« PrejšnjaNaprej »
in his steps, will widen into a broad highway.
The Royal Society is compiling a register of scieaand joint recipient with Metchnikoff of the Nobel
fic and technical men in Great Britain and Ire'and, prize, and his genial and striking personality was
who are willing to give their services in connection well known to British bacteriologists. In 1897
with the war. The register will be classified into he was created Geheimrath, and in 1911 Wirk- subjects, and will ultimately constitute a large parei licher Geheimrath.
of men of standing, whose services will be available In the present strife of nations, we British
whenever any Government department or similar will be the first to recognise that in the death of authority requires specialist assistance. The regista Paul Ehrlich a great man, worthy to be ranked is being co-ordinated with those independently comwith Pasteur, Lister, and Koch in his particular piled by other societies and institutions, but the Royal line, has passed away.
Society would be glad to have applications for forms from such members of the staffs of colleges and tecb
nical institutions as have not yet been registered by FREDERICK VICTOR DICKINS, C.B. any society. The Royal Society is also drawing up HEN it became known to the friends of F: Vi institutions, a list of scientific and technical men
with the co-operation of the principal societies and WHEN
Dickins only a few days ago that a serious surgical operation had been suddenly called for, actually on active service in His Majesty's forces. they sadly recognised that the end was probably Any names, with rank and unit, for this list will be not far off. Heart failure and the weight of over
gratefully received by the secretaries at Burlington seventy-seven years closed his life on Monday, House, Piccadilly, W. August 16.
We learn that Mr. M. T. Dawe, formerly a Dickins was a remarkable man and had enjoyed member of the gardening staff of the Royal Botanic a singularly varied and interesting life. Medicine Gardens, Kew, sometime Superintendent of the first attracted him, and after graduating (1861) Botanical and Forestry Department, l'ganda, ard M.B. and B.Sc. in the University of London, he lately Director of Agriculture, British East Africa, served for five years in the Navy between China has been appointed Agricultural Adviser to the and Japan. Then he took up law, and having been Government of Colombia. called to the bar in 1870 he practised in Yokohama for many years, and at this time began to give
The Chilean war vessel General Baquedano, which increasing attention to those Oriental studies which
has recently returned from Easter Island, has brought occupied him to the end of his life. In 1882 he
news of the Easter Island Expedition of Mr. and Mrs. became Assistant Registrar to the University of Scoresby Routledge up to June 8, at which date the London, the late Arthur Milman being then Regis- expedition had been fourteen months in residence, trar. It was in this capacity that he became known
during which time a careful survey had been made of to the large circle of eminent men connected with
the existing antiquities and such ethnographical inthe university, and especially the examiners. Soon
formation collected as is still available. after his appointment the practical examinations of The Hutchinson medal for research, of the London the university were considerably amplified in scope, School of Economics and Political Science, has been and examinations in practical physics were intro- awarded to Mr. R. C. Mills for his thesis on “The duced for the first time. It is not too much to Colonisation of Australia, 1829–1842 : the Wakefield say that the successful conduct of these examina- Experiment in Empire Building," and the Gladstone tions at the outset was largely due to the energy Memorial prize to Mr. C. M. Jones. of the assistant registrar, who not only obtained the necessary apparatus, but set up much of it We regret to hear that Capt. W. E. G. Atkinson, with his own hands when required for the use of
son of the late Prof. Atkinson, of the Staff College, the examiners. A technical assistant for this Camberley, was killed at the Dardanelles on August business was employed later. He succeeded Mil- 6. Capt. Atkinson was educated first at Clifton man as registrar in 1896.
College and afterwards at the Wye Agricultural ColDickins read widely and was familiar with the lege, where he had a very successful career. In 1902 chief advances in physical and natural science, in he left Wye and proceeded to the Rothamsted Experiwhich he took great interest. But his speciality ment Station as a post-graduate research worker. was Japanese and, to a less extent, Chinese lan- Prior to that date there had been very few such guage and literature.
