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ing the total number of stars in the sky, arranged universally applicable we see in the solar system in according to magnitudes :

the phenomena of comets' tails, and even more so in Magnitude Numher Magnitude

the disintegration and disappearance of periodic comets 38


such as those of Biela and Holmes. Many double 3.0


stars are undoubtedly subject to the law of gravita. 1,660,000

tion in all its purity, but in far many more gravitation 5.0


appears to be at most only a secondary (thus in the 6.0 3,150

14:0 7,650,000 case of double stars of which both components are 7.0 9,810

15:0 15,500,000 of the helium type, there do not appear to be any 8.0 32,360


signs of gravitative action between the two stars. 9:0 97,400


It is true that stars with variable radial velocities hare So actually, the Franklin-Adams plates locate for been found spectroscopically, and their orbits deduced reference at any time about 100 million stars, and by purely gravitational principles, but in many of these these may be said to be all the stars known to astro- cases it is not indubitably certain that the shift in the nomers. Special plates taken with the largest tele- lines of the spectrum is due to recession or approach. scopes indicate a much larger number of stars-per- The difficulty is that in the so-called earlier type of haps ten to fifteen hundred million in all. It will be stars, it is found that the H and K lines of calcium noticed that the ratio from one magnitude to another, do not share in the variable motion on which the which is larger than 3 at the beginning of the table, binary orbit is based. The interpretation of spectraprogressively decreases, and is already less than 2 for the contradictory behaviour of different lines, their the 15-16 magnitude; hence the authors conclude thickness and intensities—still provides problems to " that modern photographic telescopes penetrate to a be solved. In this connection one must refer to the distance at which the stars begin to thin out fairly illuminating papers by Dr. Nicholson on the relation quickly either really or by absorption."

between atomic structure and the lines in the specVariation of Latitude.

trum. Nicholson's work makes much use of the Since March, 1910, and until December, 1914, the

spectra of nebulæ, in which we see matter under Union Observatory has, aided for some years by a

simpler conditions than is possible on earth. At this subsidy from the International Geodetic Bureau, taken

meeting Prof. Malherbe is reading a paper upon part in a scheme of observations for measuring the

Atoms, Old and New," which will go further into variation of latitude. I must be brief, and will only

this subject than is possible here. say that the question at issue was: “Is this variation

Organisation of Astronomy. common to the whole globe, or is it in part or wholly In the earlier part of this address I dwelt upon the due to the elasticity of the earth, so that the deforma

power of organisation under scientific direction. I tion in the northern hemisphere might be different

am tempted to develop the subject, limiting my from that of the southern hemisphere? The result example of organisation to the science of astronomy, of our observations to March, 1913, proves that in which is truly international in its aims. Astronomers the variation of latitude the earth moves as a solid.

are scattered all over the world, and pursue their In Dr. Albrecht's own words :

work independently of the people amongst whom they “ From this series of observations we can deduce live, and who provide the money necessary for their an interesting confirmation of the result, previously existence. The people are not ungenerous, but they obtained, that the values of the quantities x, y, and cannot be critical. The astronomer is on his honour deduced from observations made in the northern

as it were, and this is nearly good enough, but not hemisphere, can be applied without any modification

quite. If the astronomer is a man of sufficient to the variation of the latitude in the southern hemi- initiative and energy with a regulated imagination, sphere." 5

he will not require much supervision, but he may feel Gravitation.

