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The GOVERNORS of the WOOLWICH POLYTECHNIC invite applications for the following appointments, which will date from next September :

1. Five Teachers for Mathematics and Physics at commencing salaries ranging from £130 to £160 per annum. Two of these appointments are confined to Teachers (men and women) who have had experience in Secondary Schools.

2. Six Teachers for the Day Secondary School (mixed) at commencing salaries ranging from £100 to £140 per annum. The appointments, which are open to men or women, will be divided, (a) two Teachers for English, History and Latin; (b) two Teachers for French and German; (c) two Teachers for general form work in the Lower School.

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8. One Teacher to take Evening Classes in English, French and Latin preparatory for the London University Matriculation Examination. Further particulars of the appointments may be obtained by sending to the Principal a stamped addressed foolscap envelope. The last day for receiving applications is Friday, July 14. A. J. NAYLOR, Clerk to the Governors.

BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. (UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)

YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W.

The College provides instruction for Students preparing for the University of London Degrees in Arts, Science, and Preliminary Medicine, also instruction in subjects of General Education.

There is a Training Department for Teachers, a Hygiene Department, and an Art School.

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UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK, FREDERICTON, N.B., CANADA. Applications are invited until August 15 for the position of DEAN of the School of Civil Engineering and Surveying in connection with the University. Salary commencing October 1, 240, with suite of rooms in College, suitable for a married man, and heated at the expense of the College.

Required also at the same time, a PROFESSOR of ENGLISH and FRENCH who has some knowledge of German. Salary, £200, with rooms in College for single man. Duties begin October 1. Applications and testimonials should be sent to the REGISTRAR of the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., Canada.

CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE.

RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS IN CHEMISTRY. The Research Fellowships founded by the Salters' and the Leathersellers' Companies for the encouragement of Higher Research in Chemistry in its relation to Manufactures, tenable at the City and Guilds Central Technical College, being now vacant, the Executive Committee of the Institute are prepared to receive applications from candidates. The grants made by each Company to the Institute for this purpose are £150 a year. Copies of the schemes under which the Fellowships are awarded may be had from the HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE INSTITUTE, Gresham College, Basinghall Street, E C.

Partnership offered in a Commercial Research Firm. Applicant must have first-class experimental training and about £3,000 capital. Send full particulars as to experience and qualifications to Box No. 1862, c/o NATURE Office.

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To SCIENCE and MATHL. MASTERS.REQUIRED (1) Graduate for Science and Maths. Important School near Loncon. Salary, 120 to £150, resident. (2) PRINCIPAL of Technical Institute and Teacher of Electricity, £200 to £250. (3) Assistant Master for General Elementary Science. Degree not necessary. 22 hours' work a week. Technical Institute in Kent. 6140 to L160, non-res. (4) Two Masters required for Physics and Chemistry under Dept. of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, £100 each, resident. Important Schools in Ireland. (5) Physics and Maths. Technical Day School. 120 to £150, non-res. (6) Five Mathl. and Science Masters required for Public Institution near London. Salaries up to £160 each. (7) Graduate mainly for Practical Science. £80 to £100, resident. Grammar School. (8) Maths. to Scholarship Stand. 120, resident. Preparatory School. (9) Mathematical Master for County School. £120, non-res. (10) Chemistry, Physics and Maths. £120, non-res. County School. For particulars of the above and many other vacancies, address:-GRIFFITHS, SMITH, POWELL & SMITH, Tutorial Agents (Estd. 1833), 34 Bedford St., Strand. COUNTY BOROUGH OF CROYDON.

EDUCATION COMMITTEE.

The Committee require the services of a TEACHER OF CHEMISTRY at the Central Polytechnic, Scarbrook Road, Croydon, for Session 1905-6.

The person appointed will be required to teach on two evenings per week at a fee of 20s. per evening.

Further particulars may be obtained from the undersigned, to whom applications, stating age, qualifications, &c., accompanied by copies of testimonials, must be sent not later than Wednesday, July 12, 1905. JAMES SMYTH, Clerk.

Education Office, Katharine Street, Croydon,
July 4, 1905.

MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOLS,
LIMERICK.

A PRINCIPAL is required for the above Schools who would also undertake to teach Electricity in the evenings.

Salary, £200 to £250, according to qualifications and experience of organising work.

Application to be sent before July 31 to THE SECRETARY, 69 George Street, Limerick.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, BRISTOL. The COUNCIL invite applications for the post of ASSISTANT LEC. TURER IN MATHEMATICS.

Full particulars may be obtained on application.

JAMES RAFTER, Registrar.

MACMILLAN & CO.'S NEW BOOKS.

NEW AND REVISED EDITION, NOW READY.

A TREATISE ON CHEMISTRY.

By SIR H. E. ROSCOE, F.R.S., and C. SCHORLEMMER, F.R.S.

