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Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives. By Prof. W. J. Sollas. Second edition. Pp. xxiii + 591. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) 15s. net. Sun Lore of All Ages. By W. T. Olcott, Pp. xiii+ 346. (New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 10s. 6d. net.

English Folk-Song and Dance. By F. Kidson and M. Neal. Pp. vii+178. (Cambridge: At the University Press.) 3s. net.

German Culture: The Contribution of the Germans Edited by to Knowledge, Literature, Art, and Life. Prof. W. P. Paterson. Pp. x+384. (London and Edinburgh: T. C. and E. C. Jack.) 2s. 6d. net.

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

THURSDAY, MARCH 18.

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Bakerian Lecture: X-rays and Crystals: Prof. W. H. Bragg.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Form and Structure of the London Basin: Dr. A. Strahan.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 4.30.-The Indian Army: Lieut.-Colonel
A. C. Yate.

INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY, at 8.-Annual General
Meeting-Presidential Address: Sir Thomas Kirke Rose.
LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 5.-Hollow-shafted Feathers: W. M. Webb.-The
Lichens of South Lancashire: J. A. Wheldon and W. G. Travis.-Coloured
Drawings and Lantern Slides of 36 British Orchids: E. J. Bedford.-A
Few Australian Plants: Dr. A. B. Rendle.

INSTITUTION OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGISTS, at 8.-The Internal Com-
bustion Engine on the Oilfield: F. G. Rappoport.
INSTITUTE OF METALS, at 3.-A selection of the following papers :-Some
Andrew. The
Experiments upon Copper-Aluminium Alleys: J. H.
Constitution of the Alloys of Copper with Tin. Parts I. and II.: J. L.
Haughton.-Etching Re-Agents and Their Applications: O. F. Hudson.
-The Effects of Heat and of Work on the Mechanical Properties of
Metals: Prof. A. K. Huntington.-The Quantitative Effect of Rapid
Cooling upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys. Part III. (Conclusion):
Dr. G. H. Gulliver.-The Properties of Some Nickel-Aluminium and
Copper-Nickel-Aluminium Alloys: Prof. A. A. Read and R. H. Greaves.
-Some Appliances for Metallographic Research: Dr. W. Rosenhain. —
The Micro-Chemistry of Corrosion. Part III. The Alloys of Copper and
Zinc S. White.

FRIDAY, MARCH 19.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Modern Piano Player-Scientific Aspects:
Prof. G. H. Bryan.
INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Chemical and
Mechanical Relations of Iron, Cobalt, and Carbon: Prof. J. O. Arnold
and Prof. A. A. Read.

INSTITUTE OF METALS, at 10.30 a.m. and 3 p.m.-A Selection of the
Papers enumerated above.

SATURDAY, MARCH 20.

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TUESDAY, MARCH 23.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Belief in Immortality among the Polynesians Sir J. G. Frazer. ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 5.30.-Exhibition of Partridges and other Game Birds W. R. Ogilvie-Grant.-Contributions to the Anatomy and Systematic Arrangement of the Cestoidea.-XVI. On Certain Points in the Anatomy of the Genus Amabilia and of Dasyurotaenia. Dr. F. E. Beddard.-The True Coracoid: R. Lydekker.-The Artificial Formation from Paraffin Wax of Structures resembling Molluscan Shells: J. T. Cunningham.-On Two new Species of Polyplax (Anoplura) from. Egypt: Bruce F. Cummings.

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Discussion: The Improvement of the River Clyde and Harbour of Glasgow, 1873-1914: Sir Thomas Mason. Probable Paper: On Impact Coefficients for Kailway Girders: C. W. Anderson.

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 24.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 5.30.-The Work of the War Refugees' Committee: Lady Lugard. INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS, at 11 a.m.-The Watertight Subdivision of Ships: Prof. J. J. Welch.-The Increase of Safety Afforded by a Watertight Deck: K. G. Finlay.-At 3 p.m.-The Influence of Discharging Appliances on the Design of Large Ore-Carriers: J. Reid.The Scantlings of Light Superstructures: J. Montgomerie. - On the Strength and Spacing of Transverse Frames: C. F. Holt

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Lower Eocene Beds of the North-Eastern Part of the London Basin : P. G. H. Boswell.

THURSDAY, MARCH 25.

