their economic importance, No. 2). He finds that the disease was not present in North America before 1900, and believes that its spread

the Canadian deposits are of considerable scientisc

interest as throwing light on one of the methods by may be at least partly due to some of the introduced

which corundum has been naturally produced. The parasites. The causative micro-organism has not been

are usually associated with nepheline and other alka. demonstrated.

line syenites which occur at the junction of the great The cabbage-fly (Phorbia or Chortophila brassicae) Laurentian granitic batholiths with the limestones ci is one of our commonest and most destructive garden the Grenville series. Red alkaline syenites, rich in pests. Mr. J. T. Wadsworth has published (Journ. soda, together with their coarse-grained pegmatitie Econ. Biol., vol. X., No. 1) a valuable and interesting equivalents, are pre-eminently the corundum-bearing account of a rove-beetle, Aleochara bilineata, the larva

rocks throughout the district, although in one of the of which eats its way into the puparium of the smaller areas the mineral occurs in anorthosites. The cabbage-fly, and feeds on the pupa. 'Like some other richest rock is known as corundum-pegmatite, dykes beetle life-histories, this shows a tendency to hyper- of which may attain a width of 18 ft. and contain as metamorphosis, the newly-hatched Aleochara being of

much as 75 per cent. of corundum. Individual crystals the campodeiform type. normal to the family, while weighing 30 lbs. have been obtained from this rock the later instars, in accordance with their parasitic In other rocks they are smaller in size, and often sink habit, have shortened legs and swollen bodies, to microscopic dimensions. The colour usually varies approaching the cruciform type.

from blue to white. No transparent varieties suitable À contribution to our knowledge of the physiology for use as gems have as yet been found. of aquatic insects is due to Mr. S. K. Sen, who gives In his classic researches carried out in Warsaw some observations on the respiration of Culicidæ during the years 1891-96 and published in Tscher. (Indian Journ. Med. Research, vol. ii., No. 3). The mak's Mineralogische und petrographische Mittheilarva of Culex microannulatus consumes 1.1 cubic mm. lungen for 1898, Morozewicz proved that felspathic of oxygen per hour, the pupa 1.9 cubic mm., and the

magmas, especially those rich in soda, possessed the imago 2.5 c.c.; the increased oxygen-hunger of the power of dissolving alumina, and that on cooling the pupa as compared with the larva is noteworthy, and excess of alumina over that required to form felspar it was found that the pupa is more quicklv affected and crystallised out as corundum. The facts described in killed by the want of oxygen. Systematic study of this memoir clearly prove that the Canadian corundum blood-sucking Diptera goes steadily on; the British has crystallised out of a highly felspathic magma species of Simulium are diagnosed by Mr. F. W. in accordance with the principles experimentally Edwards in the last number of the Bulletin oj Entom. established by Morozewicz. The mineral is extracted Research (vol. vi., part 1). This same number con- from the rocks by blasting, hand-picking, crushing, tains a report by Dr. W. A. Lamborn on the con- and dressing by methods akin to those frequently trol" of tsetse-flies (Glossina) in Nyasaland; a number used by miners. From material fed to the mills conof flies were caught by bird-lime spread on boards taining 103 per cent. of corundum a high-grade procarried about by native boys, and digging-wasps are duct consisting of from go to 95 per cent, is obtained. found to seize tsetses and carry them off. Hymeno- It is at present employed solely as an abrasive agent, pterous parasites of the Chalcidoid group have been although researches have been, and are still being, reared from Glossina puparia in northern Rhodesia, carried out to discover other uses. The value of the and these are described with excellent figures by Rev. total amount placed on the market to the end of 1913 Jas. Waterston, in the same number of the bulletin. is about 2,000,000 dollars, and there has been no