that without the co-operation of his colleagues spread For upwards of half a century it has been known over the world his work may be one-sided. He sees that the law of gravitation seems to be insufficient to the need for organisation, and such organisation is account for all the planetary motions—the most con- not quite unknown, and has been found beneficial. spicuous exception being the motion of the perihelion Such occasional events as the transits of Venus and of Mercury's orbit-and it has been found more total eclipses of the sun generally lead to some loose recently that it is impossible to reconcile the moon's co-operation. More organised affairs were the Star motion with gravitation. Recently Sir I. Larmor and Catalogue of the Astronomische Gesellschaft (a society Mr. H. Glauert have proved that a certain amount having its headquarters in Germany, but with interof these irregularities are due to variations in the national aims). It divided the sky into zones, and length of the day; Glauert finding that the length of allotted these to certain observatories, which were the day has increased by a hundredth of a second in willing to co-operate. The catalogues actually puba third of a century. This means that as compared lished have been contributed by Austria, England, with a third of a century ago, the year will appear Holland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and the to be about 31 seconds longer. Such a change, be- United States. This organised effort, started in 1858, cause of our methods of determining time, will be is still going on. The other and more important most clearly reflected in the motion of the first satellite organisation is that of the Carte du Ciel, started in of Jupiter, the eclipses of which can be observed with 1887, and in which our first president took a leading an accuracy of about one second, and the motion of part-he was connected with it from its inception, which is the most purely periodic that is known. and when he died he was the president of the ComSince 1908, every visible eclipse of this satellite has mission. The scheme for the variation of latitude been observed at the Union Observatory, so that in observations is also an international organisation. the course of time we may expect that our observa- All these organisations were voluntary. In every tions mav assist in the solution of an obscure problem. way they were useful. The problem is whether tre

In dealing with the structure of the sidereal universe, can extend the organisation to the whole body of or in a smaller way with the dynamics of a star- astronomers, and yet not destroy their initiative. A cluster, it is often tacitly assumed that gravitation control, however light, which would destrov initiative is the only force at work. That gravitation is not would be fatal. At present many observatories furnish 5 Rapport sur les Travaux du Bureau Central en 1914, p. 6.

annual report. Thus the Royal Astronomical

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Society in London publishes reports from most of the to push the analogy. The ardent astronomer will not observatories in the Empire; the Astronomische Gesell- permit it to be pushed too far; he will organise with schaft does the same for all the German, many Con- his colleagues for the advancement of his science, and tinental, and a few American observatories; the the consequent enlargement of man's intellectual French Government publishes the annual reports of horizon. all French observatories. Other observatories furnish I have only dealt with the organisation of a branch annual reports to their own Governments or controlling of science somewhat widely detached from the current bodies, and some of these are printed and circulated. activities of the world. It would have been too Still other observatories, and these in no small num- ambitious to sketch the organisation of a State or ber, publish no reports. The change I advocate is a of humanity at large. But such organisation must very small one; it is that every observatory should come. The war every day is showing us how necesfurnish an annual report to its authority, and that sary it is to organise for production-even if only in these authorities should transmit the reports to an the munitions of war-and not for profit. We are international association of astronomers, for comment living in dangerous times, times in which it behoves and return. The report should be divided into sections the man of science, who is actuated by no selfish somewhat as follows :-(1) Working staff of observing interests, to exert his power in remoulding the new astronomers, non-observing astronomers, comprising society when the time, now near at hand, comes. computors and ordinary assistants; (2) detailed list of Thé notable discussion in the House of Commons instruments which cost more than 250l. apiece; (3) on May 13 last (reprinted in NATURE of May 20) on the how many observers have permanent quarters in the motion of the Government to form an Advisory grounds? how many non-observers have ditto?; (4) Council on Industrial Research, sets an example, efficiency of those instruments in past years in per- which is sure to be followed by other British communicentage of hours available for work; (5) observations ties. All the debaters spoke of the extraordinary secured in past year; (6) observations published, being example of Germany rising to great material power prepared for publication, etc.; (7) unpublished observa- through the spread of technical education and scientific tions made in previous years—reason for non-publica- research. No country can afford, or would be justified, tion; (8) projected lines of work; (9) general notes in lagging behind, but a more ethical objective should and explanations.

