« PrejšnjaNaprej »
H. OF R.]
[JUNE 2, 1834. of the work aforesaid, and of any work or works printed in rejecting them, in the course of which he replied to by order or at the expense of the United States, shall be the argument yesterday urged by placed at the disposition of the Joint Library Committee, Mr. J. Q. ADAMS, who replied, and defended the to be by them disposed of in return for donations to the position he had before taken. Library of Congress.
Mr. SUTHERLAND, professing himself satisfied that The resolution was read twice, and the question being these men did not belong to the district in which they on its engrossment for a third reading,
voted, said he must therefore be compelled to vote Mr. McKAY inquired if there would be a sufficient against the amendment. He desired the question, how. number of copies to give one to each person who had re-ever, to be taken at once, as to whether Mr. Moore or ceived the Diplomatic Correspondence published by Mr. Mr. Letcher was entitled to the seat, in order that the Sparks?
other important business before Congress should be atMr. E. EVERETT replied that there would not only tended to. be enough, but that there would be a surplus, which was Mr. POPE then proposed to amend the amendment in to be deposited in the Library of Congress.
substance, by inserting “there being no other evidence Mr. CLAYTON remarked that, if it was intended to of the fact except that their names appeared on the pollhave these books distributed among the members of Con- book, to show that such persons lived in the county:' gress, as Sparks's Correspondence had been, he must op Mr. JONES proceeded to address the House at large, pose the resolution, and call for the yeas and nays on the when he gave way to question of engrossmenl.
Mr. BARRINGER, who said that if the Speaker should Mr. E. EVERETT replied that, as they were a con- lend him his ear and aid, he would, in order to arrest this tinuation of the Diplomatic Correspondence published interminable mode of debating a subject, insist upon the by order of Congress, they were to be distributed to those rule, that no person should speak more than twice, unless persons to whom Congress had ordered the former part by leave of the House. The member from Georgia had of the work to be given.
spoken repeatedly, and he was going again at large in The yeas and nays having been ordered,
reply to arguments made yesterday. Mr. STEWART inquired if this work was not already After some further remarks from Mr. JONES, Mr. published and lying at ihc State Department for distribu- HARDIN, Mr. HUBBARD, and Mr. SUTHERLAND, tion?
Mr. BANKS further modified his original amendment, Mr. E. EVERETT responding in the aftirmative, by striking out the name of “ E. Welsh.”
The question on the engrossment was then put, and Mr. WHITTLESEY remarked that some of the modi. decided in the affirmative: Yeas 110, mays 57.
fications apeared to involve an irregularity, as they were So the resolution was ordered to be engrossed for a not intended, he supposed, to apply to other names than third reading to-morrow.
the two voters, Williams and Dawson, from Anderson The House resumed the consideration of the reports of county. the committee on
The amendment proposed by Mr. Pope was then reTHE KENTUCKY ELECTION.
jected. After which, ibe question on admittting, the
names of Eli Williams and Wade Dawson, baving been Mr. LANE, who had the floor from the previous day, put, was decided by yeas and nays in the negative, as folrose and said that, as it had been intimated to him that lows: Yeas 93, nays 115. the friends of the gentlemen who were personally in Mr. S. McD. MOORE now called for a division of the terested desired to have a vote taken on the main ques. remaining portion of Mr. Banks's amendment, so as to tion, he was willing, for the sake of that object, to waive have it put separately on the names of Montgomery Van. his right, and abstain, at present, from making any re- landingham, Joseph Murrain, and Hickman Evans. marks.
was divided accordingly. The original question before the llouse being on the Mr. MERCER adverted to the mode of conducting following amendment, moved by Mr. Banks, viz: elections in Virginia, to which that in Kentucky is in many
“ That the votes of Eli Williams and W. Dawson, of respects similar: and argued to show that greater weight Anderson county, and those of William Connor, Charles ought to be allowed to the poll-book than seemed to have Welsh, Montgomery Vanlandingham, Joseph Murrain, been allowed by some of his colleagues. Anderson Hulet, Hickinan Evans, Henry Wood, and Mr. MASON replied-admitting that the poll book Richard White, of Jessamine county, be counted for Ro- was strong ground of presumption that an individual had bert '. Letcher;"
voted, but denying it to be so in respect to his being a And the immediate question being on so much thercof good voter; and insisting that, in case of dispute, the as relates to the names of Eli Williams and Wade Dawson, burden of proof lay on the person claiming the benefit of
Mr. PARKER proposed to modify it by inserting there the votes. with, in substance, “rejected because there was not evi Mr. HARDIN further explained in relation to the mode dence of their being known.”
of testing votes in Kentucky. The SFEAKER said this amendment would not apply Mr. MERCER responded to his colleague, (Mr. Mason,] to the question (as to Williams and Dawson) now before and was followed by the House.
