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Ernest Renan. This is only one of many indications of the respect in which science is held in France. We shall probably have to wait some time before it is decided by the municipal authorities of London that streets shall be known by the names, say, of Darwin and Joule.

THE atmospheric disturbance referred to in our last issue as crossing this country on Tuesday, February 21, reached the English Channel on the following day; afterwards its progress eastwards was unusually slow, and north-west winds belonging to the rear of the disturbance were experienced. Frost occurred during the night of the 22nd in many parts, and towards the close of last week the daily maxima fell below 40°, except in the extreme west and south-west, while in the midland counties frost continued throughout the day, and hail and snow occurred in many places. After a temporary improvement in the south and south-east districts on Saturday, a deep depression reached our south-west coasts from the Atlantic, causing strong gales on Sunday, and very severe snowstorms in Scotland, with heavy rain in other parts of the country, the fall exceeding an inch and a quarter on the north-east coast. By Sunday evening the disturbance had reached the north-east of England, where the barometer had fallen to 286 inches; this depression was preceded by severe frost in Scotland, the minimum temperature recorded at Nairn being as low as 11°. On Monday a north-westerly gale was blowing in Scotland, accompanied by snow, and on the same day a new depression arrived over the south-west of England, accompanied with further heavy rainfall in the southern half of the kingdom, and strong winds and gales in the English Channel; frost also occurred in many parts. After these gales had subsided, the weather still remained in a very disturbed and unsettled condition. The Weekly Weather Report issued on February 25 showed that the temperature for that week was generally 1° to 2° below the mean in Great Britain, and 3° to 4° below in Ireland; also that the rainfall was much in excess of the average in the southern and eastern parts of England.

THE Report of the Meteorological Council for the year ending March 31, 1892, just presented to Parliament, reviews the work of the office under four heads: (1) Ocean Meteorology. The charts for the Red Sea were in an advanced state, and the extraction of data for the current charts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and of data referring to the southern ocean, was being actively carried on. In this branch of the work the supply of instruments to ships is supplemented by the supplies to remote stations, when favourable opportunities occur. (2) Weather Telegraphy and Forecasts. An important station has been established at the North Foreland, and the work generally in this branch continues to increase; both the Daily and Weekly Weather Reports have been extended and improved. Weather forecasts are prepared three times daily; the total percentage of success of the 8h. 30m. p.m. forecasts which appear in the morning newspapers was 80, being 2 lower than in 189091. The results were best in England south, and worst in Scotland west. The percentage of success of the forecasts issued during haymaking was 89 per cent. Although these forecasts are issued solely for the benefit of farmers, the Agricultural Department does not at present aid in their dissemination. (3) Land Meteorology of the British Isles. Under this head are included all observatories, anemograph stations, and volunteer stations, necessary for the study of the periodic variations of the meteorological elements, and of climatology. Among the publications we may specially mention the "Harmonic Analysis of the Hourly Observations at British Observatories," which is probably the first systematic publication of the description that has hitherto been brought out by any of the established meteorological institutions. (4) Miscellaneous. This head gives an

account of the various researches now in hand, among are included investigations relating to rainfall, st fog, &c. It also contains particulars relating to the done in cataloguing books and pamphlets, and also a cas summary of expenditure. A special note contains an of the anemometer comparisons carried out by Mr. " Dines, with the aid of a grant from the Council.

THE Meteorological Council have just issued a sum the Weekly Weather Report, 1892, containing, amorg other information of importance to agricultural and hyg meteorology, an appendix showing the rainfall and mean ter ture for the 27 years 1866 to 1892, for each of the 12 into which the United Kingdom is divided for the purp weather forecasts. The values show that the average for the whole of the British Islands is 349 inches; T wheat-producing districts the average fall for the year inches, while for the grazing, &c., districts it is 416 The wettest district is the west of Scotland, where the 10. annual rainfall is 45'5 inches, and the driest is the east land, where the average amount is 25.8 inches. The va the year 1892 varied considerably in different localis wettest district during the year was the north of Sch where the fall was 5'6 inches in excess of the average, w the south-west of England the deficiency was 125 inches regards temperature, the average for the whole area for years (omitting the Channel Islands) was 484, and the 1 difference of temperature between the wheat-produc grazing districts scarcely amounted to a degree. The s value for the whole area during 1892 was 16 below the for the 27 years; there was a deficiency in every district that year, the greatest amount being 2°3 in the east of land, and the least, o°9 in the south of England; in '2 was the coldest year experienced since 1879.