Vol. I.-The Non-Metallic Elements. New Edition, completely revised by Sir H. E. ROSCOE, assisted by Dr. H. G. COLMAN and Dr. A. HARDEN. With 217 Illustrations. 8vo. 215. net.

THE

SIXTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED.

ADVANCED PART
PART OF A TREATISE ON THE
DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF RIGID BODIES.

Being Part II. of a Treatise on the Whole Subject. With numerous Examples.
By EDWARD JOHN ROUTH, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 8vo. 145.
JULY NUMBER NOW READY.

THE

SCHOOL

WORLD.

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF EDUCATIONAL WORK AND PROGRESS.

PRICE SIXPENCE MONTHLY.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS FOR JULY.

The Alternative to Greek at School. By F. W. Headley, M.A.-A School Holiday in France. By G. F. Burness, B. A.-The School Journey. By Ernest Stenhouse, B.Sc. (Lond.). (Illustrated.)-The Scholastic Career in Sweden. By Gustaf Aae, Fil. Kand. (Lund), and C. S. Fearenside, M.A. (Oxon.). -Selection by Interview. By C. M. Stuart, M. A.-School Cadet Corps. II. By Edward C. Goldberg, M. A.-Studies in School Management. V. The Supply of Text-books to Secondary Schools. II. By E. Sharwood Smith, M.A.-A School Fire Brigade. II. Organisation. By C. C. Carter, M.A. (Illustrated.) The Cost of Building, Equipment and Maintenance of Secondary Schools.-The Education of Pupil Teachers in Secondary Schools. By Caroline E. Rigg.-Correspondence: The Use of Graphs. By Prof. G. H. Bryan, F. R.S.-A State Department of Education for Ireland. By the Rev. Father Andrew Murphy and Our Irish Correspondent. MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, LONDON.

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ROBERT ADKIN, F.E.S.
W. LUCAS DISTANT, F.E.S., &c.
EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S.
F. W. FROHAWK, F.E.S.
MARTIN JACOBY, F. E.S.

DR. D. SHARP, F.R.S., F.E.S., &c. G. H. VERRALL, F.E.Ś. W. F. KIRBY, F. E.S. G. W. KIRKALDY, F.E.S. W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F. E.S. Founded by the late Edward Newman in 1840, this Journal has been the popular organ of British Entomologists since 1864. Its contents deal chiefly with the home fauna, but there are frequent articles and notes on matters of interest pertaining to the Entomology of various parts of the world.

Published on the first of each month. Price 6d. Subscription, 6s. per annum post free to any country.

London: WEST, NEWMAN, & CO., 54 Hatton Garden, E.C.

THE ENTOMOLOGISTS' MONTHLY

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As supplied to the National Physical Laboratory; Aberdeen, Aberystwyth,
Birmingham, Nottingham and Glasgow Universities; Bedford, Bradford,
Clifton, Heriot Watt and Yorkshire Colleges; and twenty other Scientific
Institutions, Polytechnics, &c.

NATURE says: "Teachers requiring efficient apparatus at a low
cost for lecture or laboratory purposes, might consult the list with
advantage."
List on application by mentioning NATURE.

PEAK

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READING MICROSCOPES, RESISTANCE COILS, &c.

56 CHARING CROSS ROAD, LONDON, W.C.

NOW READY. Nos. 1-15. 1s. PER NUMBER. BACTERIA.

(THE SCIENTIFIC ROLL.)

Subscription for Vol. II. and for each subsequent Vol., 10/-; for the entire work, 50/-, if paid before Dec. 31, 1905.

The most rapid, most exhaustive, and most economical reference work for over 30,000 pages of literature.

No. 16, completing Vol. I., will be issued shortly. Contents of Vol. I. (price 16/- after August 31): Introductory (p. 1); General Bibliography (2-111): General Notes (112-124): Descriptive Notes (125-167); Essay on Specific Descriptions (168-359, with two Charts); List of Diseases associated with Bacteria (370-373); Affinity Notes (375-385); Characters, Notes (386-460); Essay on the Value of Characters (461-466); Classification, Notes (467 to about 484); Organic Grade Lists (No. 16).

Vol. II. will be on Vital Chemistry; Vols. III. to end on Organic Systems, Habits, Physiological Effects on Hosts, Medial Influence, Biological Influence, Geological and Geographical Distribution, Bibliography and Notes for each Genus and Species, and Index to all the volumes (between six and twelve in number). Separate pages are obtainable at the rate of 4 for 1d.

The rate of publication depends on the number of paid subscriptions. At present there are 74 subscribers for Vol. I., and the rate of issue is one number per quarter; with 200 subscribers it will be one number per month; with 1000 subscribers 4 vols. per year.