After retiring from the workers at any time, and none for a number of years. registrarship in 1901 his leisure was therefore Capt. Atkinson was the first of the modern connaturally occupied with his favourite studies, and tingent, which has since swelled considerably. He we owe to his pen the two volumes of “Primitive worked with Mr. Hall on the problem of quality in and Medieval Japanese Texts," published by the wheat. Millers and farmers alike recognised the Clarendon Press in 1906, and the translation of marked differences between varieties of wheat, somethe charming Japanese "Story of a Hida Crafts- the so-called strong wheats-giving grain of high man ” in 1912, besides other works.
baking quality, possessing great capacity for forming Dickins was a member of the Athenæum, but large, well-piled loaves, while, others--known as weak owing to failing health and distance, he retired wheats-gave rise to squat, heavy-looking loaves, from the club two years ago.
much less attractive in appearance. No satisfactory NOTE chemical work, however, had been done to explain the steadfast in courage, resolute in endurance in the face
cause of these differences; a certain number of of unparalleled misfortune. Their bodies are lost in analytical investigations had been made, but these the Antarctic ice. But the memory of their deeds is aimed rather at discriminating between the strong and an everlasting monument." the weak wheats than at the elucidation of the cause
In addition to his name being expunged from the of strength. Under Mr. Hall's guidance, Atkinson
list of honorary members of the laryngological socieworked out the various analytical data for a series of
ties of Vienna and Berlin, in consequence of his wheats of known baking properties, and was thus
having protested in a letter to the Times against able to eliminate the unsatisfactory methods, and fix
the barbarities of Germany in the war, the name of attention on the better ones; in particular it was
Sir Felix Semon has been removed from the Inter. demonstrated that the percentage of nitrogen largely, nationales Centralblatt für Laryngologie, which but not entirely, affords a measure of strength in
journal he founded twenty-five years ago.
We learn wheat. This information has proved valuable in sub- from the British Medical Journal that, in consequence sequent studies of the problem. Capt. Atkinson then
of this action, all the British editorial contributors to took an appointment as lecturer in agriculture at
the Centralblatt who have had an opportunity of seeReading, but later on went in for actual farming, ing the declaration have withdrawn their names from a course he had always desired to follow.
and resigned their editorial connection with it. CAPTAIN ARTHUR KELLAS, R.A.M.C. (T.F.), who Among these are Dr. Peter McBride, Dr. H. J. Davis, was killed in action at the Dardanelles on August 6, Dr. Logan Turner, and Dr. Watson-Williams. They was senior assistant physician at the Royal Asylum, have taken this course as the only effective protest Aberdeen. He was a graduate of the University of open to them against the affront to a British colleague Aberdeen, having taken the degrees of M.B. and for whom they entertain the highest respect involved Ch.B. in 1906, and that of D.P.H. in 1907. In 1914 in the removal of his name from an international he obtained the new diploma of psychiatry in the journal founded by him. Their American collaborator, University of Edinburgh. His tenure of office at the Dr. Emil Mayer, has also severed his connection with Royal Asylum was a strikingly successful one; on the journal as a protest against the step taken by the both the therapeutic and the administrative sides he editor and publisher. evinced gifts of no ordinary type. His work in the
We notice, from the second edition of the “War Physiological Laboratory of the University was characterised by qualities of a very high order, and
List” of the Manchester Municipal School of Techmarked him out as a man of notable promise as a
nology, that the following members of the staff of scientific worker. Added to this his singular personal
the school have joined H.M. Forces on active service,
in addition to those named in Nature of July 15th :charm has made the sudden ending of his career to be widely and deeply deplored..
Prof. A. C. Dickie, department of architecture,
2nd Lieut. Manchester University O.T.C.; F. S. We regret to note the death, on August 20, at the Sinnatt, department of applied chemistry, Capt. Manage of fifty-one, of Mr. W. Hugh Spottiswoode, son chester University O.T.C.; F. Bowman, department of Mr. William Spottiswoode, a former president of of mathematics, Naval Instructor; J. L. Owen, dethe Royal Society. Mr. Hugh Spottiswoode was for partment of applied chemistry, Lce.-Corpl. R.A.M.C. a time a manager of the Royal Institution, to which, Sanitary Corps; W. W. Stainer, department of elecin 1899, he presented his late father's collection of trical engineering, 2nd Lieut. 3/4th Batt. Royal physical apparatus; he later gave his father's mathe- Sussex Regiment. matical MSS. to the London Mathematical Society.
