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federation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained.
And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States, in Congress assembled, on all questions which by the said Confederation are submitted to them; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, the 9th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1778, and in the 3d year of the Independence of America.
JOSIAH BARTLETT, JOHN WENTWORTH,JR.) On the part and be.
Aug. 8, 1778. half of the State of
New Hampshire. John HANCOCK, FRANCIS DANA, On the part and beSAMUEL ADAMS, JAMES LOVELL,
half of the State of ELBRIDGE GERRY, SAMUEL HOLTON, Massachusetts Bay.
On the part and be.
half of the State of WILLIAM ELLERY, JOHN COLLINS,
Rhode Island and HENRY MARCHANT,
tions. ROGER SHERMAN, Titus HOSMER, On the part and beSAM'L HUNTINGTON, ANDREW ADAM,
half of the State of OLIVER WOLCOTT,
half of the State of JOHN WITHERSPOON, NATHANIEL SCUDDER,
New Jersey, No
vember 26, 1778. ROBERT MORRIS, WILLIAM CLINGAN, On the part and beDANIEL ROBERDEAU, JOSEPH REED,
half of the State of J. BAYARD SMITH,
July 22, 1778. Pennsylvania. THOMAS MCKEAN, John DICKINSON, On the part and beFeb. 12, 1779.
May 5, 1779. half of the State of NICHOLAS VAN DYKE,
On the part and be
half of the State of March 1, 1781. March 1, 1781.
Maryland. RICHARD HENRY LEE, JOHN HARVIE, On the part and beJohn BANISTER, F. LIGHTFOOT LEE, half of the State of THOMAS ADAMS,
On the part and be
half of the State of
half of the State of
half of the State of
The Articles of Confederation were ratified by the States as follows: South Carolina. February 5, 1778 Massachusetts ... March 10, 1778 New York, . February 6, 1778 North Carolina. April 5, 1778 Rhode Island. February 9, 1778 New Jersey ---November 19, 1778 Connecticut...February 12, 1778 Virginia December 15, 1778 Georgia February 26, 1778 Delaware... February 1, 1779 New Hampshire.- March 4, 1778 Maryland ..January 30, 1781 Pennsylvania ... .March 5, 1778
The ratification by all the States was formally announced to the public March 1, 1781.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
PREAMBLE. We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. Congress.
SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Election of Representatives.
SEC. 2. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. Qualifications of Representatives.
2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. Apportionment of Representatives.
3. (Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the TUnited States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.]
This clause has been superseded, so far as it relates to representation, by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Vacancies.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Officers of the House.
5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
SENATE. Number of Senators.
SEC. 3. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years, and each Senator shall have one vote. Classification of Senators-Vacancies.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expira. tion of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
Qualifications of Senators.
have attained the
an of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inh
abitant of the State for which he shall be chosen.
Pres of Senate.
4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no voice unless they shall be equally divided.
Officers of Senate.
5. The Senate shall choose their officers, and have a President
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeach-
7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.
ELECTION OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES-MEETINGS
Election of members of Congress.
Sec. 4. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and