Bacteria, be it remembered, are essential agents in connection with life, health, disease, and many industries. Ignorance of them means loss and disadvantage to all individually and collectively.

For fuller particulars apply to

A. RAMSAY,

4 Cowper Road, Acton, London, W.

DAVID NUTT, 57-59 Long Acre, London, W.C.

Importer of Foreign Literature and Publisher.

All FOREIGN WORKS reviewed in NATURE are on sale or can be procured at shortest notice from DAVID NUTT, at Continental Prices. SUBSCRIPTIONS can be effected through DAVID NUTT to all FOREIGN PERIODICALS.

RARE and OUT OF PRINT FOREIGN WORKS sought for without charge, and supplied at the most moderate prices. SECONDHAND FOREIGN CATALOGUES supplied regularly on demand, and orders executed therefrom.

The Official Organ of the British Electrotherapeutic Society.

MEDICAL ELECTROLOGY
AND RADIOLOGY,

AN INTERNATIONAL MONTHLY REVIEW COVERING
ALL BRANCHES OF ELECTROTHERAPEUTICS.
Subscription, 12/- per Annum, Post Free throughout the World.
Single Numbers, 1/-; Post Free, 1/2.
LONDON: A. SIEGLE, 2 LANGHAM PLACE, W.

FOREIGN SCIENTIFIC BOOKS

and Periodicals promptly supplied at lowest rates.

CATALOGUES post free ON APPLICATION.

W. MULLER,

An Authoritative Work of National Interest.

FORTY YEARS' RESEARCHES

IN

BRITISH AND SAXON BURIAL MOUNDS

OF

EAST YORKSHIRE.

Including Romano-British Discoveries, and a Description of the Ancient Entrenchments on a Section of the Yorkshire Wolds.

BY

J. R. MORTIMER

(FOUNDER OF THE MORTIMER MUSEUM AT DRIFFIEld). With over 1000 Illustrations from Drawings by AGNES MORTIMER.

800 pages, 12 × 8, bound in a Seal Back, Cloth Sides, Gilt Top, 50s. net.

There are few parts in the British Isles that have yielded so many interesting relics of pre-historic times as has East Yorkshire, and few districts have been so thoroughly explored. For over forty years Mr. J. R. Mortimer has been investigating the various barrows and other early monuments of the Riding. The results of his labours are now given to the world in the form of a volume, and, unquestionably, the work is one of the most valuable contributions to archæology that has been issued for some time. Mr. Mortimer's museum at Driffield, in which his geological and archæological collections are arranged, has long been a place of reference alike to professors and students. detailed prospectus will be posted free to any address on application.

A

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Now Ready, Price gd. net (postage extra).

59 CASTLE STREET EAST, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W. PROGRAMME OF DEPARTMENT OF

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TECHNOLOGY, CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE, containing Regulations for the Registration, Conduct and Inspection of Classes and Examination of Candidates in TECHNOLOGICAL SUBJECTS, and for the Award of Teachers' Certificates in MANUAL TRAINING and DOMESTIC ECONOMY, with Notices of Prizes, Scholarships and Exhibitions.

To be obtained from any Bookseller, or from Mr. JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street, London, W.

THOMAS PRINCE,

SCIENTIFIC BOOKSELLER.

All books advertised and reviewed in NATURE are supplied

at lowest cash prices.

Orders by post promptly dispatched.

85 PRAED STREET, LONDON, W.

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THE NEW "STUDENT'S"

STANDARD BAROMETER.

(Rd. No. 420,207.)

This Instrument has been designed to meet the requirements of Students and others who find the need of a Barometer which will give exact readings, and cost but a moderate sum.

It appeals especially to Colleges and Schools for Demonstration purposes.

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The construction is on that of the well-known "Fortin principle. The level of the cistern mercury is reducible to zero, in exactly the same manner as in the more expensive forms.

The diameter of the mercurial column is 25 inch, and affords a bold, well-defined reading. The scales, by means of the double vernier, are capable of being read to or inch and 1 millimetre. It is mounted on a wellpolished, solid mahogany board, with plates for attachment to wall, opal glass reflectors for reading off, and screws for vertical adjustment.

The metal portions are all well bronzed and lacquered, and the scales are silvered brass.

We confidently recommend this Instrument for use as "Standard" in Colleges and Schools, private Observatories, and by Gas and other Engineers.

a

Price, complete, mounted as illustrated,

£3 7 6 each,

or may be had with one scale (either inches or millimetres), and with thermometer on other scale, at same price.

NATURE says:-"Provides an accurate instrument at a moderate cost."

FULL SIZE STANDARD

BAROMETER of same design, bore o'5" diameter, inches and millimeter scales, verniers reading to o'oo2 inch and o't m/m, on polished mahogany board with brackets and opal glass reflectors, £7 10 0

Sole Manufacturers and Proprietors of he Registered Design.