be the ideal. All these reports should be examined and analysed In South Africa several problems have suggested by a committee of the international association and themselves, but the experimental work would be very then published. The committee would then make its costly, and might, after all, be insufficient, so that suggestions to the controlling bodies, leaving these to their solutions do not appeal to private enterprise. act on them or not. In this way the careful minister The local production of liquid fuel is one of these or even the conscientious member of Parliament could problems. Liquid fuel can be made both from lowfind out the opinions which an expert body holds grade coals and from agricultural produce, and it is concerning the institution for which he is asked to within the range of probability that what to-day are vote money. The advisory body could suggest to those considered noxious weeds, such as the prickly pear, astronomers who have sufficient equipment, but make might have an economic value in the production of no use of it, useful lines of research. The ardent alcohol. Again, the extraordinarily favourable duraastronomer who cannot persuade his Government to tion of sunshine in the Union invites the trial of sunprovide funds would find himself in a stronger position power boilers, especially for pumping. A census of when he has behind him an international body. The the water power ** white coal" is also desirable, belethargic astronomer would find that his colleagues cause if we have no great falls of water excepting the elsewhere look to him to do his share. Better than Victoria Falls, we must remember that our high veld all, it might be possible to arrange that research rivers have a descent of 6000 ft. to sea-level, some of students could visit and work at observatories the which is probably economically available. equipment of which is not in full use. It would be If science is co-ordinated knowledge, what is the invidious to give examples of observatories not work- man of science? The true type is a man of faith, ing up to their potentialities—few can-but several believing in the power of co-ordinated knowledge to make no attempt at any work, and have become little make the world a purer and a better one. If the object better than sinecures 6 —it must suffice to say that at of science was only the material conquest of nature it least two of the observatories possessing exceptionally would be unworthy, and sooner or later it would be large refracting telescopes have not contributed one rejected by mankind. The faith of the man of science month's work from them in the last twenty years- is unlimited-he might declare his creed in words their expensive equipment is idle and slowly de- somewhat as follows?:teriorating-the output from many others is disappoint- “I believe in the ultimate distinction between Good ingly small. If some international association had and Evil, and in a real Process in a real Time. I the power to recommend that these great telescopes believe that it is my duty to increase Good and to were put into commission, or, better still, to assign diminish Evil. I believe in doing so I am serving research students to their use, it would be a good the purpose of the World. This I know and I do not thing.

know anything else; I will not put questions to which In ancient days princes and men of wealth founded I have no answer, and to which I believe no one has religious institutions called abbeys and monasteries. answer. Organic Action is my creed, Abstract They did so because they considered they were helping speculation weakens Action. I do not wish to specuthe cause of humanity—and for centuries these bodies late; I wish to act; I wish to live." did respond to a real need—but the need passed, and only effete institutions remained-ultimately to be

Or, he says, using the words of Bacon :swept away—and to-day princes and men of wealth “The knowledge of Truth, which is the Presence of do not found abbeys. ' In modern times—the most it; and the Beleefe of Truth, which the Enioying of ancient observatory is not old-princes and men of it; is the Suveraigne Good of Humane Nature. The wealth found observatories because they consider they first Creature of God, in the workes of the Dayes, are helping the cause of humanity. It is unnecessary was the Light of the Sense; The last, was the Light

6 They mav provide a time or meteorological service of some local import. of Reason; And His Sabbath Worke, ever since, is the ance, but as institutions for research work of any kind their efforts are Illumination of His Spirit." negligibly small. At least 33 per cent of the observatories listed in the Nautical Almanac publish nothing.

7 Adapt:d from “ Appearances," by G. Lowes Dickinson (1914).



THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE / engineering very broad and extremely complicated. ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING.

Engineers have been forced to specialise in limiteu

fields, and each year has witnessed a higher degree o: TH HE ninth annual report of the president and the specialisation and an increase in the amount of subject