The twenty-sixth annual general meeting of the The death is recorded in the Victorian Naturalist Institution of Mining Engineers will be held at Leeds of Mr. F. Manson Bailey, of Brisbane, on September 15, when the following papers will be the age of eighty-eight years. Mr. Bailey, who died communicated :--Some effects of earth-movement on on June 25. was Colonial Botanist for Queensland the coal-measures of the Sheffield district (South from 1881 until within a short time of his death. Yorkshire and the neighbouring parts of Derbyshire We regret to record the death, on August 14, at
and Nottinghamshire), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides; the age of sixty-one years, of Capt. E. W. Owens, Compressed air for coal-cutters, S. Mavor; Gaschief examiner of masters and mates.
producers at collieries for obtaining power and bye
products from unsaleable fuel, M. H. Mills. During A BRONZE bas-relief-the work of Mr. S. N. Babb
the meeting the Institution medal for the year is about to be erected in St. Paul's Cathedral in
1914-15 will be presented to Dr. J. S. Haldane, memory of Captain Scott and his companions who
in recognition of his investigations in connection with perished in the Antarctic. At the request of the com
mine air. mittee responsible for the memorial an inscription for the memorial has been written by Lord Curzon, which
The annual exhibition of the Royal Photographic reads as follows :—“In memory of Captain Robert Society is being held as usual (it closes on October 2) Falcon Scott, C.V.O., R.N., Dr. Edward Adrian at the Suffolk Street Galleries, and although it of Wilson, Captain Lawrence E. G. Oates, Lieut. necessity suffers in some ways by reason of the war, Henry R. Bowers, and Petty Officer Edgar Evans, special efforts in possible directions have, we think, who died on their return journey from the South Pole brought the interest of the show fully up to its usual in February and March, 1912. Inflexible of purpose, level. The contributions from America are
worthy and various. The Mount Wilson Observatory exports, consist mainly of fine chemicals, dyes, and shows photographs of vortex rings in water and in pharmaceutical products. In the manufacture of the air, and compares them with hydrogen flocculi about former a minimum of skilled labour and supervision sun-spots, and spectra of spots showing the displace is required, whilst in the German manufactures the ment, and the tripling and quadrupling of lines cue opposite is the case. Mr. Kershaw again emphasises to the magnetic field. Photographs of various the fact that in Germany the directors and managers zodiacal lights, in which the effect of the exceedingly of chemical works are men whose business training feeble luminosity is greatly increased, are from the has been superimposed on that obtained at a uniUniversity of Arizona. The various methods of dis-versity, and who therefore have a thorough knowledge covering double stars employed at the Harvard Culs of the scientific side of the business, and realise the lege Observatory, and summaries of the results, are
necessity for calling into their councils the best scienmade interestingly clear by the contributions of Prof. tific and engineering knowledge available. One of Pickering. Dr. Nutting, of the Kodak Laboratory, the most important results of this is that they are not sends results of lens testing, in which the figures of impatient of the time taken or success achieved by a luminous point yielded by lenses at various angles research work, and their knowledge of chemistry from the axis and different minute distances from the renders them less liable than inexperienced men focus are remarkably well defined though magnified expect impossible results. A second factor of import. 60 diameters. An excellent series of the effects of ance in the success of the Germans in the manufacture spark discharges on photographic plates by Dr. of fine chemicals is that resulting from the cleanliHoffert, results obtained with a “micro-kinetograph” ness, orderliness, and discipline of the German worker. apparatus by Mr. Martin-Duncan, high-power photo- This is attributed in no small part to the training graphs of diatoms by Mr. E. A. Pinchin, and a selection gained during the period of military service. The of high-speed photographs by Dr. Abrahams, deserve article closes with a discussion of the prospects for the special notice in the scientific and technical section. industry of fine chemicals and dyes in this couniry in The natural history, colour, and other sections show the future, when the war has ended and the Germans no falling off in interest.