Of slight importance from the economic point of appreciable falling off in the amount produced during view, the Odonata (dragonflies) are yet of great general recent years. Its principal rivals are carborundum interest to the student of insects. Mr. E. B. William- and artificial corundum, known as alundum, both of son has just published (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. which are produced at Niagara Falls. xlviii., pp. 601-38) some exceptionally valuable notes on Neo-tropical species belonging to the “demoiselle" ANCIENT ARABIC METEOROLOGY. (Agrionine) subfamily. The purely systematic entomo


T what stage of intellectual development, prelogical paper is usually a weariness to any not a

monitory signs of weather were first connected specialist who may attempt to read it, but this author enlivens his accounts of structural details of diagnostic

with coincident, but probably unrelated, phenomena, value with descriptions of the habits and adaptations

1 “Corvirdum: Its Occurrence, Distribution, Exploitation and lives

By Alfred Ernest Barlow, Department of Mines, Canada. Pp. 37+ of the beautiful insects which he loves to observe when plates and a geological man of Central Ontario. alive in the swamps and forests of Central America

2 “Some Arabic Weather Savings." By Mohammad Bey Kasia and the Antilles.

Reprinted from the Cairo Scientific Journal, Nos. 97 and 98. (Alexandria,

G. H. C. 1914.)

and expressed in popular phrases is doubtful, but in The forms of clouds, too, have long been described every part of the world may be found a stock of with sufficient accuracy, and Luke Howard, who has proverbs that express the general experience. Egypt, supplied our nomenclature, has but followed an unof course, is no exception to the rule, and, owing known, but ancient, classification. We are glad to to its old civilisation, it is probable that in these wise know that Mohammad Bey proposes to continue his saws we have the fruits of the earliest meteorological investigations into a subject that cannot but grow observations. We cordially welcome, therefore, the more interesting the further it is pursued. paper by Mohammad Bey Kasim, who by industriously collecting a long list of these predictions, and translating them into English, has benefited both meteoro- COMPETITIONS IN CONNECTION WITH logy and folklore.

THE UTILISATION AND DENATURIn a climate where the changes are frequent and ING OF SPIRIT OR ALCOHOL FOR apparently lawless, these are apt to be assigned to

INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES. frivolous and irrational causes, but in more settled climates, as that of the Nile Valley, the prognostica- THE following particulars have been received by tions may be regarded as founded on a more scientific

the Board of Trade, through the Foreign Office, basis. Weather changes are seasonal, rather than from the Russian Ambassador in London, respecting daily, and as the Coptic year is based on solar reckon- the international competitions organised by the ing, the repetition of the same phenomena at nearly Russian Ministry of Finance in respect (1) of the same dates in successive years would tend to con

methods of utilising spirit or alcohol or their profirm the accuracy of the proverb, and give rise to a ducts, and (2) of new substances for denaturing spirit running commentary on the calendar, useful in the or alcohol for industrial purposes. guidance of husbandry and agricultural operations. As regards the first mentioned competition, prizes

Thus in the month Abib (July 8-August 6) we have of 60,000, 30,000, and 10,000 roubles, respectively, in its translated form the saying :

will be awarded for the invention of a novel means In Abib, it will be found

of adapting alcohol for the preparation of such a proWe hear the running water's sound.

duct as shall by its nature absolutely differ from the referring to the expected rise of the Nile, and, in the spirit from which it is made, e.g: vinegar, ether, following month, Misra :

chloroform, etc. Three prizes, of 50,000, 20,000, and Misra makes all the watercourses flow,

5000 roubles, respectively, will be awarded for the Though difficulties it must undergo. That the proverb-mongers were quite aware of the

invention of a novel method of utilising spirit for the necessity of making provision for the variability of preparation of a product (e.g; a pharmaceutical or seasons, and not limiting the changes too rigidly to

perfumery preparation) of which spirit or its products the arbitrary divisions of months, is shown by an