Mr. LANE, who, after some remarks on the testimony, Mr. MARSHALL suggested that it should be stated disclaimed all feeling on the subject--believing both the • they were rejected by the committee because these candidates to be very fit for the place. The question persons were proved by the sheriff, the deputy sheriff's, must be decided on principle and precedent. and others, to be unknown to them."
Mr. H. EVERETT made inquiry respecting particular Mr. BANKS accepted the amendment proposed by voters, which was replied to by Mr. Jonus. Mr. Parken, and made some further verbal modifications Farther explanations were given by Mr. Hardin and to it.
Mr. Beaty. The question on the amendment, as modified, having Mr. S. McD. MOORE further urged the grounds on been then put
which he had moved his amendment, to which Mr. JONES reviewed, at some length, the arguments Mr. HAMER replied. used for reinstating the names of those persons, and fur When the question was put on admitting the three ther explained and defended the views of the committee names included in Mr. Moore's amendment, and decided would say, in further answer to the inquiry of the gentle by yeas and nays as follows: Yeas 103, nays 100.
Juxs 5, 1834.]
Polish Exiles--Territorial Bills.
(H. Or R.
So the names of Vanlandingham, Murrain, and Evans, Arkansas, and went thereon into Committee of the whole were ordered to be taken into tlie computation of votes on the state of the Union, (Mr. Wayne in the chair.) for Mr. Letcher.
On motion of Mr. WILLIAMS, the bill repealing cerThe question then recurred on admitting the remain- tain acts of the Legislative Council of Florida, by which ing names in Mr. Banks’s amendment, viz: William Con- certain taxes were imposed and raised improperly on the nor, Anderson Hulet, Henry Wood, and Richard White, property of absentees, was taken up; and the report prefor Mr. Letcher.
sented with the bill having been read for the information And decided by yeag and nays, as follows: Yeas 89, of the Housenays 116.
Ms. WHITE moved an amendment, in substance to Mr. POPE moved the following as an amendment to authorize two additional members to be sent to the Counthe amendment of Mr. Banks, viz:
cil; which, he remarked, became necessary, but would not Resolved, that the votes of A. Kavanagh, George cause any increase to the public expense, as the amount of Elliott, jr., Moses Bryant, John Shipman, Shelton Har- expenditure for the Legislative Council was limited by law. ris, John Floyd, Jeremiah Anderson, Garret Norris,
The amendinent was agreed to. John D. Stone, M. B. Moseley, William Woolley, Cor Mr. FILLMORE inquired into what treasury the taxes nelius Davis, James Moorman, John Cornett, George which had been so unjustly raised had been paid; for, if Callett, and Robert Figg, be stricken from Mr. Letcher's the money had been paid into the local treasury of the poll, it having been proved that they were minors at the Territory, he must object to the amount being refunded time of the election.
out of any other. Resolved, That the votes of William Gwinn, John Mr. WILLIAMS replied that the money had been paid McCoy, and William Wright, who resided in Garrard and into the Territorial treasury. The committee, considerLincoln counties; and of Greenbury Peyton and Wil- ing that the Legislative Council, by imposing a higher tax liam Welsh, who resided in Jessamine county, be strick on the property of absentees than they did on that of reen from Mr. Letcher's poll, it having been proved that sidents, had acted unjustly, now recommended this bill they were not citizens of Kentucky at the time of the repealing the act. election.