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Probable Papers: On Forms of Growth resembling Living Organisms and their Products slowly deposited from Metastable Solutions of Inorganic Colloids: Prof. B. Moore and W. G. Evans. -The Production of Growths or Deposits in Meta-stable Inorganic Hydrosols: Prof. Moore.-A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Chemistry of Coat-Colour in Animals and of Dominant and recessive Whiteness: H. Onslow.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Ground beneath London: Dr. A. Strahan.
CHILD STUDY SOCIETY, at 6.-The Care of the Teeth: C. E. Wallis.
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Telephone Troubles in
the Tropics: W. L. Preece,

INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS, at 11 am.-A Contribution to the
Theory of Propulsion and the Screw Propeller: F. W. Lanchester.-
A Comparision between the Results of Propeller Experiments in Air and
Water: A. W. Johns.-Further Model Experiments on the Resistance of
Mercantile Ship Forms: The Influence of Length and Prismatic
Coefficients on the Resistance of Ships: J. L. Kent-At 3 p.m.-The
Law of Fatigue Applied to Crankshaft Failures: C. E. Stromeyer.-
The Effect of Beam on the Speed of Hydro-Aeroplanes: L. Hope.
Notes on the Cross Curves and GZ Curves of Stability: E. F. Spanner.
FRIDAY, MARCH 26.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Experiments in Slow Kathode Rays: Sir
J. J. Thomson.
GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION, at 8.-On the Structure of the Eastern Part of
the Lake District: J. F. N. Green.

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Sun-spot and Magnetic Activity in 1913
Report of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory
Annuaire Astronomique et Météorologique pour 1915 76
The Avezzano Earthquake of January 13.
Map.) By Dr. Charles Davison.

Sanitation in India. By J. W. W. S.
Ornithological Notes. By R. L..

Notes on Glass

University and Educational Intelligence. Societies and Academies.

Books Received

Diary of Societies

Editorial and Publishing Offices: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.,

(With

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83

84

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C.

Advertisements and business letters to be addressed to the Publishers.

Editorial Communications to the Editor. Telegraphic Address: PHUSIS, LONDON. Telephone Number: GERRARD 8830.

THURSDAY, MARCH 25, 1915.

PSYCHOLOGY WITHOUT CONSCIOUS-
NESS.

Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative
Psychology. By Prof. J. B. Watson. Pp.
xii +439. (New York: H. Holt and Co., 1914.)
Price 1.75 dollars.

BY

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write a psychology (as the 'science of behavior ')
and never go back upon the definition; never to
use the terms consciousness, mental states, mind,
content, will, imagery, and the like.
It can
be done in terms of stimulus and response, in
terms of habit formation, habit integration, and
the like." The starting-point is the observable
fact that "organisms, man and animal alike, do
adjust themselves to their environment by means
of hereditary and habit equipments;
tain stimuli lead the organisms to make the re-
sponses." Thus, with the elimination of investi-
gational reference to consciousness, mental state,
or imagery (as previously such reference to soul
and mind (its successor) had been discredited),
the barrier between psychology and objective.
sciences is removed; "the findings of psychology
become the functional correlates of structure and
lend themselves to explanation in physico-
chemical terms." "The behavior of man and the
behavior of animals must be considered on the
same plane."

Y the nature of its subject-matter, psychology has been more handicapped than any other science as regards both methods and aims. This is a truism which may qualify the following statement of Prof. Watson: "Psychology has failed signally during the fifty odd years of its existence as an experimental discipline to make its place in the world as an undisputed natural science." He is quite justified in saying that psychology "as it is generally thought of, has something esoteric in its methods. If you fail to reproduce my findings, it is not due to some fault in your apparatus or the control of your stimuli, but it is due to the fact that your introspection is untrained. ... If you can't observe 3-9 states of clearness in attention, your introspection is poor. If, on the other hand, a feeling seems reasonably clear to you, your introspection is again faulty. You are experiencing too much." This kind of psychological method has been particularly exploited by the Germans. Again, the science has almost evaporated "in speculative questions concerning the elements of mind, the nature of of conscious content (e.g., imageless thought, attitudes and Bewusstseinslage, etc.)"; a practical result is that the concept of sensation is "unusable, either for the purpose of analysis or that of synthesis." Generally, the axiom that psychology is a study of the phenomena of consciousness has been thoroughly mischievous; no data have been accorded any importance except in so far as they throw light upon conscious states. Compromises have been attempted; a line has been tentatively drawn where 'associative memory" in animals begins; consciousness has been assumed to commence where "reflex and instinctive activities fail properly to conserve the organism," or "whenever we find the presence experiments, e.g., with terns, monkeys, and of diffuse activity which results in habit-formation, we are justified in assuming consciousness." Not the least result of such pre-suppositions is the divorce of the study from practical human interests.