(sulphuric ether, etc.) will appear as one of its comingenious interlocking of Amshir and Baramhat,

ponent parts or dissolvent, providing that spirit canwhich together include the spring from February 8" not be extracted profitably from the product. Three April 8, when periods of warm and cool weather will

prizes of 30,000, 15,000, and 5000 roubles, respectively, interchange :

will be awarded for the invention of a novel method

of utilising spirit in productions, where spirit or its Exchange ien of mine for ten of your days.

products would serve as temporary intermediary disThe author does, however, give a complete calendar, solvents of either of the extracted or precipitated in which apparently an attempt is made to foretell the materials, e.g. in the manufacture of smokeless weather from day to day, but it is not clear whether powder, artificial silk, etc. Further prizes ranging this is a perpetual calendar, or liable to revision from from 75,000 to 5000 roubles will be awarded for the year to year according to the fancy of the local expert. invention or perfection of apparatus for the utilisation For comparison additional information founded on of spirit as motive power, fuel, or illuminant. average meteorological data is supplied. The main The competition of new substances for denaturing climatological factors are sufficiently well indicated. spirit or alcohol is being organised with the object of Thus for 22 Tut (October 2) the comment is, “No extending the use of spirit for technical purposes, and hope of more rises of the Nile." The Cairo observa- accordingly three prizes of 30,000, 15,000, and 5000 tions show that that date is the mean, and not the roubles, respectively, are offered for finding novel extreme of maximum food, for which the variation is denaturing, materials for improving the existing

16 days. The fixing of the low stage of the Nile to methods of denaturing, which, whilst guaranteeing 27-28 Bashans (May 4-5) is not so happy. The mean the free use of denatured spirit, would obviate any date from 1873 has been about a month later, but since possibility of using it as a beverage. the Aswan Reservoir has been utilised a comparison Applications in respect of both these competitions of dates may be misleading. The fact that is empha

should be addressed to “L'Administration générale sised by this calendar is the advantage due to em

des Impôts indirects et du Monopole de l'Alcool," ploying the apparent motions of the sun, as shown Tutchkoff Naberezhnaia, Petrograd, not later than by the assistance given to the old meteorologists January 11-14, 1916, and must be accompanied by in the maintenance of a continuous record.

samples. Such applications should be made in the Another feature of this admirable compilation is the Russian or French languages, and be enclosed in a successful attempt to classify the terms used in Egypt special envelope bearing an inscription or device of to describe the degrees of variation in the climato- some sort, the name and address of the applicant logical elements. The Egyptian vocabulary seems to

being submitted under separate cover bearing the be wide and rich; seven terms are given expressing same inscription or mark. gradations of cold," and a round dozen for different Inventors may reserve the right of benefiting by degrees of heat. Naturally there must be a good deal

their inventions and of protecting themselves with of overlapping, and the phrase, the hot weather (el letters patent. harr) lasts seven days or three," may be capable of Copies of the full text of the conditions for parvery wide interpretation. Apparently the author has been ticipating in the two competitions above referred to very successful in accommodating the terms expressing may be obtained by United Kingdom firms interested, varying strength of winds to our Beaufort scale, and on application to the Commercial Intelligence Branch the accuracy in the two cases is no doubt comparable, of the Board of Trade, 73 Basinghall Street, London, since each depends on eye observation and memory.


The month of Amshir to Barambat says:

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GRANTS FOR SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGA- | mankind.” The grants made by the trustees ampuni TION AND UNIVERSITY WORK.

to nearly a quarter of a million pounds annually.