Mr. FILLMORE fully concurred in opinion that the Resolved, that the vote of Rowland Shields ought to principle assumed by the Legislative Council was objecbe counted for Mr. Moore, on the Lincoln poll-book, it tionable. Yet, although he did so believe, and that the having been wrongfully stricken off by the judges of the amount to be refunded was small, as it was to be paid out of election.
the treasury of the United States, he could not sanction Resolved, that the vote of John Brady be taken from the principle of such a payment, under the circumstances. Mr. Letcher's poll, and counted on that of Mr. Moore, on
Mr. WHITE, of Florida, said that, believing the Legis. the ground that he had, in the first instance, bona fide and lative Council had no right to pass such a law, he would without mistake, voted for Mr. Moore.
consent to a proviso that the payments to be refunded, Mr. POPE advocáted, with great ardor, the amend- should be so refunded out of the Territorial treasury. ment he had moved; when
Mr. FILLMORE thereupon moved to strike out the Mr. BANKS, desiring to reply, but being indisposed words “ treasury of the United States," and insert “ by to do so at so late an hour, moved an adjournment.
the Governor of Florida." On this motion Mr. VANDERPOEL demanded the yeas
Mr. WHITE said that, as the amount in question was and nays; which, being taken, stood as follows: Yeas 104, very small, and upon an appeal to the judicial tribunals nays 89.
from parties who bad resisted the tax, they had been supThe House then adjourned.
ported, it was not worth while to legislate upon it at all. He moved, therefore, to strike out the clause providing
for the repayment altogether. THURSDAY, Jure 5.
The motion prevailed, and the bill was laid aside.
Mr. SEVIER moved to take up the bill to establish an POLISH EXILES.
additional land office in Arkansas, to which he moved an The bill from the Senate, for the relief of the Polish amendinent, correcting a mistake as to the boundary of exiles, having been taken up,
the district in which it was to be established; which was Mr. CLAY, of Alabama, moved, in addition to some agreed to. verbal amendments, the insertion of the following words
Mr. MCKAY desired to be informed by the chairman thereto, and of the payment into each land office of the of the Committee on Public Lands, if the lands in this dislowest mimimum price, to be paid for such land at the trict were now ready, or when it was expected they would time of such payment, within ten years."
be brought into the market. Mr. LANE moved that the bill and amendments be Mr. CLAY said he believed they would be in market committed to the Committee of the Whole on the state of within the next twelve months. the Union; which motion, after a desultory conversation Mr. MASON went into an explanation to show that the 13 to a point of order, in which Mr. CLAY and Mr. WHIT- establishment of this additional land office was become TLESEY participated, was finally agreed to, and the bill necessary for the interest of Government, as well as the and amendments ordered to be printed.
land owners, and the only expense of establishing it now Mr. WATMOUGH asked the unanimous consent of the would be $500 for a register and $300 for a receiver. House to submit a resolution, that when the House should
The bill was then laid aside. adjourn this day, it would adjourn to meet again at seven Mr. WHITE moved that the House take up the bill for o'clock this evening, with a view to take up the bills in the relief of certain inhabitants of East Florida, which relation to the navy of the United States, which seemed provided for the payment of such losses as should be to him to claim some attention at their hands.
awarded by the judge of the superior court of St. AugusObjection having been made, Mr. WATMoUga's pur- tine, Florida, as were occasioned by the troops in the serpose was not accomplished.
vice of the United States; and in which bill, there being a
provision in blank, allowing remuneration to the said TERRITORIAL BILLS.
judge for his extra services, under its provisionsOn notion of Mr. WILLIAMS, the House proceeded Mr. W. moved to fill up the blank with $500. to the special order of the day, being the consideration of Mr. FILLMORE inquired if the judge was not a salabills in relation to the Territories of Michigan, Florida, and Iried officer?
H. OF R.)
[June 5, 1834.
Mr. WHITE replied that he was; but that it was not “For a survey of the east pass into Appalachicola bay unusual to allow for extra services an extra compensation. and river, to ascertain the practicability and cost of re
Mr. McKAY inquired if these judges had not $800 moving obstructions and improving the harbors, $500.” already allowed them for extra services?
The bill making an appropriation of $10,000 for the Mr. WHITE said they had; but that extra compensa construction of a road from Columbia to Little Rock, haytion would expire this year.' He supposed the claims ing been, on motion of Mr. SEVIER, taken up, and, now to be decided would occupy the time of the judge after some inquiries from Mr. FILLMORE, was laid aside to during ten months. As, however, he said it seemed be reported with the other bills. that the present remuneration was objectionable, he Mr. WHITE, of Florida, moved that the committee would move to strike out the section altogether. should take up the bill “supplementary to the act enti
Mr. McKAY then objected to the bill making any ap- tled · An act to authorize the President of the United propriations, and desired to be informed why it was in- States to run and mark a line dividing the Territory of cumbent on Government to make them?
