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Conviction.

2. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testi. mony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. Punishment.

3. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV.

THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

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State records.

SECTION 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

[See also Fourteenth Amendment.] Interstate privileges of citizens.

SEC. 2. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. Fugitives from justice.

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. Fugitives from service.

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Admission of new States.

Sec. 3. 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by

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the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of Congress. Control of the property and territory of the Union.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. Republican government guaranteed.

SEC. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

ARTICLE V.

AMENDMENTS.

Amendments, how proposed and adopted.

SECTION 1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall, in any manner, affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI.

PROMISCUOUS PROVISIONS. The public debt.

SECTION 1. 1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

[See also Fourteenth Amendment, Section 4.] Supreme law of the land.

2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which sh be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. Oath of office and religious test.

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII.

RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION.

SECTION 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the States

present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

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SECTION 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. [Proposed September 25, 1789; ratified December 15, 1791.]

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ARTICLE II.

RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.

SECTION 1. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.[Id.]

ARTICLE III.

BILLETING OF SOLDIERS.

SECTION 1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.-[Id.]

ARTICLE IV.

SEIZURES, SEARCHES, AND WARRANTS. SECTION 1. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon reasonable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and par. ticularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.-[Id.]

ARTICLE V.

CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AND CONDEMNATION OF PROPERTY.

SECTION 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.-(Id.)

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