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the treaty of peace signed this day, and by the declaration likewise delivered to-day, by His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; and His Majesty declares, that he is fully satisfied on this head.
In regard to the fishery between the Island of Newfoundland and those of St. Pierre and Miquelon, it is not to be carried on, by either party, but to the middle of the channel; and His Majesty will give The most positive orders, that the French fishermen shall not
go yond this line. His Majesty is firmly persuaded that the King of Great Britain will give like orders to the English fishermen.
No. 9.—1783, September 3: Treaty between His Britannic Majesty
and the United States. Definitive Treaty of Peace and Friendship between His Britannic
Majesty and the United States of America.--Signed at Paris, the 3rd of September, 1783. In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.
It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the Most Serene and Most Potent Prince, George the Third, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, &c., and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore: and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the 2 Countries, upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and secure to both perpetual Peace and Harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of Peace and reconciliation, by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris, on the 30th of November, 1782, by the Commissioners empowered on each part; which Articles were agreed to be inserted in, and to constitute, the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which Treaty was not to be concluded until terms of Peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France, and His Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such Treaty accordingly; and the Treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the Provisional Articles above-mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say:
His Britannic Majesty, on his part, David Hartley, Esq., Member of the Parliament of Great Britain; and the said United States, on their part, John Adams, Esq., late a Commissioner of the United States of America at the Court of Versailles, late Delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary of the said United States to Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esq., late Delegate in Congress from the State of Pennsylvania, President of the Convention of the said State,
and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the Court of Versailles; John Jay, Esq., late President of Congress and Chief Justice of the State of New York, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said United States at the Court of Madrid; to be the Plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present Definitive Treaty: who, after having reciprocally communicated their respective Full Powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the following Articles:
Art. I. His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
and Georgia, to be Free, Sovereign and Independent States; 13 that he treats with them as such; and for himself, his Heirs
and Successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof.
II. And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the Boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their Boundaries, viz., from the North-west Angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that Angle which is formed by a line drawn due north, from the source of St. Croix River to the Highlands, along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the North-westernmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that River to the 45th degree of North latitude; from thence by a line due West on said latitude until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of the said River into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said Lake until it strikes the communication by water between that Lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie; through the middle of said Lake until it arrives at the water-communication between that Lake and Lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water-communication into the Lake Huron; thence through the middle of said Lake to the water-communication between that Lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior, Northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux, to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water-communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said Lake to the most North-western point thereof, and from thence on a due West course to the River Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said River Mississippi, until it shall intersect the Northernmost part of the 31st degree of North latitude: South by a line to be drawn due East from the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of 31 degrees North of the Equator, to the middle of the River Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean: East by a line to be drawn along the middle
These Articles are practically identical with the Provisional Articles of 30 November, 1782, agreed upon by Richard Oswald, commissioner for His Britannic Majesty, and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens, commissioners for United States.
of the River St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source; and from its source directly North to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the Rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the River St. Lawrence: comprehending all Islands within 20 leagues of any part of the shores of The United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due East from the points where the aforesaid Boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part, and East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic Ocean; excepting such Islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said Province of Nova Scotia.
III. It is agreed, that the People of The United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take Fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other Banks of Newfoundland; also in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the Sea, where the Inhabitants of both Countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the Inhabitants of The United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the Coast of Newfoundland as British Fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that Island), and also on the Coasts, Bays, and Creeks of all other of His Britannic Majesty's Dominions in America; and that the American Fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled Bays, Harbors, and Creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but so soon as the same, or either of them, shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said Fishermen to dry or cure fish at such Settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the Inhabitants, Proprietors, or Possessors of the ground.
IV. It is agreed that Creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.
V. It is agreed that the Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the Legislatures of the respective States, to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties which have been confiscated, belonging to real British Subjects: and also of the estates, rights, and properties of Persons resident in Districts in the possession of His Majesty's arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United States: and that Persons of any other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the 13 United States, and therein to remain 12 months unmolested in their endeavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States, a reconsideration and revision of all Acts or Laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said Laws or Acts perfectly consistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation which, on the return of the blessings of Peace, should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States, that the estates, rights, and properties of such last-mentioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights or properties since the confiscation.
And it is agreed that all Persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.