AN electrical actinometer was used by Messrs. EstGeitel, of Wolfenbüttel, in their measurements of the ultraviolet radiation. The instrument, as described in mann's Annalen, was based upon the action of ultraviole in accelerating the dissipation of an electric charge cathode of amalgamated zinc. By exposing a plate metal to the light from a stream of sparks from 2018. coil at various distances, and determining the dissipat negative charge imparted to it, this was proved to be a function of the light intensity. In its portable form the = ment consists of a cylinder which can be directed town sun, and into which a charged sphere of amalgamated introduced by means of an insulating handle. The potential during a few seconds' exposure is determined ytof an Exner electroscope. Messrs. Elster and Gele made observations for each month in the year, and teet ultraviolet radiation to exhibit an inverse relation

spheric electricity. Comparisons were also made of the at various heights above the sea-level, the stations e summit of the Sonnblick (3100 m.), Kolm-Saigern, adjoining valley (1600 m.), and Wolfenbüttel (80 m. found that 40 per cent. of perpendicular ultraviolet ray space reached the level of Sonnblick, 23 per cent. of thes absorbed before reaching the next station, and only 47 me of the remainder arrived at the level of Wolfenbuttel

TEN years ago there was some correspondence in V on the subject of snow-rollers. The phenomenon dos " to occur very often, so that some interest attaches to & cation in Science (February 3), describing an instance year at Milledgeville, Ohio. Mr. W. S. Ford says: morning of January 30, 1892, the clean level fields surr that town were covered with balls of snow, varying three to five inches long and from one to two in

Wheat-fields and meadows abounded with these balls, and sug. ested, at first sight, that a troop of school-boys had been having battle with the snow. Two fields, of thirty acres each, that ame under Mr. Ford's observation (one a new-sown wheateld and the other a meadow) were literally covered with these snow-rollers," there being at least 500 on the acre. Roaddes and lots contained a few, and he noticed them on houseps and straw-ricks. On close investigation, he found the balls be uniformly light and fragile, so that to lift one and preserve 3 form was impossible. Some were oblong, some almost herical, while, others resembled a tea-cup or small bowl. here were no tracks behind them, or, if these had been made, e falling snow had obliterated them. The accompanying eather conditions were as follows:-The ground had been vered with snow for three weeks. A crust had formed on the p, thick and firm enough in places to bear up a person. This awed a little during the afternoon of the 29th. The ensuing 3ht was warm, the mercury registering 40° F. By ten o'clock orisk wind was blowing, which increased in velocity, and soon snow began to fall in large, moist flakes. The morning owed that about a half-inch had fallen on the crust, and on s lay the balls. The phenomenon was reported from several ices in the vicinity, chiefly in the Fayette County, and from nton County, which adioins it on the west, but nowhere did rollers extend uninterruptedly over any great area.

