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24c. Seminary in Organic Chemistry. One hour per week by appointment.

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The object of this course is to familiarize the student with the literature of organic chemistry and to bring him into touch with its recent investigations and theories. Articles in the current numbers of the journals are assigned to the students who report on them weekly, after which there is a general discussion and criticism of papers presented. Assistant Professor ORNDORFF.

Inorganic Chemistry.

[25. History of Chemistry.

For all students intending to specialize in chemistry. M., W., F., 11, Ch. L. R. 2.

This course alternates with course 26. The general subject is divided into topics each of which is treated continuously from the beginning to the end of its history: biographies of chemists whose work has been prominent in any topic are given in connection with that topic. No other science than chemistry has passed through so many interesting and often widely adopted opinions regarding the same subjects, and no other science has a more unique history. The course is open only to those who have completed courses 1, 3 and 4, or 2, 5 and 6, and have taken or are taking course 20. Professor CALDWELL.]

26. Inorganic Chemistry. Advanced course. Open only to those who have completed courses 1 or 2, 5, 6 and 20. Lectures. M., W.,

F., II. Ch. L. R., 3.

These lectures are based directly upon the periodic law of Mendeléeff and Lothar Meyer, and are fully illustrated by experiments. The rare elements are as fully considered as are the more common ones. Especial attention is given to the " rare earths." Associate Professor DENNIS.

27. Inorganic Chemistry. Laboratory practice, by appointment. Associate Professor DENNIS and Mr. RICHMOND.

Course 27 is designed to accompany course 26, but either course may be taken separately.

28. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. Seminary for advanced and graduate students. One hour per week by appointment. Associate Professor DENNIS.

Physical Chemistry.

30. The Phase Rule. Recitations. T., Th., 8, Ch. L. R., 4. A comprehensive qualitative study of all types of chemical equilibrium, as classified by the Phase Rule of Gibbs. Special attention will be

given to the applications of the theory to technical and laboratory practice. It is desirable that this course be supplemented by laboratory practice (course 38), at least one hour per week. Open to those who have completed course I or 2 or its equivalent. Assistant Professor BANCROFT and Dr. CARVETH.


31. The Law of Mass Action. Lectures and recitations. W., F., 10, Ch. L. R., 4. Non-mathematical exposition of the law of mass action, in its application to chemical equilibria and the velocities of reactions. Complementary to course 30. It is desirable that these lectures be supplemented by laboratory practice (course 38), at least two hours per week. Open to those who have taken on are taking course 20 or its equivalent. Assistant Professor BANCROFT.

32. Mathematical Chemistry. Lectures and recitations. T., Th., S., 12, Ch. L. R., 4. An introductory account of general physical chemistry. Open to those who have completed introductory courses in general chemistry, in physics, and in differential calculus. Assistant Professor TREVOR.

33. Mathematical Chemistry. Advanced course. Lectures and collateral reading. Three hours. Assistant Professor TREVOR.

[34a. Electrochemistry. The historical development of the subject. For advanced students in physical chemistry or physics. Lectures. Two hours. Assistant Professor BANCROFT.]

34b. Electrolytic Syntheses. Lectures. One hour by appointment. Intended for students going into technical work, and for engineers. Students are advised to elect course 38, one or two hours per week, in connection with this work. Assistant Professor BAN


37. Exact Measurements. Lectures. One hour by appointment. A discussion of the sources of error in laboratory methods. Assistant Professor BANCROFT.

38. Laboratory Work. Experimental methods, and research work for theses. Assistant Professor BANCROFT.

Miscellaneous Courses.

40. Potable Water. Lectures. Fall. Three hours. Sources of potable water; how polluted; agencies at work leading to the "natural" or "self"-purification of streams, etc., and what they accomplish; the data necessary for a decision as to the fitness of a water for household use; the interpretation of the results of water analyses, chemical, microscopical, and bacteriological. Modern methods of water purification. Dr. CHAMOT.

41. Chemical Toxicology, Inorganic and Organic. Lectures.

Winter. M., W., F., 9. The present ideas as to the classification, mode and cause of action, and methods of elimination of poisonous substances, together with a critical discussion of the methods to be employed for their separation, identification and determination. Open only to those who have had course 5. (Veterinary students take this course M. and W. only.) Dr. CHAMOT.