treasurer of the Carnegie Foundation for the matter which must be included in the curricula of the Advancement of Teaching, for the year ending Septem- schools. To meet this situation, the engineering schouls ber 30, 1914, shows a total endowment of 2,850,000l., have gradually patched the original curriculum by a surplus of 249,000l., an annual income of 149,2001., adding new subjects here and there and subdividing and an annual expenditure of 143,2001. Of this 6400l. their instruction into an ever-increasing number of was spent in administration, 9400l, in educational in- more highly specialised courses. The demands on the quiry, and 126,80ol. in retiring allowances and pen- student's time have become severe, and the ingenuity sions. During the year twenty-nine retiring allow- of faculties to frame time-schedules which shall satisfy ances and fifteen widows' pensions were granted, the the requirements of all the various depariments is average grant being 3291. 1os. The total number of being taxed to the utmost. allowances now in force is 332, the total number of That there is a pressing need for a full and thorough widows' pensions 100, the general average grant being study of engineering education is clearly recognised by 3191. The total number of allowances granted since the engineering profession. This recognition has the beginning of the foundation is 595, the total expen- manifested itself in the organisation, in 1893, of the diture for this purpose being 710,200l.

Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, A comprehensive study of engineering education has and in the increasing attention which the engineering been undertaken at the request of a joint committee societies and the engineering Press have given to this representing the six national engineering societies. In subject. It has recently been clearly expressed by the co-operation with these societies a study of the history appointment of a joint committee on engineering of important engineering schools and land-grant col- education, whose membership is made up of fifteen leges has been made. Numerous engineering schools representatives of the leading national engineering have been visited, special studies are being made of societies, and whose function is "to examine into all the situation of the student upon entering and upon branches of engineering and to formulate a report on leaving his engineering studies, and several thousand the appropriate scope of engineering education. engineers are co-operating in formulating the views

The Carnegie Foundation is undertaking this study of the profession concerning the present methods and of engineering education in close conference and hearty results of the engineering schools.

co-operation with this committee. An important part Because engineering is relatively a new profession, of this inquiry will consist in a study of the conditions its professional consciousness is not as well developed into which a young engineer enters immediately on as that in medicine and law, as is evidenced by the graduation, and of the estimates which the engineer. fact that engineering societies are of comparatively ing profession has formed of his needs and his equiprecent date. Thus the American Society of Civil ment. Another part of the inquiry will consist of a Engineers, organised in 1852, held its first convention study of the aims, the purposes, the curricula, the in 1869. The similar organisations of the mechanical methods of teaching, and the educational experiments and the electrical engineers were formed in 1880 and and investigations of the engineering schools. Such 1884 respectively.

material, arranged in compact form, should be of Because of this

of the demand for value to schools and teachers, no less than to engineers engineers, the engineering schools of the United States and students. have had to do much pioneer work in education. The steps being taken to found an American AssoFounded, as most of them were, since 1860, in re- ciation of University Professors are of interest to all sponse to the needs of growing industries for men workers in higher education. trained in applied science, they have had to blaze their The movement has been inaugurated by a meeting own trail through the forests of educational tradition ; held in Baltimore for the formation of a national and, particularly in the early years of their existence, association of university professors. For some years have had to defend their practices against existing university teachers have realised that specialisation in habits of educational procedure. This fact makes the teaching tended more and more to bring them together study of engineering education one of particular in- as specialists, not as unversity teachers. The physioterest and importance, since it inevitably led to modi- logists, chemists, and philologists meet in groups, but fications in school practices both in the engineering nowhere has there been provided a body under which colleges themselves and in the colleges for liberal all university teachers shall come together, not as humanistic training.

specialists but as university teachers, to consider the Although engineering was much simpler when the problems and the organisation of higher education. colleges were established than it is now, the founders of Such a body ought to be able to promote in a helpful these institutions recognised clearly the novelty of the way the discussion of questions relating to higher demands they were trying to meet, and organised their education and to the organisation and conduct of our schools with a definite purpose of meeting those de- universities; such, for example, as the organisation mands as fully as possible. The curricula of the early of universities into departments, the relations of re. schools were devised only after a careful study of the search to teaching, the awarding of degrees, the conditions which the young engineer would have to methods of appointment and promotion, the relations meet on emerging from his course. That these curri- of faculties and trustees, and numerous other questions cula and the methods of training used were well directly affecting the ideals and the needs of university adapted to the purposes for which they were devised teachers and affecting no less the progress and developis shown by the admirable results obtained. 'The ment of the universities themselves. wonderful development of the country in industrial and Such a body bringing together university teachers technical lines is in no small measure the work of the in all subjects, who meet not as specialists but as men graduates of the engineering colleges, and stands as engaged in teaching, ought to exercise an admirable a monument to the far-sightedness, the sound instincts, influence in arousing in the minds of a large number and the high ideals of the men who guided the work. of university teachers now absorbed in their own