In addition, however, to the specific State grants WHEN the Government scheme for the promotion

under the foregoing head of scientific investigativa, nounced in the House of Commons in May last, it

much larger funds are at the disposal of the Natioria,

Health Insurance Joint Committee and the Develop was stated that, to begin with, a sum of 25,000l. would

ment Commissioners. be placed at the disposal of the advisory Council

Under the National Health Insurance Act the appointed in connection with the scheme. This sum,

annual revenue accruing from one penny in respect and any other amounts voted by Parliament for the

of each insured person (payable out of moneys prosame purpose, will be included in the Civil Service Estimates under the Grants in Aid of Scientific Inves.

vided by Parliament) provide a fund from which

grants are available for the purposes of medical ten tigation. All the grants made under this head for 1915-16, together with grants from the Development

search. The total amount available annually for this Fund, and to universities and university colleges, are

purpose is about 56,000l. shown in the subjoined statement from the ninth

GRANTS FROM THE DEVELOPMENT FUND. annual report of the British Science Guild. The provi- The Report of the Development Commissioners for sion which is now being made for research gives

the year ended March 31, 1914, describes the work topical interest to the facts here brought together.

of the Commission during the year 1913-14. Allen

tion is directed to three cardinal facts relating to the GRANTS FOR SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.

provisions of the Acts constituting the Developmen: The annual grants made by Parliament specifically

Fund and Commission. First, the amount hitherto for scientific investigations and related services amount

appropriated by Parliament to the Fund is 2,900,000l.; to about 100,000l., and the details of the estimates for

secondly, the Commissioners are a purely deliberative 1915-16 are shown in the subjoined table.

and advisory body, having no power themselves iu

carry out schemes of which they approve; thirdly, Royal Society :

£ (i) (a) Scientific Investigations

grants and loans from the Fund can only be made

4,000 for certain specified purposes (speaking generally for (b) Scientific Publications


the development of the agriculture and fisheries of (ii) Magnetic Observatory at Eskdale

the United Kingdom and for connected purposes such muir

1,000 (iii) National Physical Laboratory

as forestry and the construction and improvement of 7,000

canals and harbours) and to certain specified bodies, (iv) Aeronautical Section of the National

which do not include companies trading for a profit. Physical Laboratory

9,425 Meteorological Office

The expenditure actually recommended by the Com

22,500 missioners, under the head of Agricultural and Rural Royal Geographical Society

1,250 Industries, during the year 1913–14 was 472,7937. Royal Academy of Music

500 (practically all grants), as compared with 227,6ool. Royal College of Music


during 1912–13. This large increase is due partly to Marine Biological Association of the

the fact that during 1913-14 three or four large grants United Kingdom

500 were recommended for capital expenditure on buildRoyal Society of Edinburgh

600 Scottish Meteorological Society

ings, and for some years' working of a scheme which

could not be started on the basis of annual grants; Royal Irish Academy


such advances as 28,650l. for a veterinary laboratory Royal Irish Academy of Music

300 for the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 18,000). Royal Zoological Society of Ireland


for buildings for the Edinburgh and East of Scotland Royal Hibernian Academy

300 College of Agriculture, 28,6751. for a ten years' scheme British School at Athens

500 of tobacco experiments in Ireland, 10,3251. for buildBritish School at Rome

500 ings at Reading University College, 10,000l. for Royal Scottish Geographical Society

buildings at the Midland Agricultural and Dairy ColNational Library of Wales

8,200 lege, are not annual requirements. The grant to the National Museum of Wales

17,300 Board of Agriculture and Fisheries in aid of agricul. Solar Physics Observatory


tural research and experiments during 1914-15 was British Academy

400 46,900l., and for the Farm Institutes scheme 58,350!. School of Oriental Studies

1,500 Under the head of forestry the advances recommended North Sea Fisheries Investigation