IN November last, according to a writer in the Journal of the aits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, there was in Singae one of the largest specimens of the Mias or Orang-Utan r captured; it was a male, and probably of the species known Simia satyrus, Linn., or the Mias Pappan of the Dyaks. e animal was captured in Borneo, and bought by a native ler in Singapore, who eventually sold him to a German 's captain, by whom he has been, it is believed, taken to many. As far as the writer could judge, his height must e been close on 4 feet 5 inches. The cage in which he was fined was 4 feet 2 inches or thereabouts in height, and he Id easily touch the top of it with his head without standing t. His face was immensely broad, the cheeks being flated out sideways into a sort of disc. The hair was long out 4 inches) and thick and of a bright red colour, and he a distinct short pointed beard. The eyes were dark brown. WRITER who signs himself "Tutuila" contributes to the ent number of the Journal of the Polynesian Society some resting notes on the races known as the Tokelaus, or Line nders, called by themselves the Kai-n-Abara, which means ople of our land." The Kai-n-Abara inhabit all islands of the Gilbert Group, Nanumea, and Nanumanga he Ellice Group, and Banapa or Ocean Island. They are arently of the Micronesian type, but although they have straight hair, and are more of a copper colour than brown, are not pure Micronesian. They are intelligent, can reason ctively, are brave, having a very respectable share of age, and are extremely pugnacious, both sexes fighting like Is on the least provocation. In every township there is a = house called "maneabau," in which the members of each y of "aomata" or "gentry " have a certain space allotted em. All the social government is carried on in this house, everything of a public nature is discussed in it. Decision ven by general vote, the majority carrying their point. older and wealthier landowners have most influence e there are no nobles, but do not seem to have more votes any one else. A woman can vote and speak as well as a and in general the women decide the question, unless it e of war against another island.

R. A. J. CHITTY records in the new number of the Entopist's Monthly Magazine that in the neighbourhood of Forres,

Morayshire, where he spent six weeks last autumn, he found that Coleoptera were very abundant. He captured specimens of a good many species new to the district, and one or two which had not, he believes, been recorded before from Scotland.

A LIST of the Batrachia in the Indian Museum, by W. L. Sclater, has been issued by the trustees of the institution. The arrangement and nomenclature are formed on Mr. Boulenger's work in the British Museum catalogues, and the Reptiles and Batrachia in the "Fauna of British India" series.

AN interesting paper on the were-wolf in Latin literature, by Kirby W. Smith, is printed in the new number of the Johns Hopkins University Circulars. The were-wolf is a person who, either from a gift inborn or from the proper use of certain magic arts of which he has learned the secret, can change himself into a wolf of unusual size and ferocity; or, furthermore, the transformation may be unavoidable, owing to the curse or charm of some outside power, and not to be got rid of until a fixed period has elapsed or various conditions, more or less difficult, have been complied with. Such enchantments are common in the folk-lore of all nations, but, on Roman ground, they do not appear in connection with the werewolf story. Mr. Smith mentions the were-wolf story

told by Petronius, who describes how the companion of the freedman Niceros took off his clothes, and, becoming a wolf, began to howl and took to the woods. Niceros tried to pick up the clothes, but found they had all turned to stone. The wolf was wounded in the neck with a spear, and afterwards Niceros found his comrade in bed, while his neck was being dressed by a doctor. Here the transformation is attributed to a power born in the person, and Mr. Smith thinks that this may be the nearest approach to the original form of the superstition, be cause "among savages, these modern types of early humanity, . just such stories are more or less common." The other class of Roman were-wolf stories-those in which the change is effected by means of a charm-simply form one of a large number of different transformations, the theory and methods of all being practically the same.

We have received the first part of the new Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania. It contains papers by Dr. J. T. Rothrock on a monstrous specimen of Rudbeckia hirta, and on a nascent variety of Brunella vulgaris; by Dr. J. M. Macfarlane, contributions to the history of Dionea muscipula; by Mr. J. W. Harshberger on an abnormal development of the inflorescence of Dionea; by Mr. H. Trimble on Mangrove tannin; by Dr. W. P. Wilson on Epigaa repens, and on the movements of the leaves of Melilotus

alba.