Florida from the State of Georgia,' passed on the 4th day Mr. WHITE entered into a lengthened explanatory of May, 1826." statement of the circumstances by which, under an act The bill having been taken up for consideration, passed in secret session in 1811, the then President of the Mr. FOSTER, of Georgia, moved to amend it by striUnited States was authorized to take temporary posses- king out that clause which directs the boundary line besion of the Floridas, with a view to the prevention of tween Georgia and Florida to be run pursuant to the protheir occupancy by any foreign Power. This possession visions of the treaty of 1826, and inserting a clause directwas accordingly taken, by a military force, and much dam-ing that the line should be run as it was understood, in age had been done by the troops of the United States 1783, when the State of Georgia became independent. to the inhabitants of the eastern territory, until, by the Mr. F. contended that the United States were bound to stipulations of the treaty with Spain, she had abandoned secure to Georgia the limits enjoyed by her when she the territory, and after, in fact, it had been made a des- joined the confederacy, and was not at liberty to grant ert by our troops. Spain had made a reclamation on away any portion of her domain to any other State or this subject; and, whatever was the conduct of Spain, Territory. The line, as originally described in the charthat was, he said, a matter with which the innocent in- ter of Georgia from the British Government, was to bave habitants could not have any thing to do. Spain had, in for one of its extremities the head of the St. Mary's river. the treaty, stipulated that full compensation should be But the country being, at that time, wild and unexplored, paid for these, as injuries done by us to a neutral Power the commissioners, instead of ascertaining the true head in time of peace.
of the St. Mary's river, had fixed upon a certain point, She had pressed the claims of these people so strongly, where they erected a monument, and in subsequent treathat she never would have consented to the cession of the ties this point was assumed to be the head of the St. territories, unless the stipulation in their favor had been Mary's river. But as the country came to be more fully made. By that cession, he would remind the House, full explored, it had been discovered that the St. Mary's had thirty-two millions of acres--deducting !herefrom three a more southerly branch, the source of wbich was the millions for the liquidation of valid grants-twentynine true head of the river, and he therefore insisted that, acmillions of acres of as valuable land as any in the Union, cording to the charter, this ought to be admitted as our were obtained for the sum of $5,000,000. It was not, termination of the boundary line; and what he wished was then, too much for him, under these circumstances, to ask that a joint commission should be appointed by Georgia the committee to carry into effect the treaty stipulations and the United States, to have the line re-examined; and for which the bill bad been reported. The claims bad if it should appear that the true head of the St. Mary's been all preferred, and the papers were now only to be was where he expected it to be, that the line should be adjudicated upon, and would, possibly, not amount to run according to the true intent and meaning of the charmore than $40,000.
ter of Georgia, and of the act by which she was received Mr. McKAY then wished to know what necessity there as a State into the Union. was, if all the claims had been decided upon, for the com Mr. WHITE was reluctant to take up the day in this mission. Why not strike it out?
discussion. The claim now set up by the gentleman was Mr. WHITE said, in reply, that, although the claims had not a new one. It had undergone a long discussion in been all presented, action on them had been suspended. the House on a former occasion, and could obtain but fif.
The clause giving a remuneration to the judge was teen votes in its favor; it had been reported against in ihen stricken out, and the bill laid aside.
the House by three different committees on the Judiciary, The bill to create two additional land districts in Illi- and by one committee in the Senate; all which commitnois, and two new land districts north of said State, in tees had been nearly, if not quite, unanimous in their rethe territory now attached to Michigan, which lies be- ports; one of which had been made by Mr. P. P. Bartween the Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river, was, bour, another by Mr. Buchanan; that of the present year on motion of Mr. LYON, taken up, and an amendment, by the gentleman now Speaker of the House, and that in offered by him, agreed to, providing that the register and the Senate by Mr. Webster. The treaty made in 1795, receiver of all land offices, established under the United between Spain and the United States, recognised the reStates, shall be authorized to administer all such oaths as port of the commissioners, first appointed to run the line, may be necessary in relation to the duties of their offices, as valid and binding under that treaty, to which treaty and for which they are to have the usual fees.
