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fast vote, but it is understood that the majority of them are in favour of some alteration in the present state of things.

A VERRATIM report of the proceedings of the Welsh national conference on the training of teachers and pupil teachers, held at Shrewsbury last November, has just been published. An account of the conference appeared in NATURE of November 17 (p. 66).

THE Council of the City and Guilds of London Institute has conferred the fellowship of the institute on Mr. H. Cecil Booth in recognition of the engineering work done by him since he gained his diploma of Associate of the City and Gulds Institute in 1892.

Ox Wednesday, June 7, Viscount Goschen, as Chancellor of Oxford University, will lay the foundation-stone of the new buildings of Reading University College, to be erected, at a cost of about 80,000l., upon a site presented by Mr. Alfred Palmer.

At the recent installation of Dr. Edwin A. Alderman as president of the University of Virginia, it was announced, says Science, that in addition to the conditional gift of 100,000 from Mr. Carnegie, Mr. Rockefeller had given 20,ol. Mr. Jefferson Coolidge 10,000l., and alumni and friends 10,000l. towards the endowment fund.

MR. CARNEGIE has added another handsome donation to his many princely gifts to higher education. This time he has given 2,000,000l. to provide annuities for college professors prevented by old age or other physical disability from continuing to earn salaries. The gift is to be for the benefit of the United States, Canada, and Newfoundland, and applies to all universities, colleges, and technical schools without regard to race, colour, or creed, but excluding State or colonial institutes, and excluding also purely sectarian institutions. The fund is to be vested in trustees, among them Presidents Hadley, of Yale University; Eliot, of Harvard University; Harper, of the University of Chicago; Butler, of Columbia University; Schurman, of Cornell University; and Wilson, of Princeton University, all of whom have accepted. Mr. Carnegie hopes that by this endowment the best men available will be attracted to professorial work, since in view of the retiring pension, which will now be secured, present day salaries will not appear very inadequate in comparison with those of other professional men.

On his way to Simla for the summer months, Lord Curzon visited Pusa and laid the foundation-stone of the agricultural college there. The Pusa estate comprises some 1280 acres of soil on which almost any crop may be grown. The Government proposes to concentrate there all the agricultural skill, scientific, practical, and educational. to be procured. The buildings will cost 16 lakhs of rupees, of which amount the laboratory and its fittings will absorb 7 lakhs. Pusa will provide for agricultural students research in the laboratory, experiment in the field, and instruction in the class-room. After laying the stone Lord Curzon, we learn from the Times, referred to the circumstances in which he received from Mr. Henry Phipps, the American millionaire, the munificent bequest which was the origin of the institute. The college, Lord Curzon continued, will form a centre of the application of science to Indian agriculture, and it is hoped that each province of India will in time possess its own staff, its own institute for research and experiment, in fact, a properly organised agricultural department. The Government has no desire to monopolise the field, and will lend every possible advice to great land holders conducting their own experiments, improving their own seed and the breed of their own cattle. Earlier in the day Lord Curzon, replying to an address of welcome from the Behar planters, said that the problem confronting the indigo growers since the synthetic indigo of Germany was perfected some eight tears ago is so to combine scientific methods with cheapening of the cost of production as to enable them to produce a natural colour at a price permitting of competition with the artificial product.

WE have received from the Agent-General for New South Wales a copy of a "Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand, 1903-4, by Mr. T. A. Coghlan. An im

portant section of the volume deals with education, and a prominent place is given in this summary to university and technical education. It appears that the Government endowments to the universities of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Tasmania in 1903 were respectively 15.5334, 13,500l., 66111., and 4000l. In addition to the annual endowment, the Adelaide University has received a perpetual endowment of 50,000 acres of land from the Government of South Australia. The University of New Zealandwhich is an examining, and not a teaching, body-has a statutory grant of 3000l. a year from Government, and of the affiliated colleges Auckland University College is in receipt of a statutory grant of 4000l. a year. The University of Otago derives a sum of about 5500l. annually from rents of reserves. The Australasian universities are empowered to grant the same degrees as the British universities, with the exception of degrees in theology. Women are admitted to all the universities. As regards technical education, the State expenditure upon it in five of the Commonwealth provinces and New Zealand is as follows:-New South Wales, 26,500l.; Victoria, 16,400l.; Queensland, 7200l.; Western Australia, 5710l.; Tasmania, 2500l.; and New Zealand, 21,000l. In addition to ordinary technical classes throughout New Zealand, there are schools of mines in the chief mining districts, and the Government makes an annual grant of 500l. towards the endowment of the chair of mining and metallurgy at the Otago University. Facts such as these show that administrators in Australia and New Zealand are alive to the part which higher education should take in the life of the State, and are willing to supply funds from the public treasury to assist the work of their colleges and universities.

