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Election of members of the Assombly.

SEC. 3. Members of the Assembly shall be elected in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, at the time and in the manner now provided by law. The second election of members of the Assembly, after the adoption of this Constitution, shall be on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, eighteen hundred and eighty. Thereafter members of the Assembly shall be chosen biennially, and their term of office shall be two years; and each election shall be on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, unless otherwise ordered by the Legislature. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 3.]

55 Cal. 622; 56 Cal. 1, 100; 58 Cal. 560; 61 Cal. 313; 62 Cal. 563; 96 Cal. 291; 114 Cal. 169.

Election of Senators and qualifications of members of Legislature.

SEC. 4. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years, at the same time and places as members of the Assembly, and no person shall be a member of the Senate or Assembly who has not been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years, and of the district for which he shall be chosen one year, next before his election. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 4.]

55 Cal. 622; 56 Cal. 100; 96 Cal. 264, 291.

Number of Senators and members of the Assembly.

Sec. 5. The Senate shall consist of forty members, and the Assembly of eighty members, to be elected by districts, numbered as hereinafter provided. The seats of the twenty Senators elected in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two from the odd-numbered districts shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, so that one half of the Senators shall be elected every two years; provided, that all the Senators elected at the first election under this Constitution shall hold office for the term of three years. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, § 5.]

96 Cal. 291.

Senatorial and Assembly districts.

SEC. 6. For the purpose of choosing members of the Legislature, the State shall be divided into forty senatorial and eighty assembly districts, as nearly equal in population as may be, and composed of contiguous territory, to be called senatorial and assembly districts. Each senatorial district shall choose one Senator, and each assembly district shall choose one member of Assembly. The senatorial districts shall be numbered from one to forty, inclusive, in numerical order, and the assembly districts shall be numbered from one to eighty in the same order, commencing at the northern boundary of the State and ending at the southern boundary thereof. In the formation of such districts no county, or city and county, shall be divided, unless it contains sufficient population within itself to form two or more districts, nor shall a part of any county, or of any city and county, be united with any other county, or city and county, in forming any district. The census taken under the direction of the Congress of the United States in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty, and every ten years thereafter, shall be the basis of fixing and adjusting the legislative districts; and the Legislature shall, at its first session after each census, adjust such districts and reapportion the representation so as to preserve them as near equal in population as may be. But in making such adjustments no persons who are not eligible to become citizens of the United States, under the naturalization laws, shall be counted as forming a part of the population of any district. Until such districting as herein provided for shall be made, Senators and Assemblymen shall be elected by the districts according to the apportionment now provided for by law.

65 Cal. 577; 96 Cal. 290. Each house to choose its officers and be sole Judge of the quali

fications of its members. SEC. 7. Each house shall choose its officers, and judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns of its members. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 8.

82 Cal. 244.


SEC. 8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 9.] Rules of proceeding, and expulsion of members.

SEC. 9. Each house shall determine the rule of its proceeding, and may, with the concurrence of two thirds of all the members elected, expel a member. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, § 10.]

146 Cal. 606, 610.


SEC. 10. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any three members present, be entered on the journal. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 11.]

69 Cal. 493; 80 Cal. 213.

Members privileged from arrest.

SEC. 11. Members of the Legislature shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, and shall not be subject to any civil process during the session of the Legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session..

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, § 12.]


SEC. 12. When vacancies occur in either house, the Governor, or the person exercising the functions of the Governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 13.]

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Meetings to be open.

Sec. 13. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy.

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 14.]


Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any place other than that in which they may be sitting. Nor shall the members of either house draw pay for any recess or adjournment for a longer time than three days.

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 15.]

Laws, how passed.

Sec. 15. No law shall be passed except by bill. Nor shall any bill be put upon its final passage until the same, with the amendments thereto, shall have been printed for the use of the members; nor shall any bill become a law unless the same be read on three several days in each house, unless, in case of urgency, two thirds of the house where such bill may be pending shall, by a vote of

yeas and nays, dispense with this provision. Any bill may
originate in either house, but may be amended or rejected by
the other; and on the final passage of all bills they shall be read
at length, and the vote shall be by yeas and nays upon each bill
separately, and shall be entered on the journal, and no bill shall
become a law without the concurrence of a majority of the
members elected to each house.
[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 16.]

54 Cal. 111; 67 Cal. 627; 69 Cal. 512; 79 Cal. 173; 80 Cal. 213;
85 Cal. 336; 86 Cal. 50; 100 Cal. 419; 114 Cal. 584; 145 Cal. 588.

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Laws, how passed, continued.

SEC. 16. Every bill which may have passed the Legislature shall,
before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor. If he
approve it, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his
objections, to the house in which it originated, which shall enter
such objections upon the journal and proceed to reconsider it. If,
after such reconsideration, it again passes both houses, by yeas and
nays, two thirds of the members elected to each house voting there-
for, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objec-
tions. If any bill shall not be returned within ten days after it
shall have been presented to him (Sundays excepted), the same
shall become a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Legislature, by adjournment, prevent such return, in which
case it shall not become a law, unless the Governor, within ten
days after such adjournment (Sundays excepted), shall sign and
deposit the same in the office of the Secretary of State, in which
case it shall become a law in like manner as if it had been signed
by him before adjournment. If any bill presented to the Governor
contains several items of appropriation of money, he may object
to one or more items, while approving other portions of the bill.
In such case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it,
a statement of the items to which he objects, and the reasons
therefor, and the appropriations so objected to shall not take effect
unless passed over the Governor's veto, as herein before provided.
If the Legislature be in session, the Governor shall transmit to the
house in which the bill originated a copy of such statement, and
the items so objected to shall be separately reconsidered in the same
manner as bills which have been disapproved by the Governor.
[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 17.]

66 Cal. 634; 69 Cal. 480, 512; 80 Cal. 213; 83 Cal. 494; 85 Cal. 335;
86 Cal. 50; 121 Cal. 267; 148 Cal. 77.


Sec. 17. The Assembly shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members elected.

[Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 18.]

Officers subject to impeachment.

SEC. 18. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer, Attorney-General, Surveyor-General, Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and Judges of the Superior Courts, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall, nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanor in office in such manner as the Legislature may provide. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 19.]

85 Cal. 645; 108 Cal. 662; 118 Cal. 483; 122 Cal. 293; 145 Cal. 37; 147 Cal. 533.

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Members not eligible to certain offices.

Sec. 19. No Senator or member of Assembly shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which have been increased, during such term, except such offices as may be filled by election by the people. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 20.]

85 Cal. 639.

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United States officers not eligible to office.

Sec. 20. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or any other power, shall be eligible to any civil office of profit under this State; provided, that officers in the militia who receive no annual salary, local officers, or postmasters whose compensation does not exceed five hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed to hold lucrative offices. [Constitution of 1849, Art. IV, $ 21.]

61 Cal. 263, 276; 73 Cal. 231. App. R. 2, 55.

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