Georgia, by her Senators, had given her assent; and it The bill was then laid aside.
was not until 1819, that the present claim had been set On motion of Mr. SEVIER, the bill authorizing the up on her part. He did not pretend that the United President of the United States to cause certain roads to be states had the right to cede away any portion of the teropened in Arkansas, was then considered and laid aside. ritory of Georgia. All he wanted was that a line should
The bill authorizing the President to cut out a road be run, and the question might be reserved; for all must from the northern boundary of Florida to the town of Appa- see that it was a question to be settled, not in this House, lachicola, was, on motion of Mr. WHITE, taken up, and but in the Supreme Court of the United States. the following amendment submitted bim was agreed Mr. GILMER, of Georgia, after adverting to the full to, and the bill then laid aside:
opportunity he had enjoyed of understanding all about the “For the survey of a road from Tallahassee to Cape history of this boundary line, declared his conviction that Florida, $500;
the line, as seitled by the treaty of '95, was not the true
Just 5, 1834.]
[H. OF R.
It had been run in ignorance of the country and The amendment was agreed to, without opposition. under mistake; which mistake, having since been discov. Mr. WILLIAMS moved to reconsider the vote by which ered, ought now to be rectified. The reason why Geor- the amendment had been agreed to. gia had not sooner set up her claim was, that, until 1818, Mr. GAMBLE, of Georgia, supported the motion of the country was in possession of the Indians, and Georgia Mr. WILLIAMS, and explained the reasons which had inknew nothing of the true position of the head waters of duced the Committee on the Territories to refuse inserting the St. Mary's. The Spanish treaty had reference only such a clause in the bill. to the question between Spain and the United States, Mr. BULL explained the circumstances of the case. and did not settle the question between Florida and the portion of territory which would be added, by the Georgia. Spain had never conquered any part of Geor- adoption of this amendment, consisted of a narrow strip of gia, and never pretended to have a right to any por- landi lying between the Lamoine and the Missouri, and tion of her territory. Because the line bad once been below the rapids of the Lamoine. The State of Missouri run incorrectly, must it therefore be adhered to? Would had, for some time, felt an interest in having this change it not be a much cheaper and easier way of settling the effected, and no one who consulted the map, and was ac. question, to appoint a joint commission to examine the quainted with the circumstances of the case, could deny country and run the line anew, than to compel both par- that, while the acquisition of this small portion of territory ties to go into the courts of the United States. Mr. G. would, from its position, be a great benefit to the State of contended that it was important that the line should be Missouri, the cession of it would occasion little or no luss correctly fixed, to avoid interfering grants and conflict to the United States. It was true that it had been pro. ing claims.
posed to include this strip along with other lands intended The question being put on the amendment proposed as a location for the Pattawatamie Indians, but it was so by Mr. Foster, it was not agreed to.
situated that this purpose could not be carried into effect, No further amendment being offered, the bill was laid without very great inconvenience as well to the Indians as aside to be reported to the House.
to the people of Missouri. They could not be kept sepaOn motion of Mr. WILLIAMS, the committee now rate from ihe whites, as it was intended and desired that took up the bill "authorizing the President of the Uni- they should be, if they should be fixed upon this land. ted States to run and mark the line dividing the territory There must be passing and repassing both of Indians and of the United States from the State of Missouri.” of their stock; and the people of Missouri, who lived
The bill being taken up accordingly, and read for within about thirty miles of the river, would not be able amendment,
to reach it without going as much as one hundred miles dir. BULL, of Missouri, offered an amendment, the ef- round. The same quantity of land might be assigned to fect of which would be to extend the northern boundary the Indians elsewhere, and it would be better both for of Missouri westward to the Missouri river, instead of run them and and for the people of Missouri. ning, as it now does, down the river Lamoine."