A LETTER from Prof. W. Ridgeway in the Times of April 27 contains a number of wise suggestions for the improvement of the education given to boys in secondary schools. Referring to the recent vote on the Greek question, he says, careful inquiries give reason to believe that many voted to make Greek optional simply because they believe that the system of education at present in vogue in public schools is bad, that too much time is given up to Latin and Greek, that, as a rule, science is not taught at all, that the universities are in a large measure responsible for the existing state of things, and that something must be done to improve matters; and accordingly, as somebody must be thrown overboard, Greek was the proper Jonah. Prof. Ridgeway goes on to argue that the mere abolition of compulsory Greek would not have effected any improvement in the method of teaching the older subjects in the schools or have done anything to make the teaching of science general. Moreover, he rightly remarks, there can be no reform worthy of the name which does not ensure that boys whose tastes are literary should learn the methods of science, whilst boys whose bent is to science should get a literary training to give them the power of expressing their ideas with lucidity and to imbue them with a taste for culture. The faulty teaching of the schools, he continues, is due in the main to the specialisation which is required by the open scholarship system, and to the sacrifice of the average boys to those who show greater promise and are likely to win scholarships. The universities are largely responsible for this state of things, for they deliberately encourage premature specialisation in boys of promise by their system of open scholarships, and permit the interests of the average boys to be sacrificed by allowing boys to matriculate before they have passed any amination to show that they have acquired a sufficient modicum of liberal education to serve as a basis for a university training.



Royal Society, March 16.-" A Determination of the Amounts of Neon and Helium in Atmospheric Air." By Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S.

The author had already attempted to estimate the amounts of krypton and xenon in air by the evaporation of relatively large quantities of liquid air. No doubt much krypton and some xenon evaporated, hence the figures given were necessarily minimum estimates. Dr. Travers

and the author made a rough guess at the proportions of neon and helium in air; the amount of each gas obtained was known, but the quantity from which they were derived could only be guessed at. The figures were:-of helium one or two parts per million, and of neon one or two parts per 100,000.

The ingenious method devised by Sir James Dewar of cooling a dense form of charcoal with liquid air, and using it as an absorbent for gases, made it easy to obtain a nearly correct estimate of the amounts of the more volatile constituents. After oxygen, nitrogen, and argon had been absorbed from about 16,800 c.c. of air by exposure to 100 grams of charcoal cooled with liquid air, the neon and helium were removed with the pump. They were freed from traces of heavier gases by a similar method, and a partial, but fairly complete, separation of the two was effected in the same way. The total quantities were measured by a form of burette, in which the level of the mercury was set to a point, and the differences of pressure read.

The results are:

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If the crossed extension reflex of the limb be examined before and after a prolonged flexion reflex an alteration is evident in it. When a carefully adjusted electrical stimulus is at regular intervals applied to the afferent path of one limb and the resultant extensor reflex of the crossed limb is noted, it is found that if in one of the intervals a flexion reflex of the latter limb is induced and maintained for twenty seconds or more, the extensor reflex becomes altered in consequence. For a period immediately following the flexion reflex the extension reflex is increased. The intensity of the reflex is heightened, its duration is prolonged, and its latent time is reduced. If the testing stimulus be subliminal the threshold value of the stimulus required by the reflex is found to be lowered. In short, the activity of the flexion arcs directly or indirectly induces in the extension arcs a super-excitability as tested by crossed extension just as when tested by the extensor thrust.

But although this after-effect of the activity of the flexion arcs upon the antagonistic arcs, both direct and crossed, is one of increase of activity, the primary effect is, as shown previously, one of depression. In these instances there supervenes on the spinal inhibition a bound effect of augmentation.'


The "spinal induction" is obviously qualified to play a part in linking reflexes together in a coordinate sequence of successive combination. If a reflex arc A during its own activity not only temporarily checks the dischargeaction of an opposed reflex arc B, but also as a subsequent result induces in arc B a phase of greater excitability and capacity for discharge, it predisposes the spinal organ for a second reflex opposite in character to its own in immediate succession to itself.