But this rapid expansion in industrial and technical specialities an interest in university questions and a lines, aided at every turn by the equally rapid develop- greater readiness to study such questions together. ment of science, has resulted in making the field of Too many university teachers are content to be ab



sorbed in their own fields of study or research, and duties for the period of the war. He will, we undergive little time or thought to the larger problems of stand, be engaged upon work in connection with the university life and university progress. Such a body production of munitions. as this ought to furnish the opportunity and the incentive towards such thinking.

The governors of Guy's Hospital have received

from the trustees and executors of the will of the Such an organisation of university teachers ought late Sir William Dunn 25,000l, new War Loan 4i per to accomplish much in the creation of what one might call professional consciousness. It will help towards ship in pathology in the Guy's Hospital Medical

cent. fully-paid stock for the endowment of a lecturea more definite appreciation on the part of teachers School, to be known as the “Sir William Dunn themselves, and on the part of the public, of what it means to be a university teacher. The association may

Lectureship in Pathology." well hope in time to grow into an influence com

IN connection with the erection of the permanent parable in the case of university teachers to that exer

buildings of the University of Western Australia, two cised by the American Bar Association for lawyers or

prizes of a hundred guineas and twenty-five guineas by the American Medical Association for physicians. respectively were offered for the two best designs for Hitherto there has been little of professional solidarity

the laying out of the University's grounds at Crawley amongst university teachers. The term professor has

Park, Perth, W.A. A large number of designs were had with us a very indefinite meaning. It has been

sent in, and the following awards have now been applied unthinkingly to secondary-school teachers, col

made by the board of adjudication :--First prize, H lege teachers, university teachers, and to many whose

Desbrowe-Annear, Melbourne, Victoria; second prize, connection with teaching is most remote. In this un

H. W. Hargrave, Perth, W.A. The design submitted certainty lie certain difficulties which the association by Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons, Ltd., Crawley, Sussex, will meet, for in the public mind there is as yet no very

has in addition been granted an honourable mention. clear differentiation between the university professor We are requested to make known that the latest and the secondary-school teacher, just as many of our date for the receipt of applications from candidates universities are such in name only.

desiring to be examined at Local Centres for the The plans of the Association of University Professors litchison Memorial Scholarship is September 1, and have not yet been worked out to the point of detailed from those who wish to be examined in London, organisation. Doubtless those who have the matter September 15. Applications should be made to Mr. in charge have in mind a somewhat loose organisation H. F. Purser, 35 Charles Street, Hatton Garden, E.C. like that of the lawyers rather than a highly detailed It will be remembered that the scholarship in ques: organisation like that of the physicians. So far as the tion was founded in memory of the late Mr. James plan has as yet developed, it contemplates nothing Aitchison, in consideration of the many and valuable further than the formation of a body representative of services rendered by him to the optical industry and university teachers, a body in which questions affect- the development of optical education, and specially in ing the work of the university and the interests of recognition of his unselfish and constant endeavour teachers, the relations of schools and colleges, and to secure better training for optical students. The similar questions, may be discussed from the point of scholarship course, tenable at the Northampton Poly: view of university teachers, and which may present to technic Institute, Clerkenweil, covers two years, and university bodies and to the public a statement of such its total value is 301. It is proposed to offer the questions from the point of view of the profession scholarship in alternate years. itself. Those who have to do with universities and colleges, whether as trustees, presidents, or teachers, will welcome this movement heartily.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. The foundation's earlier studies of medical education

Paris. are continued in this report in recommendations for

Academy of Sciences, August 17.-M. Ed. Perrier in changes in the classification of medical schools; a study

the chair.-Paul Appell : Contribution to the study of of medicine and politics in Ohio; and a

survey of

the o functions of higher degrees.-W. Kilian and medical education on the Pacific coast, which shows