Mr. H. EVERETT, chairman of the Committee on In
dian Affairs, supported the amendment, further explained * House or REPRESENTATIVES, June 9, 1834. the location of the land, and stated that the Indians were Messrs. GALES & SEATON:
willing to take others in its stead. When the bill authorizing the President of the United Mr. ASHLEY corroborated the statements of his col. States to run and mark the lino dividing the territory of the Uni- league as to the solicitude felt by the citizens of Missouri led States from the State of Missouri was under consideration in for the proposed alteration of their boundary. This land Committee of the Whole, I proposed the following amendment: “Thence (from the mouth of the Kansas river) up the lies at the northwest corner of the State, and, being of Viasouri river, until it shall reach the parallel of latitude which very excellent quality, should the Indians be placed upon passes through the rapids of the river Des Moines, and from it, it would be an everlasting source of contention, and åence to the Mississippi river;" which was agreed tu without might lead to serious consequences. The Senate were opposition,
convinced of this, and, before consenting to ratify the Sir. Williams then moved to reconsider the vote by which treaty with the Pattawatamies, proposed to annex this e amendment was adopted; and, while this motion was under fraction of land to the State. They had not yet decided consideration, I am represented in the National Intelligencer of this morning as saying, in the course of soine remarks submitted the question of the treaty. The annexing of this land as py me to the committee, "that the portion of territory which proposed, would give the State of Missouri a natural aald be added by the adoption of this amendment consisted of western boundary, instead of a mere arbitrary line; and, I Darrow slip of land lying between the Lamoine and the Missouri, in case of an Indian war, would interpose a river, threead below the rapids of the Lamoine." This is a very material quarters of a mile wide, between them and the enemy. aisapprehension: there is no such river in that part of the State Mr. A. expressed himself decidedly opposed to locating o Missouri, and no river was referred to by me (except in the Indians in direct vicinity to white settlements. The lands arendment) but the Missouri. portion of territory which would be added by the adoption of proposed to be annexed would at once be brought into the amendment, consisted of a slip of land lying between the market, and produce to the treasury some $800,000 or supposed line of the State and the Missouri river.
$1,000,000. Mr. A. thought every consideration should After Mr. Williams withdrew his motion to reconsider the induce the House to adopt the amendment, and he trusted iste on my first amendment, I then proposed the following amend it would be agreed to.
Mr. DUNCAN briefly expressed his views in favor of " Be it further enacted, That all that part of the territory of the amendment, when se United States embraced within the boundaries aforesaid,
Mr. GAMBLE said that, as he now understood the szich *33 not originally included within the State of Missouri, e, and the same is hereby, attached to, and shall form a part of treaty with the Indians had not been ratified, and that this 230 Siate of Missouri, and the sovereignty, jurisdiction, and laws piece of land had not, as he had at first supposed, been of the said Sule shall extend over the said ceded territory in guarantied to them by the United States, he should with.
e sade manner, and under the same conditions, as if the same draw his opposition. bsd originally, on the admission of the State of Missouri into the Whereupon Mr. WILLIAMS withdrew his motion to Cain, been included within its limits."
reconsider. The amendment, therefore, remains with the On notion of Mr. Foster, the further consideration of the bill
assent of the committee. za postponed until to-morrow, (Saturday.) jan desirous of having the mistake corrected, and, with that
Mr. McKAY, by consent, moved an addition to the bill ter, I have to request that you will do me the favor to publish for running the Florida line, providing compensation to Yours, respeetfully,
the commissioners at eight dollars per day, and the sur
JOHN BULL. veyors at five dollars; which was agreed to.
H. or R.]
[June 5, 1834.
The bill was then laid aside.
tra session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of The bill for the survey of certain rivers and roadls, and Michigan. for the improvement of a harbor in the Territory of Michi Mr. LYON having made the necessary explanations, the gan, was in like manner considered and laid aside, after bill was laid over. some explanations from Mr. MERCER. On motion of Mr. SEVIER, the bill for the relief of
LEAD MINES. sundry citizens of Arkansas, who lost their improvements The committee now, on motion of Mr. DUNCAN, in consequence of a treaty between the United States and took up “A bill to authorize the President of the United the Choctaw Indians, was next taken up.
States to cause the lead mines in the State of Illinois and At the call of Mr. McKIM for information,
Territory of Michigan, to be exposed to public sale, and Mr. SEVIER explained. When the United States had, for other purposes.” for the sake of quieting certain Indian tribes at the Souti, This bill gave rise to a very animated discussion, which set apart a portion of the former Territory of Arkansas for occupied the House for more than two hours. their habitation, the settlers upon it, who were numerous, Mr. PARKER opposed it from the start, and wished it were ordered off by the Government. Some of them postponed, as a bill of too much importance to be taken obeyed; but others stood upon their right of pre-emption, up so late in the day. and refused to quit their improvements. To avoid diffi. Mr. DUNCAN wished it discussed without delay. culty, these latter had been allowed a half section of land Mr. HUBBARD doubted if it was regularly among the apiece for their improvements; while the others, who, Territorial bills. like peaceable citizens, had removed when ordered to do The CITAIR said it had been included among them so, had gotten nothing for their improvements. The because part of the lead mines were in the Territory of present bill was for their benefit, and allowed them a Michigan. quarier section each.