The new school of what Prof. Watson terms "behaviorism" has, as his volume well shows, thrown overboard much conceptual lumber of the sort sketched above, and comparative psychology is able to act untrammelled. "It is possible to

This latest reforming of the comparative psychological front may be considered strategically sound, and should lead to advances along all the line. Little has been accomplished yet, but the resulting clearness of objective is already promising. For instance, Prof. Watson's discussion of the differences between man and animal; convolution of brain surface probably means nothing per se. Wundt assumed that the apperception centres resided in the frontal lobe; for this view there is no probability, but since the frontal lobe "was the last brain tissue put on in evolution, and is to be found chiefly in man, we have hastened to assign to its care all those functions in which man is thought chiefly to excel the brute." The break between man and brute is "the lack of welldeveloped speech mechanisms in animals and the consequent lack of language habits. . . . The lack of language habits forever differentiates brute from man.'

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The general reader and the beginner in comparative psychology will find this impartial and well-reasoned volume invaluable. Some of the best matter is the result of the author's own

rodents.

A. E. CRAWLEY.

WATER, SEWAGE, AND FOOD. (1) The Chemical Examination of Water, Sewage, Foods, and other Substances. By J. E. Purvis and T. R. Hodgson. Pp. 228. (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1914.) Price 9s. net. (2) Water Supplies: their Purification, Filtration, and Sterilisation. A Handbook for the Use of

Local and Municipal Authorities. By Dr. S. Rideal and Dr. E. K. Rideal. Pp. xii+274. (London: Crosby Lockwood and Son, 1914.) Price 7s. 6d. net.

T'

HESE two books to some extent supplement

one another, the former dealing with the analysis of water (among other things), while the latter treats mainly with the production of a pure and wholesome water supply; the one being designed for the analyst and public-health student, the other for local and municipal authorities.

(1) The volume by Messrs. Purvis and Hodgson, as its name implies, deals primarily with the chemical analysis of water, sewage and foods, and such allied subjects as the detection and estimation of preservatives, and the analysis of air, coalgas and other gases, rag flock, and urine.

The opening chapter, which is by far the longest in the book, deals with the analysis of water, sewage, and sewage effluents. More or less detailed descriptions are given of the chief tests employed, and in this connection one might note the desirability of the standardisation of some of these tests, notably those for albuminoid ammonia, and oxygen absorbed from permanganate. Some of the tests, as described, do not appear to be capable of any great delicacy. This is particularly the case with the ammonia tests, which apparently are about ten times less delicate than those employed in the laboratories either of the Metropolitan Water Board or the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal.

At the conclusion of the chapter the results of a series of investigations, chiefly by Mr. Purvis, are given dealing with the effect of mixing sewage with river water and sea water. Much of the work is obviously inspired by the eighth report of the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal. The researches have resulted in some interesting information, but the manner in which the results are presented makes a full appreciation of them very difficult, and some of the results of an investigation of the changes which occur to a mixture of sewage and sea water in course of time show such wide variations that one is inclined almost to doubt the accuracy of some of the figures; for example, the albuminoid ammonia of a mixture of sewage and sea water analysed after 115, 165, and 176 days is given as o'078, o'002, and o'13 respectively (Table F1, p. 74).

The remaining chapters of the book consist of instructions for carrying out the analyses of the other substances mentioned above. The instructions are usually remarkably clear and concise, but occasionally they become much involved and even ungrammatical, suggesting that these parts have been hurriedly compiled. This, however, is a

small blemish, and can easily be corrected in a future edition; it in no way detracts from a book which will undoubtedly be of great value both to the analyst and the student in a publichealth laboratory.

(2) The second volume under review deals with the question of water supply in its widest sense, and only touches on the subject of analysis in the last chapter, and then more on the interpretation of the results than on the way these results are obtained.

The opening chapters deal with the inorganic and organic contents of natural waters, both useful (as in medicinal springs) and harmful (as in water from polluted sources), mention being also made of some of the living contents, particularly those grouped under the name of plankton. Following this preliminary matter, the book deals with the successive stages in water supply under the headings of sources of supply, distribution, storage, filtration, softening, sterilisation, and finally the analysis of water and interpretation of results.

There is so much of interest in this valuable book that it is difficult, in the space allotted, to more than mention many of the important subjects dealt with, but several points call for especial notice.