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Much of the reflex action of the limb that can be studied in the spinal" dog bears the character of adaptation to locomotion. Spinal induction" obviously tends to connect this " extensor thrust as an after-effect with precurrent flexion of the limb. In the stepping forward of the limb the flexion that raises the foot and carries it forward clear of the ground, though temporarily checking the reflex discharge of the antagonistic arcs of extension, is, as it continues, so to say, sensitising them to respond later in their turn by the supporting and propulsive extension of the limb necessary to progression. In reflex 1 Sherrington, Schäfer's "Text-book of Physiology," vol. ii., p. 841, 1900.

sequences an antecedent reflex would thus not only be the means of bringing about an ensuing stimulus for the next reflex, but in such instances as the above will predispose the arc of the next reflex to react to the stimulus that will arrive.

"Further Experiments and Histological Investigations on Intumescences, with some Observations on Nuclear Division in Pathological Tissues." By Miss Elizabeth Dale. Communicated by Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S.

(1) This paper is the third of a series on intumescences, and deals chiefly with two plants, Solanum tuberosum and Populus tremula. On the potato plant intumescences were obtained experimentally in about twenty-four hours, either on the uninjured plants or on small fragments of leaves. The effect of nutritive solutions on the formation of intumescences was investigated.

(2) Additional anatomical observations were made, and a classification of various types of intumescences has been drawn up. The cell contents were examined and compared. (3) The occurrence of acids and salts was investigated. (4) The experiments show that the internal causes of intumescences are extremely local, and quite independent of root pressure. The osmotically active substance is probably oxalic acid.

The present experiments show the importance of irritability and active powers of assimilation, as well as of moist air, heat, light, and, generally, oxygen.

(5) Finally, the nuclear phenomena were investigated and compared, and were found to be in every respect identical in various intumescences and in wound-callus. Pathological tissues in certain plants and animals are also to exist compared, and a strong resemblance is seen between certain rapidly formed outgrowths in plants and animals, caused not by any parasitic organism, but simply by the influence of some stimulus, probably always external, acting upon a plant or animal in such a condition of irritability that it is able to respond. A similar resemblance occurs between regenerative wound tissues in certain plants and animals, the formation of which is in all cases accompanied exclusively by the more rapid form of nuclear division known as amitotic or direct.


Zoological Societv, April 18.-Mr. H. Druce, vicepresident, in the chair. The horn-core (with sheath attached) of an Urus (Bos primigenius): J. G. Millais. The specimen was believed to be the only British example of the actual horn of the Urus in existence. The curious corrugations on the surface of the lower end were similar to those found on the American and European bison, and incidentally supported the view that the white cattle of Chillingham, Chartley, and Cadzow were not descended from this animal.-Photograph of the horns of a Roberts's gazelle (Gazella grantii robertsi) obtained by Mr. C. L. Chevalier O. Thomas.-The discovery of the skeleton of Diplodocus carnegii, Hatcher: Dr. W. J. Holland. Holland discussed the osteology of Diplodocus, briefly pointing out some of the more interesting structural features of the skeleton, and in this connection animadverted upon certain so-called restorations" made public in popular magazines. Dr. Holland concluded his account by exhibiting in rapid succession pictures of a few of the more remarkable skeletons which had been recovered by the paleontological staff of the Carnegie Museum from various localities in the region of the Rocky Mountains. A unique specimen of Cetiosaurus leedsi, a sauropodous dinosaur from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough: Dr. Smith Woodward. The author described the fore and hind limbs and the tail, and confirmed the observation of the late Prof. O. C. Marsh, that Cetiosaurus was one of the more generalised Sauropoda.-On a young female Nigerian giraffe: Dr. P. C. Mitchell. On the evidence afforded by a young female giraffe, obtained by Captain Phillips in the district of Gummel, about 300 miles due west of Lake Chad, and now deposited in the Society's Gardens, the author was inclined to believe in the distinctness of the 1 Loeb's " Ketten-reflexe," discussed in his "Vergleichende Gehirnphysiologie u. Vergleichen le Psychologie." Leipzig, 1800. p 06, and arg compare also Exner, “Entwurf einer physiologischen Erklärung psychis cher Erscheinungen," Vienna, 1894. p. 162, and seq., under "Successive Bewegungscombinationen."