PASTORELLI & RAPKIN, LTD.,

46 HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. WHOLESALE MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. Contractors to H.M. Government. Estd. 1750. Telegrams, "Rapkin, London." Telephone, 1981 Holborn

KAHLBAUM'S CHEMICALS

Sole Depot:

JOHN J. GRIFFIN & SONS,

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LIMITED,

SARDINIA STREET,

LONDON, W.C.

Telegram and Cable Address: "GRAMME, LONDON."

THURSDAY, JULY 6, 1905.

THE EMPIRE AND UNIVERSITY LIFE.

WE

Oxford: It is generally acknowledged that both Oxford and the country at large suffer greatly from the absence of a body of learned men devoting their lives to the cultivation of science, and to the direction of academical education."

The commissioners of a quarter of a century later did, indeed, largely increase the number of university professors, but it left them powerless-muzzled lions chained by the leg. The whole power of influencing the passing generations of young men it left in the hands of a score of independent corporations-nearly all of them ancient, and with noble traditions of high learning and profound research; but, in the intellectual backwater of our time, each has strained to become a petty university and the successful rival of all the other petty universities-the successful rival, that is, in the qualities developed by examination, and in nothing higher. To this end each has freely spent its endowment in entrance scholarships to compete with others for the men who will do best in examin

TE publish to-day a statement signed by more than forty professors and heads of departments of the University of Oxford setting forth a scheme for large increase in the facilities for research and for teaching. We have no hesitation in stating that these forty signatures include the majority of Oxford workers with a reputation for learning which extends beyond the borders of that ancient university. They also represent, with singular completeness, the varied lines of research which happily are pursued at Oxford; and it is an encouragement among the many unsatisfactory features in the intellectual life of the nation that they are ready and willing to stand side by side, each sympathising with the needs of other workers, each desiring to grant the fullest opportunities for research on the broadestations, and each has striven to secure, before and lines.

They doubtless feel in Oxford, as we recognise in London, and as Britain generally is beginning to know, that the real conflict in this country is not between science and classics, between theology and philosophy, or between the true followers of any branches of learning, but that the great educational struggle of our time and race is of an utterly different kind. On the one side are ranged those who hold that the much needed intellectual inspiration of our youth can only be received in an atmosphere of research, can only be given by men who are themselves researchers; on the opposite side stand those who uphold the ancient Chinese and the modern British educational methods. We recognise to the full the Imperial importance of the subject. Young men instructed by purveyors of second-hand word knowledge are not likely to develop the germs of imagination and originality, and to deal effectively with the problems presented in the modern world which deals with things; and the time in which such development is generally possible is all too brief. When once the critical period of intellectual growth has been devoted solely to the collection and re-collection of material for the examiner, any awakening of original power is rare indeed. We have merely created one Briton the more incapable of using his birthright, out of sympathy with the movement which would help others to gain what he has lost; and his want of sympathy may mean a great deal. He may become a journalist and help to frame the opinion of the nation, he may enter Parliament and help to marshal the educational forces upon which our future existence most surely depends, he may be a power in the Treasury and help to determine the expenditure of the national income, he may become a schoolmaster or a college tutor and do unto others even as he has been done by.

It cannot be disguised that things are in many respects worse than they were half a century ago. The University Commissioners of 1850 said of

beyond all others, the most successful purveyor of knowledge which will be useful in examinations. We say, intentionally and deliberately, that each college has done these things, but are far from implying that all of them have no higher aims at the present time. We are only too glad to recognise in recent years a change of spirit which has led to significant departures from the scheme of the last university commissioners. Magdalen, New College, and Brasenose have been noble leaders in a noble cause the return of Oxford to ideals of learning which have been suppressed, but not altogether killed, by a false and injurious educational system. We gladly recognise clear evidence of the same spirit in other societies, and we are well aware that others, again, strongly desire to make provision for the highest learning, but are unable to do so while their whole available funds barely suffice to enable them to keep their place in the unfortunate and wasteful inter-collegiate competition which dominates both our ancient universities. There is, however, one college in which the necessity for such competition is reduced to a minimum, and it is precisely here that the last commissioners inflicted the crowning injury upon the intellectual life of Oxford-they set their seal on the existing constitution of All Souls. A college almost without the responsibility and the care of undergraduates is created, it would seem, to be the home of the highest learning and research. And what is it? Well, apart from a distinguished professoriate, a generous assistance to the Bodleian, and a rare and occasional election of men of learning to her fellowships--for all of which we freely and gladly express our gratitude-All Souls merely exists in order to encourage the worst features of an intellectual training which exists by and for examination alone. Only recently the governing body rejected the movement, which happily existed among some of the members, to ask for evidence of original power in the candidates who compete for the fellowships. Yet

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