THE paper by Dr. Macfarlane on Dionæa is of great interest and confirms the statement previously made by him that, to produce closure of the leaf, two distinct stimuli are required, which may be communicated to the same hair, or to different hairs on the same half, or to hairs on opposite halves of the leaf. He regards the leaf, previous to secretion, as in a state of tetanic contraction, resulting from a series of stimuli, which may either be partially or entirely mechanical, thermal, luminous, chemical, or electric. The so-called "hairs" are not true hairs, but em. ergences, and their structure is described in detail. Each consists of three distinct regions, the joint, the base, and the shaft. While previous observations, such as those of Darwin and Prof. Burdon Sanderson, have been made on plants of Dionæa under abnormal conditions of cultivation, Macfarlane's are especially valuable as having been made on the plant in its native condition; and this is also the case with those of Mr. Bashford Dean, contributed to the Transactions of the New York Academy of

Sciences.

Mr. Dean states that there is a marked difference in the irritability of different leaves; that the leaves usually fail in capturing the larger and more active insects; that even small insects constantly escape; and that the leaf repeatedly closes on inorganic and vegetable objects.

MR. W. SAVILLE-KENT'S book on "The Great Barrier Reef of Australia" will be ready for publication before the end of the present month. It will include a series of photographic

views of coral reefs of various construction from several selected localities, with similar and also coloured illustrations and descriptions of the living corolla, coral-polyps, and other marine organisms commonly associated on the reefs. Meanwhile, Messrs. W. H. Allen and Co., who are to publish the book, have issued enlarged and very beautiful copies of some of the principal illustrations. These are intended for the use of museums, colleges, and natural history societies, and will certainly be highly appreciated wherever they may happen to be introduced.

A TRANSLATION of Prof. Weismann's "Das Keimplasma," recently reviewed in NATURE, has been issued in "The Contemporary Science Series" (Walter Scott). The translators are Prof. W. N. Parker and Harriet Rönnfeldt, who have done their work carefully. In the preface Prof. Parker explains that in the case of special technical terms which have no recognised English equivalents he has added the German words in brackets the first time they are used. He has had the great advantage of being able to consult Prof. Weismann personally with regard to many of the more difficult passages.

THE County Council of Northumberland has issued a valuable pamphlet, by Dr. W. Somerville, giving an account of experiments made last season throughout Northumberland with a view of gaining practical information regarding some points connected with the economic manuring of the turnip crop.

MESSRS. METHUEN AND CO. have added to their "University Extension Series" a volume on "The Mechanics of Daily Life," by V. P. Sells. The author makes no attempt at the mathematical treatment generally adopted, but seeks rather to use the subject "as a means of scientific training, and as an illustration of the method of examining nature by reasoning and experiment."

Messrs. Cassell AND CO. are publishing in monthly parts a new issue of Dr. Robert Brown's "Our Earth and its

Story," with many coloured plates, maps, and upwards of 700

illustrations.

Two important papers upon the ready preparation of large quantities of the more refractory metals by means of the electric furnace are contributed by M. Moissan to the current number of the Comptes Rendus. The "electric furnace" is simply a small furnace constructed of lime, so arranged that it can be intensely heated by a very powerful electric arc. A quantity of magnesia, which M. Moissan finds to be perfectly stable even at this high temperature, is first placed in the cavity of the furnace, and upon this the crucible of retort-carbon containing a mixture of powdered carbon and the metallic oxide to be reduced. When the metal is volatile a current of hydrogen is passed through the furnace, and the vaporised metal is condensed in a comparatively cool receiver. In this manner M. Moissan has succeeded in rapidly preparing considerable quantities of the metals of the alkaline earths, calcium, strontium, and barium. If the metal is not sensibly volatile it is left in the crucible after the reduction in the form of an ingot. The rare metal uranium, and the metals manganese and chromium belong to this category, and their preparation forms the subject of M. Moissan's two communications.