1,250 by the Commissioners amounted to 91,100l., and the Imperial Transantarctic Expedition,

grants actually made amounted to 34,500l., of which 1914-15

5,000 6500l. was for forestry research and advisory work Edinburgh Observatory


during 1913-4 and 8100l. for the same purposes in

1914-15. The total grants made in connection with £90,582

fisheries were 20,900l., of which 11,100l. was for The grants to the National Physical Laboratory and fishery research and 2000l. a supplementary grant for the Meteorological Office, amounting altogether to a fishery research vessel. nearly 40,000l., are for direct national services rather The Report concludes with the following statement than scientific investigation; and when these amounts of the position of the Development Fund and Com. are deducted the actual sums voted by the State to mission :scientific institutions, or for purposes of research, The total amount guaranteed to the Fund for the show little relationship to those which the trustees period up to the end of the financial year 1914-15 was of the Carnegie Institution of Washington are able 2,900,000l., the whole of which sum has been paid to give. The institution was founded by Mr. Carnegie over to the Fund. in 1902, with an endowment of 2,000,000l., to which Up to March 31, 1914, the Commissioners had he added 400,000l. in 1907, and a further 2,000,000l. actually recommended advances up to the amount of in 1911. The articles of incorporation of the institu- 1,493,375l., of which 1,216,6951. were grants and tion declare " that the objects of the corporation shall 276,68ol. loans. The main reason for the excess of be to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal grants over loans is the large expenditure on educamanner, investigation, research, and discovery, and tion and research-purposes which for obvious reasons the application of knowledge to the improvement of are scarcely suitable subjects for loans. Of this sum,



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Annount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. of total

of total



perhaps 220,000l. may be deemed to have lapsed, The subjoined table shows the sources of income of owing to such causes as the failure of applicants to these institutions :expend the whole advance sanctioned during the period for which it was advanced.

Incomes of Universities and University Colleges. It would appear that if


(2) WALES. the amount of the Development Fund is 2,900,oool., and effective advances to the amount only of 1,280,000l.


Fees were sanctioned up to March 31, 1914, the sum of

183,880 27:8 ... 17,456 27-7 Endowments

4,448 95,045 144

71 1,620,000l. still remains unappropriated. This is, Donations and subscriptions 22,381 34 2,330 37 however, not the case; the Commissioners having

Annual grants from local been compelled to commit themselves in substance authorities

103,650 157 3,441 5.5 to expenditure much in excess of the advances Parliamentary grants (see actually recommended.


233,000 35'2 34, 220 543 The expenditure incurred or sanctioned for the Contributions from hospitals, period up to March 31, 1916, in connection with agri- etc., for services rendered

0-4 culture and rural industries, forestry and afforestation,

Oiher income

20,486 3'1 1,132

17 and fisheries is as follows:(1) Agriculture and Rural Industries.--. This purpose

660, 780

63,027 has absorbed a considerably larger proportion of the

Grand Total, £723,807. Fund than any other object. The expenditure hitherto

The income from endowments of universities and sanctioned is 921,5491., of which perhaps 200,000l. has university colleges in England and Wales in receipt lapsed. During 1914-15 and 1915-16 some 400,000l.

of State grants is about 100,000l., which is also the more may be required, mainly for the following objects

amount of the annual income of the Carnegie Trust --the continuance of the schemes of research, technical

for the universities of Scotland. About half this advice, and instruction in agriculture already set on

amount is devoted annually to the payment of foot throughout the United Kingdom; buildings and

students' fees, and the other moiety is voted as grants farms for agricultural colleges; further provision for

for (1) the better equipment of the Scottish universities research in veterinary science; the continuance of the

and colleges by the foundation of additional chairs and existing schemes for the improvement of cattle, light lectureships and by the provision of new laboratories horse and other live stock breeding, and the promotion

and permanent equipment, and (2) the encouragement of co-operation. It would certainly not be safe to

of research. A writer in NATURE of May 14, 1914, in place the total demands for these purposes at less

an article upon the twelfth annual report of the trust, than 1,100,000l.