again become active competitors. Two waterspouts were off Dymchurch in The arboretum at Tortworth Court is well known Kent on August 16 shortly after 1 p.m., and they are to be one of the finest in the British Isles. One described in the Times of August 19 by Rev. Henry feature of particular interest lies in the fact that the Harries. The morning had been fine, and a thunder-collection is entirely the work of the present Earl of storm was in progress at the time. The waterspouts Ducie, who has been planting assiduously for sixty were of the usual kind-a long narrow funnel con- or more years, and many rare species are here reprenected a dark cloud with the surface of the sea, at sented by the finest specimens of their kind in the a point where the surface was violently agitated. In kingdom. As the grounds rest on mountain limeone case, the funnel was seen to be in rapid rotation, stone and Old Red Sandstone a useful choice of sites while downward and especially upward movements is afforded, and on the latter rhododendrons and were also discernible. The waterspout at sea and the allied plants thrive. An interesting account of the tornado on land are manifestations of great instability collection is given by Mr. W. J. Bean in Kew Bulletin of the atmosphere in a vertical direction, caused No. 6, 1915, and particulars of the more notable specieither by an abnormally warm surface layer of air or mens of oaks, chestnuts, maples, etc., are recorded, an abnormally cold layer at the cloud level. The the latter being a remarkably fine collection. The former cause is common in summer; the latter occurs golden chestnut, Castanopsis chrysophylla, from Caliboth in summer and winter, and is usually associated fornia, is one of the most famous trees, and was with a "line-squall” or V-shaped barometric de- planted by Lord Ducie sixty years ago. The Anipression. The waterspout shows the track along | arctic“ beech,” Nothofagus obliqua, from southern
1 which surface air passes spirally upwards to restore South America, is also forming a handsome tree. equilibrium. The commotion of the sea is due to The famous Tortworth sweet chestnut, with a trunk the exceedingly violent character of the phenomenon. about 51 ft. in girth, is still alive, and is the tree The funnel itself is probably composed partly of under which King John is said to have held council; moisture condensed out of the air by the sudden as early as Stephen's reign Evelyn says it was known diminution of pressure which occurs, and partly of as the Great Chestnut of Tortworth. sea-water in the form of spray. Sometimes the middle
VALUABLE work is being undertaken in studying portion of the visible funnel is absent, but there must
the characters of the sugar-canes cultivated at Sabour be in that case a corresponding complete funnel of
by Mr. E. J. Woodhouse, economic botanist to the rotating air from the surface to the cloud.
Government of Bihar and Orissa, and Mr. S. K. A USEFUL article on the war and English chemical Basu, assistant professor at the Agricultural College. industry is contributed to the August Fortnightly and their results up to the present are published in Review by Mr. John B. C. Kershaw A comparative Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, analysis is given of the British and German exports vol. vii., No. 2. As in work of a similar character of manufactured chemicals, showing that whereas the on other plants, the authors find that it is necessary bulk of the British exports consist of heavy chemicals to study varieties which have been derived from a and “crude products," the German exports to this single plant culture. Twenty-one different characters, country, which have a value twice that of the British relating to field appearance, the leaves, and the
$ Stapf describes a
tripped canes, have been examined, and the results
new species, P. boissieri, distinabulated for a great number of individuals. The guished especially by its bifid calyx and bearded chemical characters have also been examined by Mr. anthers. The genus is a native of Asia Minor, the C. Somers Taylor, agricultural chemist to the Caucasus, and northern Syria. Government. It has been found that four definite
The July number of the Scottish Naturalist is groups can be obtained from chemical considerations
entirely devoted to the report, by Miss Evelyn Baxter that coincide with four of the groups into which the
and Miss Leonora Rintoul, “On Scottish Ornithology canes have been classed botanically, so that the
in 1914," but the interest of its contents will appeal botanical and chemical characters appear to be closely
to a wide circle of readers, and especially those conallied. Agricultural rather than minute botanical
cerned with the problems of migration. During the characters have been studied. The records obtained
last few years, Fair Isle, lying midway between the are not only of interest as being the first attempt in
Orkney and Shetland Islands, has become an observa. India to propagate sugar-cane by the method of pure
tion station of the first importance, not only because line cultures, but also because they will prove useful
many additions to the list of our British birds have in studying the behaviour of these canes under
been made from records obtained from this small different conditions of soil and climate, and will pro
area, but also because of the facilities it affords, from vide information in the future on the subject of
its small and isolated area, for the analysis of the deterioration.