METALLIC uranium was prepared with great difficulty, only in small quantities by Peligot, by reducing the oxide s an alkali metal. At ordinarily procurable temperatures various oxides of uranium are practically irreducible by carb This no longer obtains, however, at the extremely high temper ture of a very powerful electric arc. The nitrate of uranias first calcined in a porcelain crucible, whereby a reddish-col obtained. This mixed oxide is then well ground with a re mixture of the sesquioxide and of the green oxide U slight excess of powdered carbon, and the whole tightly packal in the crucible of retort-carbon, which is afterwards placed position in the lime furnace. Upon submitting the mixture in e crucible to the action of the arc produced by a current of 4 ampères, the reduction is completely effected in a few minta The ingot of uranium thus produced exhibits a brilliant fractie and great hardness. It possesses the peculiar property of ing forth a shower of incandescent sparks when struck ag a piece of porcelain, or when fragments of it are shaken abru a glass flask, reminding one of the combustion of particles freshly-reduced iron when allowed to fall through the air. Tz yield of the metal is very considerable; thus in one experimen of twelve minutes' duration an ingot weighing over two ha grams was produced. The metal is not quite free from cara the amount of the latter depending upon the excess used. Moissan is now engaged in perfecting a ready mode of refente

In order to prepare metallic manganese the protoxide is mixt with carbon as in the case of uranium, and the mixture st mitted to the arc produced by a current of 300 ampères. reduction is completely effected in five or six minutes, an arc derived from a current of only 100 ampères gives the sam of 120 grams being readily obtained. The comparatively w yield in 10-15 minutes. avoided as carbides of manganese are then produced. I Any large excess of carbon is t excess of the oxide is employed the metallic manganese obrata is almost pure, and may be preserved unchanged in open ve The carbides, however, are rapidly attacked by the moisture the atmosphere, and if thrown into water evolve a gasets ture of hydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Chromit always been found hitherto to be much more difficult to re than manganese, but complete reduction occurs in 8-10 in the electric furnace, employing a mixture of the sesquite and carbon and a current of 350 ampères, the yield be ingot of 100 grams. sufficient to produce ten grams of the metal in half an he A current of only 30 ampères, howev time. Moreover, it is possible to refine the somewhat (from carbide) metal by a simple repetition of the price presence of a fresh quantity of the sesquioxide. Th chromium thus obtained is completely transformed into the tile chloride, when heated in a stream of chlorine. The rec in the electric arc succeeds equally well with crude chrost ore, an alloy of iron and chromium being obtained from the chromium may very readily be converted into chrom projecting it into fused nitrate of potash or soda and subser extraction with water.

NOTES from the Marine Biological Station, Ply During the past week ephyræ of Aurelia have become plentiful in the Sound. The Anthomedus have been sented by numbers of the charming Rathkea octopum ( Haeckel; and the Leptomedusæ (which are still scre isolated examples of several species, including the The octona of Forbes. Ctenophore ova and several la young Ctenophores have been noticed. The propert Polychæte larvæ and of Cirrhipede Nauplii remains a stant; while there has been an appreciable increase numbers of Brachyurous Zoox. The Hydroid & argentea and Actinian Cereus pedunculatus (= Sagare are now breeding.

*

HYDROGEN LINE HB IN THE SPECTRUM OF NOVA AURIGÆ.

THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the ast week include a Mozambique Monkey (Cercopithecus-Owing to the curious appearance of the HB line in the spec

vgerythrus, ¿) from East Africa, presented by Mr. R. Hughes; Bonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus, ?) from India, presented y Mr. W. Yeoman; two Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) ritish, presented by Mr. J. S. Williams; an Ariel Toucan lamphastos ariel) from Brazil, presented by Mr. Ellis Edwards; Great Eagle Owl (Bubo maximus) European, presented by ommander E. G. Rason, R.N.; two Spengler's Terrapins Ticoria spengleri) from Okinawa Shima, Loo Choo Islands, esented by Mr. P. Aug. Holst; two Tuatera Lizards (Sphenon punctatus) from New Zealand, presented by Capt. Worster; Spiny-tailed Mastigure (Uromastix acanthinurus) from geria, presented by Miss Rigley; a Cuming's Octodon ctodon cumingi) from Chili, deposited; an Eland (Oreas ina, 8), born in the Gardens.