says :—"The impetus to research which has been (2) Forestry and Afforestation.—The total amount

produced by the work of the trust can be gauged from recommended hitherto for this purpose is 142,7491., of

an example chosen from one science, chemistry. In which rather more than 80,000l. has been advanced

the eight years 1903-11, the trust appointed in this by way of loan. But large demands must be antici- department forty-five scholars, twenty-five fellows, and pated during the next two years, as several schemes thirty-one grantees. The work of these has resulted which have taken some time to mature are now, it is

in the publication of more than 130 original communihoped, approaching completion. These include a

cations to scientific journals. Now, in 1912, the conScotch demonstration area, the acquisition of one or

tributions of the whole British chemical world to the more experimental areas in England and Wales,

Transactions of the Chemical Society amounted to afforestation schemes for land already purchased in

only double this number, 266, so that it is evident Ireland, and loans to local authorities for the afforesta.

that the Carnegie Trust, by its encouragement of tion of water catchment areas. The Commissioners

research, has indirectly in the course of eight years reserve, conjecturally, another 200,000l. for these pur- produced a series of results equal to half the annual poses up to 1916-making the total expenditure output of the whole Empire at the present time. This, 350,0001

it must be remembered, represents only a single depart(3) Fisheries.-65,5571. has been advanced for this ment of the trust's activities; for, in addition to purpose; but a large scheme of research is now being chemistry, work is being carried out in physics, considered. 150,000l. is provisionally taken as the biology, medicine, economics, history, and languages.” total expenditure, but this estimate is even more con

The Parliamentary grants to universities and unijectural than the others given.

versity colleges (1912-13) included in the foregoing The total sums for all purposes is 2,250,000l.

table are made up of contributions under various heads The net result is that the Commissioners estimate

as shown below:

ENGLAND that on March 31, 1916, the amount actually spent


170,000 from the Development Fund will not be less than


Board of Education : Tech2,000,000l. ; it may be 200,00ol. or 300,000l. more.

nological and other ProAfter that date an annual sum of approximately

fessional Worl


430 275,000l. will be required to keep in operation schemes

Board of Education : Trainalready sanctioned for such purposes as agricultural

ing of Teachers

22,400 4,990 research, forestry, and fisheries research, and agricul

Board of Education : Other tural education, which ought to be continued perman

Grants ently or at least for some years.



Other Government Depart-


3,070 The universities and university colleges in Great Britain which are in receipt of grants from the Board

... £233,000

34,220 of Education are as follows :—The Universities of The grants for technological and other professional Birmingham, Bristol, Durham (Armstrong College), work, amounting to about 23,0001., are part of a total Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, London (in- sum of nearly 45,000l. allocated under this head in cluding University College, King's College, Bedford

1913-14.. Twenty-four institutions in all receive State College, School of Economics, and East London Col- aid in this way, ten of them being also in receipt of lege), the University Colleges of Nottingham, Reading, the Exchequer grants to universities and colleges. and Southampton; the University of Wales (University In Germany, State subsidies provide the main part Colleges of Aberystwyth, Bangor, and Cardiff).

of the incomes of the universities. The annual ex

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penditure for the universities from State funds amounts tion for the year ending June 30, 1913, shows that in round figures to 1,800,000l. In 1913 the expenditure during the year the total sum received in gifts and of the University of Berlin alone was 242,000l., and of bequests by universities and other institutions ut this amount 200,000l., or about 83 per cent., higher education, excluding grants by the United derived from State funds.

States, different' States, and municipalities, The estimates for the year ending March 31, 1916, 4,930,390l. Of this amount 895,320l. was for increase show the following grants for universities and colleges of plant, 825,980l. for current expenses, and 3,209,105. in the United Kingdom :

for endowment. Forty-five institutions reported gifts GREAT BRITAIN. €

of more than 20,000l. University of London

The income of the 596 institutions of higher educa8,000

tion from which the Bureau receives reports was Victoria University of Manchester 2,000

during the year, from State and municipal grants, University of Birmingham

2,000 University of Wales ...