Nigerian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta of Thomas), which, however, was closely allied to the Nubian form (G. c. typica).-The ento-parasites obtained from the Zoological Gardens, London, and elsewhere: A. E. Shipley. Thirteen species were enumerated, one of which was described as new.-The muscular and visceral anatomy of a leathery turtle (Dermatochelys coriacea): R. H. Burne. The animal was a young female about 4 feet long, and was thus considerably larger than the few examples of this rare chelonian that had previously been dissected. It came from Japan. The muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs were described in detail, and notes were made of numerous hitherto unrecorded or imperfectly described features of the alimentary and other internal organs.— A third collection of mammals made by Mr. C. H. B. Grant for Mr. C. D. Rudd's exploration of South Africa, and presented to the National Museum: O. Thomas and H. Schwann. The present series was obtained in Zululand, and consisted of 222 specimens, belonging to 49 species, of which several were described as new, besides a number of local subspecies.-Description of a new species of newt from Yunnan: G. A. Boulenger.-Hybrid hares between Lepus timidus, Linn., and L. europaeus, Pall., in southern Sweden: Dr. E. Lönnberg. The hybrids had become comparatively common in this part of Sweden owing to the introduction of the latter species for hunting purposes.-Description of the giant eland of the Bahrel-Ghazal : A. L. Butler. M. Butler was of opinion that this eland was more nearly allied to the West African form than to that of South Africa, and proposed to distinguish it as Taurotragus derbianus gigas. It differed from the typical T. derbianus in its much lighter bodyiour (a pale café-au-lait fawn instead of a rich ruddy brown), in the greyish white of the black-maned dewlap, and in carrying grander horns.

Chemical Society, April 19.-Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Complex nitrites of bismuth : W. C. Ball. A series of double salts of bismuth nitrite with alkali and ammonium nitrites and nitrates were desribed. These salts, though unstable, appear to be perfectly definite substances.-Experiments on the synthesis of the terpenes, part ii., synthesis of A3-p-menthenol (8), A--menthadiene, p-menthanol (8), ▲8(9)-p-menthene, and p-menthane: W. H. Perkin, jun., and S. S. Pickles.-Part iii., synthesis of aliphatic compounds maar in constitution to terpineol and dipentene: W. H. Perkin, jun., and S. S. Pickles.—Part iv., synthesis of A normenthenol (8), ▲3:s(9)-normenthadiene, normenthanol (*, and ▲N)-normenthene: K. Matsubara and W. H. Perkin, jun. These three papers described the preparation of terpenes and related substances. The results showed that the lemon-like odour of certain terpenes is associated wh the simultaneous occurrence of two ethylenic linkages,

e in the ring and the other in the side chain, and that by the disappearance of the ethylenic linkage in the ring terpenes having a peppermint odour are produced. The interesting fact was also observed that when the two **vienic linkages occupy the so-called Tiemann position with regard to each other only one of them becomes saturated by the addition of halogens, and that consesu-ntly the property of forming a tetrabromide is not districtive of a particular class of terpenes possessing only one couble bond, as has frequently been supposed.-C-Phenyl-strazole: G. Young. This compound and certain of its ✪ “ivatives were described. The resolution of inactive giveric acid by fermentation and by brucine: P. F. Frankland and E. Done. In view of Neuberg and Sobermann's observations (Ber., 1904, xxxvii., 339), the authors have re-examined the barium salts of fermentation gveeric acid and of the synthetic acid deracemised by means of brucine, and have confirmed the results obtained be Frankland and Frew and Frankland and Appleyard, which are at variance with those recorded by the German workers.-Estimation of potassium permanganate in pesence of potassium persulphate: J. A. N. Friend. Small quantities of potassium permanganate may be estimed jodometrically in presence of potassium persulphate provided that the solution is dilute, only faintly acid, and that the iodide is added only in slight excess of the amount required to reduce the permanganate.

Royal Microscopical Society, April 19.-Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-A slide of Bacillus typhosus and the method adopted in staining and mounting, also photomicrographs of the slide X2500 and 5000 diameters with flagella well displayed: W. J. Dibdin. On the application of the undulatory theory to optical problems: A. E. Conrady.


Royal Irish Academy, April 10.-Mr. F. Elrington Ball, vice-president, in the chair. On the growth of crystals in the contact-zone of granite and amphibolite: Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole. Attention is directed to the growth of crystals in amphibolites when these come under the stimulus of an invading mass of granite. Garnet and hornblende may thus appear upon a larger scale than that adopted by them in the original amphibolite. Hornblende especially grows in large prismatic forms in the composite rocks produced along such junction-surfaces, and serves as evidence in these cases that contact-alteration has taken place rather than dynamic metamorphism. Under dynamic influences, the secondary hornblende is of the granular type common in epidiorites. The instances quoted are from both sides of the Gweebarra estuary in Co. Donegal.