Mr. LYON said that the great body of the lead mines Mr. CLAY supported this explanation, and said that were in Michigan. the bill bad the approbation of the Committee on the Pub. Mr. R. M. JOHNSON thought it best to allow the bill lic Lands.
to pass in committee, and reserve the debate upon it, if Mr. McKAY and Mr. FILLMORE opposed the bill, as any, to the Ilouse. This was the only day allotted to the encouraging squatters to violate the law and invade the Territories; and it was a pity to consume it in debate. public lands.
The policy of selling the lead mines has already been Mr. DUNCAN supported the bill on the ground that pursued. It was not a new question. the United States bad ceded away the land to the Indians, Mr. ASHLEY said he could speak from A perfect and compelled these settlers to abandon their improve- knowledge of facts touching the sale of mineral lands. ments and seek other homes. He was not surprised to He stated that it had been the former policy of the Govhear objections from new members to this claim, on ac- ernment to reserve the lead mines, and lease them at count of the settlers having no title to the land, as they one-tenth of the proceeds; but, after an experiment of were not aware of the inducements which bad always ten or fifteen years, it was found that the expense of been held out to the hardy sons of the West to penetrate employing agents to attend to the business of colthe forest in advance of the surveys and sales, and make lecting rents, exceeded the receipts into the treasury. improvements on the public land; but for this policy, he In the mean while, the effects of the policy was ruinous said, the vast regions of public land now held by the Uni- upon the lands, and retarded the growth of the country. ted States, however rich and fertile, would never sell; and The lands in the mineral region in Missouri, after being the great and prosperous States which bave grown up in withheld from sale many years, were thrown into marthe West would have been at this moment a trackless wil. ket. At the first sale, but four quarter sections were derness or Indian hunting ground. He said the Govern- sold, and they commanded the minimum price only. ment had sometimes induced these settlers to reduce their Having witnessed the evils growing out of the polic wild lands to cultivation and civilization, by making libe- of reserving the mineral lands, Mr. Å. would vote for the ral donations of land, and at other times by granting the bill. right to each settler to enter at the minimum price a quar Mr. DUNCAN considered the sale of these lead mines ter section to include their improvements. He said these as a matter of more interest to the United States than to pre-emption acts had often been opposedl, but the justice the people in the vicinity. It was true, indeed, that the and good sense of the nation had thus far sustained the people of Illinois felt a desire that the country should be policy, and he was happy to see a pre-emption bill about permanently settled, rather than leased out as it now was. to pass at the present session of Congress, as it was no Under the present system, the expense of leasing was more than an act of justice to the settier, and of wisdom said to be nearly equal to the avails from the leases; and, and sound policy in the Government. He said no honora. in the mean while, the lands were ruined by the operable man in the new States ever thought of entering a tion. Those who leased them, trenched the country in good settler's home over his head, and he could not be all directions, and threw out the clay over the soil, so that, lieve the Government would ever be so unjust as to de. when they gave it up, it was in many places rendered prive its citizens of their homes without making a just wholly useless for agricultural purposes. Whereas, were compensation to them
the lands sold instead of being leased, they would bring Mr. FILLMORE was opposed to giving an equal a luigh price, both on account of the mineral riches they amount of land 10 every settler, while their improvements were known to contain, and on account of the fertility of might have been very different.
the soil. But after the land was spoiled by the diggings, Mr. H. EVERETT moved to insert the words "be- that covered it like the tracks of so many moles in a garfore the 1st of June, 1828."
den, it would bring little or nothing. As property of Mr. CLAY assented to this, and replied to Mr. Fill- the United States, it was becoming less and less valuable MORE's argument against the squatters.
every day. Personally, Mr. D. felt little concern in the The contest on that subject was further continuerl by matter: for many of his constituents, who were miners, Mr. FILLMORE, Mr. WÄRDWELL, and Mr. McKAY, bad remonstrated against the measure; though, from a on the one hand; and Mr. DUNCAN, Mr. MASON, and careful attention to every expression of opinion on the Mr. SEVIER, on the other:
subject, he believed a majority were in favor of the sale. When the bill was laid over to be reported.
And, as he was fully persuaded that it was for the pubThe next bill considered was a bill to autborize an ex. lic interest, the interest of Illinois, and the future pros