Antonin Lanquine : The coexistence, in the neighbourthat the State of Washington, which has no medical school, has a plentiful supply of physicians trained in

hood of Castellane, of pyreneo-provençal dislocations

and of Alpine folds, and on the complexity of these good schools all over the country, while California,

orogenic phenomena.- Joseph Pérès: Bessel's functions with eight medical schools, is swamped with poorly

with several variables.-H. G. Block : The equation trained doctors.

of elastic rods.- José Rodriguez Mourelo : The photoThe report concludes with a discussion of “Standards and Standardisers," which shows that the Carnegie

tropy of inorganic systems. The case of calcium sul.

phide. These sulphides were made by heating preciFoundation has had little to do with the setting up

pitated chalk (100 gr.), common salt (oʻI gr.), sodium or enforcement of college standards, this being the

carbonate (o'oz gr.), sulphur, and certain phosphorcwork of college faculties. All that the foundation has done is to cause fuller discussion of such matters and

gens, such as manganese and bismuth salts. The

colour develops in a strong light, not sunlight, in to urge the claims of honesty and sincerity.

two or three minutes. In one set of experiments the proportion of manganese added varied between oʻi per

cent, and oʻoooi per cent. The observed colours passed UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL through reddish-violet, pink, to an intense violet, the INTELLIGENCE.

maximum phototropic 'ellect being obtained with A PURSARY in memory of Mr. Robert Hepburn has

0'005 per cent. of manganese. The colours were inbeen founded by his sister at University College,

creased in intensity by the addition of both manganese Dundee. It will be tenable for three years, and open

and bismuth.-M. Pontio : A method of control for to any male or female student of medicine at the

rapidly estimating the quantity of nickel deposited college.

in nickel plating. The method is based on the use

of a solution of dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen PROF. W. MORGix, who fills the chair of auto- peroxide, which attacks the underlying metal (copper, mobile engineering in the faculty of engineering of iron) more rapidly than the deposited nickel.- Alberto the University of Bristol, has been released from his Betim : A laver of euxenite in Brazil. This deposit

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spaces between the transverse folds of the mucous membrane, where it lies completely hidden. It is remarkable in its lateral expansion, being five times as broad as it is long. It is so different in its structure from known forms that it is looked upon by the writer as the representative of a new subfamily with fairly close affinities to Liolopinæ.

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire, 1915

Pp. xii+717. (London: H. Jenkins, Ltd.) 75. 6d. net.

The National University of Ireland. Calendar for the year 1915. Pp. clxxxiv + 583. (Dublin.)

Thèses présentées à la faculté des Sciences de l'Université de Paris. Série A. No. 764. Pp. 155(Marseille : Barlatier.)

Outlines of Sociology. By Prof. F. W. Blackmar and Dr. J. L. Gillin. Pp. viii + 586. (New York: The Macmillan Company; London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) 8s. 6d. net.

Elementary Algebra. By F. Cajori and L. R. Odell.

Pp. vi + 206. (New York : The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) 35. net.


695 697 698 690 700

was found near Pomba (Minas-Geraes), Brazil.

A spectrographic analysis of the mineral showed the presence of titanium, niobium, yttrium, ytterbium, erbium. Chemical analysis proved uranium (4 to u per cent. of the oxide), thorium, traces of cerium, tin, arsenic, lead, gallium, and gold.-Ed. Delorme : A new mode of grafting the flexor tendons of the fingers. In cases of severe wounds of the palms of the hands, with loss of one or more of the flexor tendons, an operation has been devised, full details of which are given, in which portions of the flexor tendon of the fore-arm are grafted over on to the hand.-E. Kayser : Contribution to the study of the ferments of rum. It is shown that the use of the microscope can render great services in rum manufacture : it can prove contamination, and direct the fermentation to obtain products of constant composition.-Em. Bourquelot and A. Aubry : The influence of soda on the synthetic and hydrolytic properties of o-glucosidase (glucosidase from low yeast, air dried). A set of ten experiments, in which the proportion of caustic soda was gradually increased, gave results showing that the synthetic reaction was not sensibly affected so long as the mixture remained acid. In a neutral mixture the reaction does not attain its normal equilibrium, and with distinct alkaline reaction the synthetic reaction stops, although no secondary isomerising reactions have been set up by the alkali.