The chapter devoted to storage is full of interesting information, particularly with regard to the physical, chemical, and bacteriological changes which occur in water subjected to storage. It is pointed out, for instance, that while the changes which occur to an initially impure water are wholly or mainly in the direction of improvement, an initially pure water may considerably deteriorate owing to prolonged storage.

Before going into the important subject of filtration, the authors devote a chapter to preliminary purification, including precipitation and assisted sedimentation, deferrisation, and the abatement of nuisances arising from living growths in the reservoirs; this subject is treated very fully, and reference is made to the work of many investigators both English and foreign.

Chapters vii. and viii. deal in great detail with the question of sand filtration and mechanical filtration, chapter ix. with softening, and then follow two important chapters on sterilisation.

The authors enter a strong plea for the sterilisation of all supplies from polluted or pollutable sources. Against the contention that the expense of sterilising is prohibitive in a great many cases, the suggestion is put forward that there might be a dual supply for drinking and non-potable purposes, but the arguments in favour of this course do not seem to be very convincing; moreover, the

alternative to sterilisation put forward by Dr. Houston in his reports to the Metropolitan Water Board—namely, adequate storage followed by efficient filtration-is not presented in its best light, and one is inclined to think a much better case could be made out from Dr. Houston's reports in favour of his suggestions than is conveyed by the somewhat meagre extracts given in the book.

The different means of sterilising water are very fully described and discussed, both chemical (peroxides, excess lime, chlorine, and hypochlorites, etc.), and physical and electrical (electrolytic hypochlorite, ozone, and ultra-violet light), and full reference is made to the places where these processes are practised.

The concluding chapter, on the analysis of water and the interpretation of results, is written more for the water authority than the analyst. It is not an easy subject to deal with, yet the authors appear to have done it very carefully.

There are numerous excellent plates in the book illustrating different works and processes. DENISON B. BYLES.

RADIOLOGY IN THEORY AND
PRACTICE.

(1) X-rays: an Introduction to the Study of
Röntgen Rays. By Dr. G. W. C. Kaye. Pp.
x+252. (London: Longmans, Green and Co.,
1914.) Price 5s. net.

(2) A Manual of X-Ray Technic. By Capt. A. C. Christie. Pp. viii+104. (Philadelphia and J. B. Lippincott Company, n.d.)

London:

insoluble, and a few well-known laboratories had successfully taken the matter in hand, the budding heralds of a new physics seem to have lost their spirit. It is noteworthy that from about 1898 until now, excepting some medical works, including an account of radiation treatment, no English book has appeared devoted solely to the systematic study of Röntgen radiation.

Dr. Kaye's book will therefore be welcomed by all who are engaged in work with the new radiations generally and with X-rays in particular, for it has appeared at the very moment when it is most needed.

The time has certainly come to take stock of our knowledge of this subject and to set forth clearly the relationship which connects the speed of the electron with the wave-length of the radiation resulting from its impact against a specific substance. Incidentally, it is seen that the production of a radiation identical with the gamma rays from radium is merely a question of overcoming certain experimental difficulties, and obstacles of this character generally disappear with the lapse of time. The first part of Dr. Kaye's book deals in an interesting manner with some of the early classical vacuum-tube experiments, and care is taken, by the aid of numerous asides in the form of footnotes, to give the reader many useful facts as well as references.

The fourth chapter deals with the X-ray bulb itself, and the progressive changes in its design are traced from the 1895 type, with flat electrodes, up to the somewhat elaborate modern apparatus. There are many excellent illustrations here, and the photomicrograph on P. 43, of an antikathode after prolonged use, is of great interest. A chapter follows in which the various highpotential generators of electricity are described. The references to influence machines, induction HE discovery of X-rays has hitherto coils, and step-up transformers contain many prac

Price 8s. 6d. net. (3) Molecular Physics. By J. A. Crowther. Pp. viii+167. (London: J. and A. Churchill, 1914.) Price 3s. 6d. net.

Tafforded (1) an opportunity, probably unique

in the history of science, for the production of that kind of literature which is distinguished more for its sensational character than for its accuracy or usefulness. If the numerous small books and pamphlets dealing with the subject and published between 1895 and 1898 do not seem to us now to possess any striking feature, they are at least remarkable for their resemblance to one another. They serve, too, as a measure of the wide popular interest aroused by Prof. Röntgen's work. Some of these publications actually reached the six thousandth edition before finally sinking into oblivion. When it was realised, however, that X-rays, in conjunction with the study of radioactivity, were destined to play a vital part in the elucidation of many problems hitherto considered

tical hints, and the oscillograph records are well reproduced. Next follows an account of the various interrupters and their several virtues or drawbacks, and a chapter dealing with the actual manipulation of an X-ray apparatus, wherein. we are told about the volatilisation of the antikathode, the coloration of the glass, and so forthall of great practical interest and importance to these engaged upon this work. The rest of the book is concerned with the more theoretical part of the subject and methods of measurement, questions of wave-length, sparking potentials, absorption coefficients, and so on. The work of Barkla and others on the secondary and characteristic radiations are fully set out, so that the reader may be gradually prepared for the final sections dealing with the actual nature of X-rays and the

discussion of recent work upon their reflection from the interior of crystals.