components of passing streams of migrants. The THE Agaveæ of Guatemala form the subject of a most important addition to the Scottish avifauna well-illustrated paper by Dr. W. Trelease, the recog- during 1914 was that of the Aquatic Warbler (Acronised authority on these fibre-producing plants, in the cephalus aquaticus), which was obtained on Fair Isle Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences, on October 23rd. In their summary of migratory vol. xxiii., No. 3. Formerly two species of Agave movements, the authors record and two Furcræas were ascribed to Guatemala. One immigration of woodcock to Fair Isle" on March 26, of the former, however, Agave sartorii, is Mexican, followed on March 30 by a further influx. While all while Furcraea selloa proves to be a native of
will feel grateful to the compilers of this most admirColombia. Dr. Trelease records no fewer than nine
able report, many will regret the assumed necessity teen species of Agave and five of Furcræa from for adopting the most up-to-date vagaries in nomenGuatemala, all except the two previously recorded clature, especially such as Coccothraustes being new,
and described and figured for the first thraustes coccothraustes ! time in the paper.
A fact of some geographical interest is that the spicate .subgenus of Agave,
IN the Annals of Tropical Medicine and ParaLittæa, does not appear to reach into Central
sitology for July (vol. ix., No. 3), Messrs. Warrington
Yorke and B. Blacklock deal with the bionomics of America any more than it does into the West Indies. The species which have been collected mainly by Dr.
the tsetse-fly, Glossina palpalis, which conveys human Trelease are based almost entirely on leaf characters,
trypanosomiasis and sleeping sickness, and with the
reservoir of the human trypanosome, in Sierra Leone, but these are always found to afford satisfactory dis
and Dr. Fantham gives an account of a spirilliform tinguishing features in this genus. The habit of the various species and their leaf characters are well
micro-organism, Spirochaeta bronchialis, which proshown in the thirty excellent plates.
duces bronchial affections in the Sudan and other
parts of the world. It is distinct from the spiroA USEFUL article on the European pines, their com
chaetes which are of frequent occurrence in the mouth. mercial importance and their relationship to British The articles are illustrated with numerous plates. forestry, is published in Kew Bulletin No. 6, 1915. Ten species of Pinus are discussed, P. canariensis
We have received the Review of Applied Entobeing included. P. laricio, P. pinaster, and P.
mology, series B, Medical and Veterinary, for July sylvestris are the species of most value for planting
(vol. iii., series B, part 7). It contains a valuable in Great Britain. Under the maritime pine (P.
summary of the current literature dealing with the pinaster) an account is given from the Consular Re
part played by “insects" in the propagation of diseases port of the remarkable success which has attended
in man and animals, such as plague, malaria, sleeping the planting of this species in the Landes of south
sickness, and Texas fever. western France, and of the value both of the turpen- A SUMMARY of rainfall, mean temperature, and suntine and the timber.
shine for the second quarter, April, May, and June, The remarkable parasitic genus Phelipea (Oro- 1915, has been published as an appendix to the Weekly banchaceæ), containing three species all with brilliant Weather Report by the Meteorological Office. Comscarlet flowers, is described and figured in Kew parison is made with the thirty years' average, 1881 Bulletin No. 6 by Dr. Stapf. P. foliata, the species to 1910, and the values are given for the several lustra figured, flowered at Kew both in 1914 and this year,
during this period as well as for the individual years and formed a striking object with its large flowers from 1911. The quarter was dry and sunny, with springing from among the silvery leaves of its host normal temperature. For the current year the rainplant, Centaurea dealbata. The history of the genus
fall was 77 per cent. of the average over the eastern Phelipea is somewhat involved, and the synonymy,
districts of the British Isles, the percentage ranging which is in consequence very complicated, has been from 59 in the north-east of England to 102 in the satisfactorily elucidated in the present paper.
Dr. south-east of England. Over the western districts, including Ireland, the rainfall for the quarter was 100 ft. wide by 45 ft. depth below Trinity high water, 75 per cent. of the average, the percentage ranging is making very good progress; the wall on the north from 69 in the north of Ireland to 88 in South Wales side is completed, and 650 ft. of the south wall is and the south-west of England. The mean tempera- built almost to coping level. The main basin is to ture was 1° above the average in the south of Ireland, have an area of 65 acres, and more than two-thirds whilst in all other districts the departure from the of the excavations have been made. The south quay average, plus or minus, did not amount to 0.5o. The has been practically finished, and 670 ft. of the north duration of bright sunshine over the eastern districts quay is nearing completion. The trench excavations was 109 per cent. of the average, whilst in the western for the north wall of the dry dock have been mada districts it was 105 per cent. The only districts with for a length of 580 ft., and a length of 230 ft. of a deficiency of sunshine were the south-west of Eng- concrete walling is in progress. The passage conland, the south of Ireland, and the English Channel ; necting the new and the old docks is progressing. in the latter district the duration was only 82 per cent. The lock-gates, caisson, and bascule and swingof the average.
bridges are being constructed by Sir William Arrol The rainfall table for July in Symons's Meteorological and Co., Ltd., of Glasgow.