New South Wales. Linnean Society, June 30.—Mr. A. G. Hamilton, president, in the chair.-A. R. McCulloch : Notes on, and descriptions of, Australian fishes.-H. S. H. Wardlaw : The temperature of Echidna aculeata. The temperature of Echidna shows a regular daily variation of about 3° C., its morning temperature being about 30° C., and its afternoon temperature about 33° C. These temperatures are considerably lower than the temperatures of most other mammals (37° C.). During winter in Sydney, Echidna hibernates for short periods at a time. During the periods of hibernation, its temperature sinks almost to the level of the air, so that Echidna behaves like a

cold blooded animal.-R. J. Tillyard: The development of the wing-venation in zygopterous dragon-flies, with special reference to the Calopterygidæ. The paper deals with the tracheation of the larval wing in the genera Calopteryx (Palæarctic) and Diphlebia (Australian), the only two genera of the Calopterygidæ available for study. The results are most important, since they establish the fact that, throughout the suborder Zygoptera, the radius is unbranched, whereas in the Anisoptera it always possesses a branch, known as the radial sector, which

over the two most distal branches of the
media. In the Anisoptera, the media has only three
branches besides the main stem. In the Zygoptera it
has four. The extra branch lies between M, and M.,
and is analogous to, but not homologous with, the
radial sector. For this newly demonstrated branch
the name zygopterid sector is proposed, with the nota-
tion Ms, to preserve the analogy with the radial
sector Rs. Important results following from this are
(1) that the crossing of Rs over M,-2 no longer
separates the Odonata from all other insects; (2) that
the dichotomy between Anisoptera and Zygoptera be-
comes far more pronounced than heretofore, by the
basic difference in the condition of the radius in the
two suborders; (3) that Handlirsch's fossil suborder,
Anisozygoptera, must be dropped; all these fossils,
tested by the character of the radius, become true
Zygoptera.—Dr. S. J. Johnston : Moreauia mira-
bilis, gen. et sp.nov., a remarkable trematode para-
sitic in Ornithorhynchus. This worm lives in the
anterior part of the intestine of the platypus, in the

703 703 703

Evolution : Organic and Social ,
Books on Cotton Production
Plant-Life in South Africa and California
The Fly Pest. By H. M. L.
Our Bookshelf
Letters to the Editor:-

The Analogy between Radicles and Elements.- Prof.
E. H. Buchner

701 The Density of Molecules in Interstellar Space.—Dr. Louis Vessot King

701 The Great Aurora of June 16, 1915.-Prof. e. e. Barnard

703 Use of Celluloid in Periscope Mirrors.-Edward M.

Foreign Philosophers. —Hugh Richardson

French Magnanimity.--Gordon D. Knox
Antarctic Fossil Plants. (Illustrated.) By D. H. S. 704
Future Competition with Germany. By Sir William
Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S.

705 Prof. Paul Ehrlich

707 Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B. Notes

708 Our Astronomical Column :The August Perseids

712 The Tube Arc Spectrum of Iron

713 Control of Australian Observatories

713 Proper Motions of the Stars by Stereoscope

713 Solar Vortices

713 Life-Habits of the Okapi. By Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

713 The South African Association for the Advance

ment of Science-Pretoria Meeting.-Presidential Address. By Robert Thorburn Ayton Innes

714 The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of

University and Educational Intelligence

721 Societies and Academies

721 Books Received





Editorial and Publishing Offices :


Advertisements and business lellers to be addressed to the


Editorial Communications to the Editor.
Telegraphic Address : Plusis, LONDON.
Telephone Number : GbRRARD 8830.

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