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facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

Executive power vested in President-Term of office.

SECTION 1. 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

Appointment and number of Presidential Electors.

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of Electors equal to the whole nunber of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Mode of electing President and Vice-President.

3. [The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote, by ballot, for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate

shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing the President the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice-President.]

This clause has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution.

Time of choosing Electors and casting Electoral vote.

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Qualifications of President.

5. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

[See also Article II, Section 1, and Fourteenth Amendment.] Presidential succession.

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and VicePresident, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

NOTE.–Agreeably with the powers conferred by Clause 6, Section 1, Article II., of the Constitution, Congress in 1886 provided for the succession to the Presidency in case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the President or Vice-President by directing that the office devolve first upon the Secretary of State, and in case of his inability, for any reason, to perform its duties, it should pass, successively, upon similar conditions, to the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of War, AttorneyGeneral, Postmaster-General, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Interior. If, however, any one of these officers should be of foreign birth, the Presidency passes to the next named in the list. Salary of President.

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he sball not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States or of them.

Oath of office of President.

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

POWERS OF PRESIDENT.

Commander-in-chief.

SEC. 2. 1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. Treaties and appointments.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. Filling vacancies.

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

FURTHER POWERS OF PRESIDENT.

Message to Congress-Adjourn and call special session.

SEC. 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress infor. mation of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and, in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

[See also Article I, Section 5.] Impeachment of President and other officers.

SEC. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

[See also Article I, Sections 2 and 3.]

ARTICLE III.

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

Courts – Terms of office and salary of judges.

SECTION 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

[See also Eleventh Amendment.]

JURISDICTION OF UNITED STATES COURTS.

Cases that may come before United States courts.

SEC. 2. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State ; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States; and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects. Jurisdiction of Supreme and appellate courts.

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. Trial of crimes.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be put at such place or places as the Congress may, by law, have directed.

[See also Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments.]

TREASON. Treason defined.

Sec. 3. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against then, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.

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