, Magazine shows the month to have been very wet in
ALTHOUGH amongst the ordinary chemical elements nearly all parts of the British Isles. The data are
potassium and rubidium are the only ones which have only for a few stations in comparison with those shown a measurable amount of radio-activity, it ha, which will be given later by the British Rainfall
not yet been proved conclusively that the small Organisation. At Mickleover Manor in Derbyshire amount of B-radiation observed in the case of these the fall was 250 per cent. of the average, the actuai substances has not been due to radio-active impuri. excess of rain being 3.84 in. At Hull the rain was ties. The most satisfactory proof of the radio240 per cent. of the average, and at Geldeston it was
activity of these elements would be to trace their 233 per cent. The only stations in the table with a
radio-active products. According to the laws that exdeficiency are Newcastle, Aberystwyth, and Wick. In pulsion of an a-particle decreases the atomic weigh: the Thames Valley, where the rainfall is graphically by 2, and removes the product two places to the left shown by the usual monthly map, the measurement in the periodic table of elements, while expulsion of exceeded 5 in. over a fairly large area. Over the
a B-particle, while producing no appreciable change British Isles the rainfall was 148 per cent. of the in the atomic weight, moves the product one place to average, the fall in the different parts of the kingdom
the right, potassium should produce an element with being, England and Wales, 155; Scotland, 125; and
the chemical properties of calcium, but with atomic Ireland, 158 per cent.
weight 39.15, and rubidium an element like strontium, La Nature (July 31) contains a highly interesting but with atomic weight 85-45. An investigation article on the manufacture of shells, the various pro
directed towards the detection of these new elements cesses being illustrated with excellent diagrams and has been proceeding for some time at the radiological photographs. The author points out that the war has laboratory of the Scientific Society of Warsaw under already radically changed our conceptions on many Dr. H. Lachs, and a preliminary communication on points; that no longer does success depend so much on the subject was made to the society at the meeting the number of combatants as formerly, and that vic- on March 4, but no definite concusion had at thai tory is more assured to that adversary which is capable date been reached. of expending most shells in the least space of time, and
An interesting new method of standardising normal it is therefore towards the factories that all considera
and decinormal solutions of acid used in volumetric tions converge. Reference is made to the return to the factory of munition workers from the front, there Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
analysis is described by Mr. Francis D. Dodge in the having been a steady exodus in this direction in France
(vol. vii., No. 1). The article is reprinted in the since the first months of the war, but necessarily the
Chemical News (August 6). Use is inade of reorganisation of the factories has had to precede the
potassium hydrogen phthalate, which is easily prerecall of the workmen. After a lucid description of
pared in a pure state by dissolving phthalic anhydride the various processes through which the shells for the
in aqueous potassium hydroxide and recrystallising the celebrated 75 mm. gun pass, the question of inspection product. The salt, when dried at 110°, is anhydrous, is detailed. Out of every thousand, twenty
C,H,O,.HK, and behaves like a monobasic acid, the examined; if one is defective another twenty
end-point in the titration being remarkably sharp. selected, and if another fails the whole batch is examined one by one. Finally, twelve are taken and tested on the firing ground, being afterwards examined OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. for any deformation they have undergone.
The August Perseids.-One result of the recent Engineering for August 13 has an article on the observations of this shower will be the determination Port of London Docks and traffic. Important work of a large number of real paths of meteors not is being done for the extension of the Royal Albert belonging to the Perseid swarm. The minor radiants
visible between August 10-20 were very numerous Dock southwards. The plans of the new work have
and interesting. In several cases, however, the been altered. The dry dock is now to be made 750 ft.
meteors doubly observed do not work out very well, long, and the main dock is to be increased in depth and these await further investigation. Some of the from 35 to 38 ft. The entrance-lock, Soo ft. long by other observers have not yet sent in their results.