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VA AURIGE.-Last week we mentioned that Mr. Fowler's vation of this nova consisted of two bright nebula lines ed near wave-lengths 5006 and 4956, the former being only ly brighter than the latter. In Astronomischen Nach", No. 3153, Mr Huggins, in a note dated February 11, with respect to his observations on February 7, 8, O, using a 4-inch Rowland grating (14,438 lines to the and the second order, that the band was "resolved into a group of lines extending through about 15 ten h-metres. nes appeared more or less bright upon a faintly luminous round which could be traced a little beyond the lines at ends of the group. Two lines, the brightest in the group bout equally bright, formed the termination of the group As the blue; and a line nearly as bright as these was seen the middle of the group. The group is therefore brighter blue end, but it does not possess any of the features of a No contrast in the spectroscope could well be more ig than that which this extended group of lines forms with rrow and defined principal line in the nebula of Orion."

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trum of Nova Auriga, this line first appearing double and then afterwards quadruple, various explanations have been put forward to account for this peculiarity. From the hypothesis of two bodies, which did not agree with the facts observed, that of three or more bodies was suggested, until at last it was supposed that six bodies in all were in question. This supposition seemed most improbable, and since then the matter has been allowed to lie dormant. With reference to the behaviour of this line in the spectrum of vacuum tubes, Herr Victor Schumann (Astronomy and Astrophysics for February) has made some very interesting experiments, taking great care to use the hydrogen in as dry and pure a state as possible. We will here only refer to the most important part of the paper, leaving the reader to refer to the article itself for the apparatus, &c., employed. The photographic plates employed were made by himself according to the silveroxydammonmethode of Dr. Eder, of Vienna. Working with pressures from 1 to 100 mm. of mercury, the results obtained at those of 65, 80, and 100 gave the following results-At 65 mm. H8 and Hy were most prominent, and in the negatives they were well defined, "although the sharpness of their edges is injuriously affected by broad, hazy fringes of considerable intensity, which shade off into the background from both sides of the line." Under a pressure of 80 mm. Hẞ lost most of its definition, and close to it on each side were observed two fine thin lines, the fringe also being present but a little wider than before. Hy, although increased in breadth, has lost its definition. With a pressure of 100 mm., "the more refrangible component of the pair of lines just mentioned as belonging to HB, has disappeared, and in its place has appeared HB itself, broad, but very weak; near by on the lower side one observes a thin line twice." With reference to the fringe of HB he says, it has now "spread itself out more towards the blue than the red, thus displacing the middle of it towards the blue." Hy remains a very weak line. These observations showed that of all the hydrogen lines Hy was the only one that showed reversal as well as displacement, and he concludes with the remark that "if it be asked whether the phenomena of reversal as observed in my hydrogen spectra furnish in themselves an explanation of the reversal of the lines in the spectra of Nova Auriga, the answer must be decidedly in the negative."

COINCIDENCE OF SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL PHENOMENA. — Since Prof. G. E. Hale commenced his solar researches at the Kenwood Observatory, much has been added by him to our knowledge of the physics of the sun. Faculæ, for instance, which were supposed to be scattered only here and there on the solar surface, are now found, by means of the fine spectroheliograph, to occupy largely both hemispheres, and sometimes to extend in almost unbroken belts across the disc. This fact has led him to consider the question of the probability of chance coincidence between terrestrial magnetism and spots and faculæ (Astronomy and Astrophysics, for February), his attention being especially brought in this direction through a paper communicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences by M. Marchaud. M. Marchaud, in summing up his results after an examination of both solar and magnetic observations, says, with reference to the curve of magnetic intensity, that each of these maxima sensibly coincides with the passage of a group of spots or a group of faculæ at its shortest distance from the centre of the disc. From an examination of 142 photographs of the sun, obtained between January 25 and December 3, 1892, at the Kenwood Observatory, Prof. Hale finds that no less than 132 show "one or more groups of faculæ on the central meridian, i.e. at their shortest distances from the centre of the solar disc." The chances, therefore, that at any given time one or more groups may be located at the central meridian, he finds as 0 93. This value, as he remarks, will be reduced for periods of decreased solar activity, but "coincidences noted in epochs like the present can hardly be regarded as of great importance."

"ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL" PRIZES.-In addition to the prizes already offered, and to which we have previously referred (NATURE, vol. xlvii., Astronomical Column, p. 282), two extra ones, subject to the same conditions, are now to be presented. The first is to be given to "the observer making, by Argelander's method, the best series of determinations of maxima and minima of variable stars during the two years ending 1895, March 31." The sum in this case is two hundred dollars. It is stated that 66 principal basis for the award is to be the extent to which the de

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terminations will contribute to our better knowledge of the periodic variables by furnishing the largest number of maxima or minima of the largest number of stars, having especial regard to stars whose characteristics are at present not very well known." The award of four hundred dollars will be given for the "most thorough dis cussion of the rotation of the earth, with reference to the recently discovered variations of latitude." The manuscript (which will be returned to the author) is to be transmitted to some one of the judges not later than March 31, 1895.

For the award of these prizes the judges are Messrs. Asaph Hall, Seth C. Chandler, and Lewis Boss.

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

THE Liverpool Geographical Society has issued its first annual report, which, although not showing a very cordial reception of the new society by the public, is not without some promise of future growth. The Earl of Derby is President, there are twenty-two Vice-Presidents, a substantial Council, and a staff of honorary officials. Staff-Commander E. C. Dubois Phillips has been appointed Secretary. The second year of the society was inaugurated by a lecture on the Dis. covery of the Alps, by Mr. D. W. Freshfield, President of the Alpine Club, and one of the Secretaries of the Royal Geographical Society. Other lectures have been arranged for, and it is to be hoped that the membership of the society will rapidly

increase.

THE tenth German Geographentag is announced to meet in Stuttgart on April 5, 6, and 7. The programme includes (1) The special geography of Würtemberg and the researches on the lake of Constance; (2) Recent geographical investigations with special reference to desert phenomena; (3) Cartography; (4) Economic or applied geography; and (5) School geography. An exhibition will be held at the same time, mainly of objects illustrative of the geography of Würtemberg.

PROF. PENCK has a long paper in the March number of the Geographical Journal, describing in detail his scheme for a map of the world on the scale of I: 1,000,000. The importance of having maps of every country on one scale has long been recognised by working geographers; but, with the exception of the little atlas on gnomonic projection by the late R. A. Proctor, we do not know of any effort having been made to place such maps before the public. The minute scale of the work referred to reduced its value to a minimum. Prof. Penck's scheme is one of great magnitude. He would allocate the production of the map to the Governments or public bodies of each country. On this principle, 769 sheets would be required to represent the land surface of the globe, each sheet containing 5 square between the equator and 60°, and between 60° and the poles 5° of latitude and 10 degrees of longitude. The British Empire would be responsible for 222 sheets, Russia for 192, United States for 65, France 55, Scandinavia 54, China 45. Five countries would have from 20 to 30 sheets each, six more would have over 10, and ten countries would require a smaller number, Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece having only one each. One advantage of the proposed scale is that it corresponds within the limits of the shrinkage of paper with the 16 miles to an inch Survey of India maps (1 : 1013760) and with the 25 versts to an inch Russian maps (1 : 1050000).

MONGOLIA AND CENTRAL TIBET.