3,809,260l.; from invested funds, 3,313,90ol.; and

4,000 University of Liverpool

from fees for tuition and other educational services,

2,000 Leeds University

4,183,83ol. 2,000

SUMMARY. Sheffield University

2,000 Bristol University

The Carnegie Institution of Washington has an

2,000 Durham University

endowment fund of 4,400,000l., and makes grants of

2,000 Scottish Universities


nearly 200,oool. annually for purely scientific investiga. Colleges, Great Britain

tions and publications.

150,000 University Colleges, Wales

The Parliamentary grants in aid of scientific in

12,000 Welsh University and Colleges :

vestigation, including the services of the MeteoroAdditional Grant


logical Office and the National Physical Laboratory,

amount to about 100,000l. annually, or 125,000l. inTotal


cluding the new grant recently made.

The grants for the purposes of medical research, IRELAND.

under the National Health Insurance Act, amount to A.-Grants for the General Purposes

about 56,000l. annually. of the


The total amount appropriated by Parliament to the Queen's University of Belfast 18,000

Development Fund is 2,900,000l. ; and it is estimated University College, Dublin ... 32,000

that up to the end of March, 1916, the expenditure University College, Cork ... 20,000

will be on agriculture and rural industries 1,100,000!.. University College, Galway ... 12,000

on forestry and afforestation 350,000l., and on fisheries B.-Grants in respect of the Cost of

150,oool. Purchasing Lands and Provid

The Parliamentary grants for universities and coling or Improving the Necessary

leges in the United Kingdom amount to about half a Buildings and Equipment for

million annually; the State grants to universities in the

Germany reach nearly two millions annually.
National University of Ire-

The benefactions to institutions of higher educa. land and University Col

tion in the United States amount to about five millions lege, Dublin


annually; in the United Kingdom the average is less University College, Galway

than one-tenth this sum. (18501, revote) C.-Additional Grant in augmenta

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL tion of sums amounting to 1500l.

INTELLIGENCE. or more contributed from local

LONDON.—The following science appointments have sources in 1914-15 towards in

been made by the council of Bedford College for creasing the Resources of Uni

Women :-Assistant-lecturer in philosophy, W. A. versity College, Galway


Pickard-Cambridge; assistant-lecturer in physics, Miss

M. O. Saltmarsh; demonstrator in physics, Miss M. Total

£124,000 Imperial College of Science and

Baxter; demonstrators in physiology, Miss Hartwell Technology

and Miss Tweedy; demonstrator in geology, Miss I. 30,000

Lowe. Royal College of Science, Dublin

17,000 University Institutions in respect of

OXFORD.—Captain C. F. Balleine, fellow and subTechnological Work

rector of Exeter College, who was killed in action on 59,000

July 2 (a note on whom appeared on p. 543 of our issue Grand total


for July 15), bequeathed 1000l. to the rector and

scholars of Exeter College, to be employed in some Certain of the universities, colleges, and other way for the benefit of that college as the governing similar. institutions which are in receipt of Parlia- body may direct. mentary grants have been adversely affected by the war, more especially by the loss of fee income arising

The foundation stone of the new Welsh National from the widespread response among men students

School of Medicine at Cardiff was laid on Thursday to the call for recruits. The estimates for 1915-16

last by Lord Pontypridd. include, therefore, a special grant of 145,000l. in aid A LABORATORY for the investigation of occupational of such universities, colleges, medical schools, and diseases is to be established in Pittsburgh, under the agricultural institutions, to meet loss of income arising supervision of Dr. J. W. Schereschewsky, of Washduring the war.


A PROPOSAL is on foot to endow the library of the The benefactions to higher education in the United department of mathematics of Brown University in States during the forty years from 1873 to 1913

honour of Prof. N. F. Davis, who, after upwards of amounted to nearly 100,000,000l., and are still in- forty years' service, is shortly to retire. creasing at the rate of about 5,000,00ol. annually. The sum of 8500 dollars has been given by Miss The report of the United States Bureau of Educa. E. Cuyler and Mr. T. De Witt Cuyler to the George


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