VI. That there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecutions commenced against any Person or Persons, for or by reason of the part which he or they may have taken in the present war; and that no Person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the Ratification of the Treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prose
cutions so commenced be discontinued. 14 VII. There shall be a firm and perpetual Peace between His
Britannic Majesty and the said States, and between the Subjects of the one and the Citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease: all Prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and His Britannic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American Inhabitants, withdraw all his Armies, Garrisons, and Fleets from the said United States, and from every Port, Place, and Harbour within the same; leaving in all Fortifications the American Artillery that may be therein: and shall also order and cause all Archives, Records, Deeds, and Papers belonging to any of the said States, of their Citizens, which in the course of the War may have fallen into the hands of his Officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper States and Persons to whom they belong.
VIII. The navigation of the River Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall for ever remain free and open to the Subjects of Great Britain, and the Citizens of The United States.
IX. In case it should so happen that any Place or Territory belonging to Great Britain, or to The United States, should have been conquered by the arms of either, from the other, before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty, and without requiring any compensation.
X. The solemn Ratifications of the present Treaty, expedited in good and due form, shall be exchanged between the Contracting Parties in the space of 6 months, or sooner if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present Treaty.
In witness whereof, we, the Undersigned, their Ministers Plenipotentiary, have in their name, and in virtue of our Full Powers, signed with our Hands the present Definitive Treaty, and caused the Seals of our Arms to be affixed thereto.
Done at Paris, this 3d day of September, in the year of our Lord, 1783. [L. s.] D. HARTLEY.
[L. S. B. FRANKLIN. [L. 8.]
(L. 8.) JOHN JAY.
No. 10.—1790, October 28: Convention between His Britannic Majesty
and Spain relative to America. Signed at the Escurial. Leurs Majestés Britannique et Catholique, étant disposées à terminer, par un accord prompt et solide, les différends qui se sont élevés en dernier lieu entre les 2 Couronnes, elles ont trouvé que le meilleur moyen de parvenir à ce but salutaire seroit celui d'une transaction à l'amiable, laquelle, en laissant de côté toute discussion rétrospective des droits et des prétensions des 2 Parties, réglât leur position respective à l'avenir sur des bases qui seroient conformes à leurs vrais intérêts, ainsi qu'au désir mutuel dont Leurs dites Majestés sont animées, d'établir entre elles, en tout et en tous lieux, la plus parfaite amitié, harmonie et bonne correspondance.
Dans cette vûe, elles ont nommé et constitué pour leurs Plénipotentiaires; savoir, de la part de Sa Majesté Britannique, le Sieur Alleyne FitzHerbert, du Conseil Privé de Sa dite Majesté dans la Grande Bretagne et en Irlande, et son Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plénipotentiaire près Sa Majesté Catholique; et de la part de Sa Majesté Catholique, Don Joseph Monino, Comte de Florida-blanca, Chevalier Grand Croix du Royal Ordre Espagnol de Charles III, Conseiller d'Etat de Sa dite Majesté, et son Premier Secrétaire d'Etat et del Despacho; lesquels aprés s'être communiqué leurs Pleins pouvoirs respectifs, sont convenus des Articles suivans:
ARTICLE I. Restoration to British Subjects of Buildings and Lands on the N.W. Coast of
N. America of which they were dispossessed by Spanish in 1789. Il est convenu que les Bâtimens et les Districts de Terrein, situés sur la Côte du Nord-ouest du Continent de l'Amérique Septentrionale, ou bien sur des Iles adjacentes à ce Continent, desquels les Sujets de Sa Majesté Britannique ont été dépossédes, vers le mois d'Avril, 1789, par un Officier Espagnol, seront restitués aux dits Sujets Britanniques.
ARTICLE II. Compensation to be given for Acts of Violence committed after April, 1789, by
Subjects of either Country. De plus, une juste réparation sera faite, selon la nature du cas, pour tout acte de violence ou d'hostilité qui aura pû avoir été commis, depuis le dit mois d'Avril, 1789, par les Sujets de l'une des 2 Parties Contractantes contre les Sujets de l'autre; et au cas que depuis la dite époque, quelques uns des sujets respectifs aient été forcément dépossédés de leurs Terrains, Bâtimens, Vaisseaux, marchandises, ou autres objets de propriété quelconques, sur le dit Continent, our sur les Mers ou Iles adjacentes, ils en seront remis en possession, ou une juste compensation leur sera faite pour les pertes qu'ils auront
Subjects of either Party not to be molested in their Fisheries or Navigation of
the Pacific or South Seas, or in landing on the Coasts of those Seas for carrying on Commerce with Natives.
Et, afin de resserrer les liens de l'amitié, et de conserver à l'avenir une parfaite harmonie et bonne intelligence entre les 2 Parties Con