Although we do not agree with the footnote to p. 165, the application of X-rays to medicine is mentioned with a moderation which will be understood and appreciated by those who are expert in that branch of the subject. We have no hesitation in recommending that a copy of the book should be in the library of every medical practitioner who desires to master the fundamental ideas underlying the properties and actions of the radiation which he is putting to good use in the alleviation or cure of disease.

(2) The study of the clinical application of X-rays is more often than not approached from a purely medical point of view, and some there are who think that a wider scientific knowledge, especially of physics, should play a large part in the early training of the student of radiology. It is probable that with them at least this book will find no favour; indeed, were it not for the fact that the author states specifically in his preface, for whom this book is intended some doubt upon the point might reasonably have arisen.

It must be borne in mind, however, that we have to deal here with a manual intended to meet the "needs of the United States army," and, judging by the somewhat limited knowledge of the subject considered sufficient in our own service, a student who assimilates the contents of this work might be counted as one possessing exceptional qualifications.

If "brevity is the soul of wit," it may also be the source of much error, and the inadequate treatment of the elements of electricity and magnetism condensed into the first nine pages contains some misleading statements. From chapter iii. onwards, however, there will be found many useful practical hints as to radiographic technique, and the tersely written survey (which certainly covers a wide field) affords a suitable framework upon which to build by experience if supplemented by the study of more complete works dealing with the subject.

(3) It is noteworthy that in this small handy volume Mr. Crowther has succeeded in giving a remarkably complete survey of work dealing with the physics of the electron and atomic structure.

The treatment of the subject is naturally influenced very largely by the trend of researches carried out during the last few years at the Cavendish Laboratory, and the work therefore stands as an authoritative and connected account of the most important recent results which have emanated from Cambridge under the stimulating leadership of Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson. The new method of analysis, for instance, which depends upon the

simultaneous deviation of positive particles by an electrostatic and magnetic field, is dealt with in considerable detail and the apparatus illustrated by photograph and diagrams. There are also chapters devoted to the nature and size of electrons, their group stability, cohesion, and adhesion, as well as the bearing of modern physics upon valency and other problems once thought to be the exclusive preserves of the chemist. In the midst of great detail the author has nevertheless marked out clearly the general lines upon which this important subject has rapidly developed in recent years, and has brought together into a connected whole the results of work from many sources. It is difficult to select any particular section for special mention where all are so well done, but the chapter dealing with the atom in vibration is certainly of particular interest.

The author then shows the far-reaching significance of these new experimental results by directing attention to their bearing upon the complex "molecular theory of matter" as applied to solids, liquids, and gases. In the later pages he refers to the kinetic theory of heat, the size of atoms, and many other questions of wide interest and importance at the present day. The book, so well conceived, is a veritable mine of information. It will be read by physicists with only one regret -the author has not included even the briefest index. C. E. S. P

OUR BOOKSHELF.

Economic Cycles: Their Law and Cause. By Prof. H. L. Moore. Pp. viii+149. (New York: The Macmillan Co.; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1914.) Price 8s. 6d. net. IN this volume Prof. Moore has undertaken to test statistically the theory that the fundamental cause of that curious swing in trade, which results in alternate periods of depression and expansion instead of steady growth or decline, is a corresponding cycle in the weather, operating through its effect on the crops. Rainfall data for the Ohio valley are subjected to harmonic analysis, and the periodogram shows principal periods of thirty-three and eight years. These periods and their semiharmonics applied to the statistics of yield and production for some of the principal crops suggest that they will also account for the principal fluctuations in quantity, as might be expected from the high correlation between the yield and the rainfall of the months that are critical for each crop. Changes in yield are also highly correlated with changes in price for the several crops, and hence the general relation of the crop-cycle to the cycle of prices and trade in general-though matters are not so simple as might be thought at first sight, for in some manufacturing industries, e.g., the production of pigiron, price and production rise and fall together.

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