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course that will run a true line back to the corner from which the random started, run and measure westward, to No. 4, which is identical with No. 2, establishing the permanent corners on said line and obliterating the temporary corners on the random, throwing the excess or deficiency in measurement on the west end of the line.
If in running the above random line the deputy should fall short or overrun in length, or intersect the township boundary at more than 3 chains and 50 links north or south of the true corner, either of which would indicate a material error in the work, the lines must be retraced, even if found necessary to remeasure the meridianal boundaries of the township.
Proceed in the same manner from No. 4 to No. 5-from No. 5 to No. 6-from No. 6 to No. 7-and so on to No. 10. From No. 10 run north, still on a true meridian, establishing the mile and half mile corners until the standard parallel is reached at No. 11, throwing the excess over or deficiency under 480 chains upon the last half mile, according to law; and at the intersection establish the township "closing corner," measuring and noting the distance to the nearest "standard corner" on said parallel.
Should it happen from any cause that the extension of the correction parallel above the field of operations has been delayed, the deputy will plant the corner of the township in place, subject to correction when the parallel shall be extended.
The deputy will then return to the S. W. corner of Township 1 N, Range 2 W. on the base line, at No. 12, and proceed in a similar manner to No. 33, returning and running each range line north from the base line.
It is sometimes desired to reach a locality not intersected by the meridian or base line. The manner of accomplishing this is illustrated by Diagram A. For example, the meridian may be extended south to such
distance as may be necessary to run a correction parallel therefrom to serve as a base for the desired surveys. The manner of surveying the township exteriors from said. parallel is similar to that already explained and indicated by the numbers on the diagram.
Townships East of the Meridian.-Begin at No. 1, Diagram A, being the southeast corner of Township 1 N., Range 1 E., and proceed as with the townships west of the meridian, except that the random lines will be run and measured west and the true lines east, throwing the excess over or deficiency under 480 chains on the west end of the line. The deputy will therefore commence his measurement with the length of the excessive or deficient half section boundary on the west of the township, and then the remaining measurements will all be exact miles and half miles.
With the notes of the exterior lines of townships, the deputy is required to submit a plat of the lines run, on a scale of 2 inches to the mile, on which are to be noted all the objects of topography on line necessary to illustrate the notes, to wit: The distances on line at the crossing of streams, so far as such can be noted on the paper, and the direction of each indicated by an arrow-head pointing down stream; also the intersection of lines by prairies, marshes, ponds, swamps, ravines, lakes, hills, mountains, and all other matters indicated by the notes, to the fullest extent practicable.
2. SUBDIVISION OR SECTION LINES.
The township lines being run, the next step will be to subdivide or sectionize the township by surveying it into sections. By a rule of the department a deputy surveyor is not permitted to subdivide townships the exteriors of which were run by himself. The reason for this regulation is that one deputy may be a check upon the doings of another, thereby detecting imperfect or fraudulent work and securing accuracy in the execution of the public surveys.
Before proceeding to subdivide a township, the deputy must ascertain what change, if any, has taken place in the magnetic variation as it existed at the time the exteriors were run, and also compare his chaining with the original. measurements. For this purpose he is required to retrace the first mile, both of the south and east boundaries of each township, and any discrepancy either in the variation or chaining must be noted in the field book.
Having adjusted the compass to a variation which will retrace the eastern boundary of the township, the deputy will begin at the first mile corner west on the south boundary, which will be common to sections 35 and 36see No. 1, Diagram B—thence due north 40 chains, where establish quarter section corner, and continue due north 80 chains, to No. 2, at which point plant corner to sections 25, 26, 35, and 36.
From No. 2, run, on random line, without blazing, due east, setting temporary quarter section post at 40 chains, and continuing on to the east boundary at No. 3. If the township line is intersected exactly at the section corner thereon, the random may be blazed back and established as the true line; but if said random strike the boundary either north or south of the section corner, the distance of the point of intersection from said corner must be measured and noted, and a course calculated that will