Academy of Sciences, April 25.-M. Poincaré in the chair. Two observations relating to the undergrowth in woods: P. Fliche. Certain forms of plants requiring plenty of light for their proper development appear to die out when the undergrowth reaches a certain height. After clearing, however, these plants again re-appear at the same spots, and as an example of the great persistence of such plants the author instances groups of E. lathyris, probably planted by the Romans, which are found near Gallo-Roman remains. On a new clutch: le Duc de Guiche and Henri Gilardoni.-On the light emitted by crystals of arsenious anhydride: D. Gernez. The author has made a careful study of the luminous phenomena produced during the crystallisation of arsenic trioxide, and finds that, contrary to the statements of Rose, the light is not produced at the moment each minute crystal is deposited on the sides of the flask, nor during its growth, but that the least contact between a hard body and a recently formed crystal, or between two crystals, causes a brilliant evolution of light. It is a case of the development of light by the fracture of crystals, many examples of which are known in the field of organic chemistry. This property of arsenic trioxide crystals is not a fugitive one, but is exhibited after a long interval of time.-On the application of the methods of interferential spectroscopy to the solar spectrum: Ch. Fabry. A description of a modification of an arrangement given in an earlier paper. It possesses the advantage of allowing a larger number of lines to be studied, and may be of use in determining very small displacements of lines. On the variations of lustre given by a Crookes's tube: S. Turchini. The brightness of the fluorescent screen, when acted upon by a given Crookes's tube, was measured photometrically, each of the constants of the circuit being varied in turn. The luminosity of the screen increased with the equivalent spark up to a spark length of 10 cm. to 12 cm., after which it remained constant. Measurements were also made of the effect of the frequency of the contact breaker, of coils differing in size, and of variations in the selfinduction of the coil.-The application of the microscope to the examination of india-rubber: Pierre Breuil. It was found that the progress of the vulcanisation of rubber could be followed under the microscope, the absorption of the sulphur being accompanied by changes in the crystalline structure.-The floral diagram of the Cruciferæ: M. Gerber. The floral formula of the Cruciferæ is given as

S(21+2m). P(4). E(21+ 4d),C(218+ 2mf).

-The experimental production of the ascospore apparatus of Morchella esculenta: Marin Molliard. From the experiments described the best conditions are worked out for the cultivation of this mushroom.-Chlorophyll assimilation in young shoots of plants; applications to the vine: Ed. Griffon. Boussingault, in 1807, studied the question

as to whether young shoots, almost colourless, possessed the power of decomposing carbonic acid, his experiments leading to a positive result. The method used was indirect, the assimilation being proved by the evolution of oxygen. The author has taken up this question again, using the method of gaseous exchanges in a confined atmosphere containing from 5 per cent. to 10 per cent. of carbon dioxide. In the cases studied the assimilation was extremely small, and was easily masked by the respiration. CALCUTTA.


Asiatic Society of Bengal, April 5.—The colouring principle of the flowers of Nyctanthas arbor tristis: E. G. Hill. The author describes the uses of the flowers of the "Narsinghar" plant in dyeing, and gives an account of the separation and properties of the crystalline yellow colouring matter. A sweet principle, recognised mannitol, and wax were also extracted from the flowers. -On some forms of the Kris hilt, with special reference to the Kris Tadjong of the Siamese Malay States: N. Annandale. The Kris is the most characteristic weapon of the Malays, but its origin is probably not very ancient. The hilt takes various forms, all of which, however, have much in common, and can be reduced to one general type. Examination of a series of specimens shows that this type was originally Hindu.-On the occurrence of the fresh-water worm Chatogaster in India, with a diagnosis of a species from Calcutta and notes on its bionomics: N. Annandale. The genus Chatogaster does not appear to have been recorded hitherto from India. species (Chaetogaster bengalensis, sp. nov.) common in the Calcutta tanks lives in close association with water-snails, but is not parasitic upon them, feeding on small Crustacea. It progresses by the aid of an anterior and a posterior sucker, and uses its setæ in insinuating itself between the snail and its shell.



ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Flame: Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.
CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Synthesis of Substances Allied to
Adrenaline H. D Dakin.-Methylation of p-Aminobenzoic Acid by
Means of Methyl Sulphate: J. Johnston.-Some Notes on Sodium Alum:
J. N. Wadmore.-Camphoryl-4-Semicarbazide: M. O. Forster and
H. E. Fierz.
RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 5, (1) to Medical Members only. Forty-two Cases f
Ureteral Calculus Diagnosis by X-Rays proved by Operation on the
Passage of the Calculi; (2) at 815 p.m., to the General Meeting,
Measurement and Technique in Therapeutic Dosage: Dr. C. Lester
Leonard, Philadelphia.

LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Ecology: its Present P. sition and Probable
Development: A. G. Tansley.-The Flora of Gough Island: R. N. R.

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 7 30.-Annual General Meeting At 8.-Card-Indexing and Filing J. C. Osborne. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINER, et 8.- Discussion on A. M. Taylor's paper Standby Charges and Motor Load Development." FRIDAY, MAY 5.

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Walker. The Effect of Plant Growth and of Manures upon the Soil: the retention of Bases by the Soil: A. D. Hall and N. H. J. Miller.A Study of the Process of Nitrification with Reference to the Purification of Sewage: Miss H. Chick.-Pathological Report on the Histology of Sleeping Sickness and Trypanosomiasis; with a Comparison of the Changes found in Animals infected with T. gambiense and other Trypanosomata: Dr. A. Breinl.-(1) The Experimental Treatment of Trypanosomiasis in Animals; (2) Remarks on Mr. Plimmer's Note on the Effects produced in Rats by the Trypanosomata of Gambian Fever and Sleeping Sickness: Dr. H. Wolferstan Thomas.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Flame: Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.
SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 4.30.-The Manufactures of Greater Britain. III.
India: H. J. Tozer.

H. L. Webb.

SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.15.-Some Guiding Principles in the Philosophy of History: Dr. J. H. Bridges.

MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY. at 5.30.-On the Intersections of two Conic Sections J. A. H. Johnston.-On a System of Conics yielding Operators which Annihilate a Cubic and its Bearing on the Reduction of the Cubic to the Sum of four Cubes: H. G. Dawson.


ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Pressure due to Radiation: Prof. E. F.
PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- A Simple Method of Determining the Radiation
Constant; suitable for a Laboratory Experiment: Dr. A. D. Denning.
A Bolometer for the Absolute Measurement of Radiation: Prof. H. L
Callendar, F. R.S.-The Resistance of a Conductor the Measure of the
Current flowing through it: W. A. Price.

MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Note on Helix pellita, Fér., and other
Shells from the Pleistocene Cave-deposits of East Crete: Rev. R. Ashing-
ton Bullen.-Notes on Recent Spanish Shells from Granada and Carmona :
Rev. R. Ashington Bullen.-Description of a new Species of Vitrea from
Greece: E. A. Smith.-Descriptios of new Forms of Marginellida and
Pleurotomidæ : E. R. Sykes.


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The High-frequency Electrical Treatment.-Rev. F. J.
Jervis-Smith, F.R.S..

The Critical Temperature and Pressure of Living Sub-
stances. Dr. F. J. Allen

Chalk Masses in the Cliffs near Cromer.-Prof. T. G.
Bonney, F. R. S.

The Rigidity of the Earth's Interior.-Rev. A. Irving
Rival Parents.-Kennedy J. P. Orton

The Measurement of Mass.-Dr. W. Hampson Properties of Rotating Bodies. -E. W. Rowntree Recent Spectroheliograph Results. (Illustrated.) By Dr. William J. S. Lockyer.

R. L.

The Teaching Value of Menageries. (Illustrated.) By
Science at the Royal Academy Banquet

Our Astronomical Column:

Discovery of a Tenth Satellite to Saturn
The Alleged Identity of Comets "Brooks 1889' and

Ancient Drawings of Celestial Phenomena Mount Wilson Observatory.

Anomalous Dispersion and "Flocculi" Astronomical Society of America Colour in Wasps of the Genus Polistes. The Cleavage of Slates. By A. H... University and Educational Intelligence. Societies and Academies Diary of Societies . . .


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Professor J. ARTHUR THOMSON and MARGARET THOMSON. Two volumes, Royal 8vo. With many Illustrations. 32s. net.


Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford.
With Illustrations and Di+grams. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. net.


And the Inter-Relations between Organic Compounds. By R. MELDOLA, F.R.S., V.P.C.S., F.I.C., &c., Professor of Chemistry in the City and Guilds of London Technical College, Finsbary. Super Royal 8vo. 21s. net.





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