AT the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on Monday Mr. W. W codville Rockhill gave an interesting account of a journey in Mongolia and Central Tibet. Leaving Peking on December 1, 1891, Mr. Rockhill travelled to the frontier town of Kalgan, then, entering Mongolia, he passed through the pasture-lands of the Ch'ahar Mongols. After a few days spent at Kuei-hua Ch'eng, the traveller continued westward, and crossing the Yellow Kiver on the ice at Ho-k'on, he crossed the Ordos Mongols country, and afterwards Alashan. Again entering China proper the route led through Ning-hsia, Lanchou, and Hsi-ning, the westernmost town in China, on the high road to Tibet. On March 14 Mr. Rockhill left for Tibet by an unexplored route, passing south of the Koko nor and

along the foot of the mountains to the south side of the T dam, making several excursions on the way, one of b importance from the Mongol village of Shang to Tose N determine by astronomical observations the position of sheet of water discovered by him in 1889. Mr. Ro party consisted originally of five Chinese, but one had invalided home a few days after leaving Kumbum, as others deserted him at Shang. He was able to hire place an old Chinese trader, and with these three men, 15 for a while by a Mongol and then by a Tibetan gu travelled till he reached China again in October, 1992 May 27 the final start for Tibet was made from the Nai in western Ts'aidam, and a general south-westerly re was followed until July 7, when a point some 30 mile the north-west corner of the great central Tibetan lake, Tengri nor by the Mongols, was reached. Between the N gol and the Ts'aidam the party had to endure great barb the great altitude ranging from 14,000 to 17,000 feet abo level, terrible daily snow and hail-storms, fierce wi frequent absence of fuel, and towards the end starvation. route, moreover, led them through vast salt marshes, bugs across numerous rivers, in which quicksands were fre found. The geographical results of this portion of the were important. (1) The determination of the limits basin of the Murus (the great Yang-Tzu Kiang of Chi the discovery of the sources of the main branch of this r the snow-covered flanks of the great central Tibetar man, mountains known as the Dangla. (2) The discovery of the limit of the lake-covered Central Asian plateau which m some 600 miles west of the route Mr. Rockhill followed the but is in the section he crossed of it called Naktsang, an times, though apparently erroneously, Chang Tang or thern S'eppe."

Game was scarce in the great part of this region, and 1 that it could not be approached.

On July 2 the last provisions were eaten, and from th to the 7th the party subsisted solely on tea. On the la a small encampment of Tibetans was reached, and a purchased. The next day a valley was entered dote. with tents; it was the pasture lands of the Namra and Lh'asa governed territory. The headman refuse the party food unless Mr. Rockhill agreed to await of the head chief, who would decide as to whether he s allowed to proceed southward, or be sent back to the r

After six days' discussion with the chief and severa from Lh'asa a compromise was effected; and Mr. Rock an escort of ten Tibetan soldiers, started eastward to frontier port of Nagchuká, on the highroad to Lhasa Koko nor.

himself on the territory of Jyade, or "The Chinese i On July 27 Mr. Rockhill crossed the Dangch'e which is governed by native chiefs appointed by the Minister, resident at Lh'asa (or Lh'asa Amban). portant province was separated from Lh'asa by the ( the seventeenth century, in view of the enmity existing its people, who profess the Bonbo religion, a form o worship or shamanism, though now mixed up with a such an extent, that it is hardly distinguishable from: followers of the yellow and red sects of Buddhism

Lh'asa soil.

Passing to the south of the city of Ch'amdo, to a Mr. Rockhill, like his predecessor, Captain Bower, w admittance, the high road to China was reached at fang stages south of Ch'amdo), and from this point to China escort was given the traveller, and he was able to e the luxuries of Chinese travel. Stopping at Draya, Bat'ang and Lit'ang, Ta-chien-lu, in Ssu-ch'uan, was October 2. Here, on the eastern border of Tibet de was practically ended, for, though several thousate = separated Mr. Rockhill from the seaboard, they travelled in comfort and rapidity. Leaving Tac October 5, he was in Shangai on the 29th, exact months from the time he had left it. "In that travelled about 8000 miles, surveyed 3417, and dur graphically important part of the journey crosses passes, all of them rising over 14,000 feet above s not a few reached 18,000. I had taken series of sex vations at a hundred points along the road, deter hundred and forty-six altitudes by the boiling post taken three hundred photographs, and made impor

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