42. Beverages and Foods. Lectures. Spring. M., W., 9, Ch. L. R., 2. Their chemical composition, digestibility and nutritive value. Methods and objects of food investigations. Adulterations; how detected. Professor CALDWELL.

45. Physiological Chemistry. Lectures. Winter and spring. M., W., F., 12, Ch. L. R., I. This course is the continuation of course 21a, and is intended for students of medicine. Assistant Professor ORNDORFF.

45a. Physiological Chemistry. Laboratory work. Two hours. Winter and spring. The course is required of students of the medical college. Professor ORNDORF and Mr. TEEPLE.

[46. Industrial Chemistry. Lectures. M., W., 12, Ch. L. R., 1.] [47. Seminary in Industrial Chemistry. For the discussion of subjects of special interest to the technical chemist. One hour by appointment.]

Of the courses in chemistry given above, Courses 7 (in part), 17, 22, 23, 24a, b, c, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 38, are regarded as senior or graduate work.


The instruction in this department is offered at present in 19 courses. Courses 1 and 2 form a one year's course and are designed to lay the foundation for the advanced courses, as well as to present to the student a general outline of the principles of botanical science. Course 3 is designed especially for the needs of the students in civil engineering, where a knowledge of timber structure, strength of material as related to different kinds of timber tissue, and the diseases of timber, is important.

The advanced courses in comparative morphology, and embryology, comparative histology and mycology, are intended to lay the foundation for independent investigations in these subjects as well as to present in a logical way the fundamental principles of development, relationship, and phylogeny, as applied in these topics. Aside from the elementary courses these subjects are especially recommended to students who are fitting themselves for teachers, since a grasp of the principles underlying them is needed for the proper and thorough presentation of the elementary principles of botany. In the work of

these courses each of the students gradually accumulates a set of permanent microscopic preparations which can be kept for future reference and for demonstrations before classes.

The flora of the region of Ithaca is very rich in species, and offers excellent opportunities for the student of systematic botany, and some facilities in the study of geographic botany. Excellent facilities are offered to the students who are fitting themselves for [experiment] economic work in the courses in plant histology, plant physiology, and in the study of the fungi. While the laboratory is distant from the seashore it is well supplied with material of the marine algae for morphological and development study of typical forms.

The laboratory is well equipped with microscopes, microtomes, photographic apparatus, thermostats, sterilizers, culture rooms, an electric lantern and a large number of views for illustrating portions of the lectures, the Auzoux and Brendel models representing the different groups of plants, and other illustrative material in the way of charts, maps, etc. The large green houses in connection with Sage College adjoin the rooms of the department, and are filled with many exotics representing the Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, and offer available material at all seasons for studies in development, and histology, and furnish living plants for illustrative material for many of the lectures. Space is devoted to the study of plant growth, physiological experiments, and for the handling and treatment of green house plants, the latter being in charge of the head gardener of the department. The department also contains a large and growing herbarium, as well as collections of fruits, cones, nuts, fibres, a general collection of economic products, and a large number of specimens of the woods of different countries.

Courses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, may be elected in the Freshman year. Those desiring to specialize in botany are advised to take courses 1 and 2 in the first year.

I. General Courses.

1. General Comparative Morphology and Physiology of Plants. Three hours. Fall and winter. A study of representative plants of various groups, and of the fundamental principles of plant life and relationship. Lectures, M., II. Laboratory practice and demonstrations, T., 2-5 and W., 11-1; and if another section is formed, Th., 2-5, and F., II-I. One forenoon and one afternoon session must be taken each week. Professor ATKINSON, Dr. DURAND, Mr. CLARK, and Miss FERGUSON.

2. Special Morphology of Higher Plants. Spring term. Three hours. Studies of typical plants representing the more general groups

of angiosperms. Four field excursions for the purpose of studying the local flora. Lectures, M., II. Laboratory work in sections as in Course I. Assistant Professor RowLEE, Dr. WIEGAND, and Miss FERGUSON.

Fall term

3. Special Course in Dendrology for Engineers. and winter term. Two hours. The morphology and taxonomy of trees. The structure and development of wood. Fall and first half of winter term. M., W., 9. Assistant Professor RoWLEE and Mr. HASTINGS. The diseases of timber and forest trees. Twelve sessions, last half winter term. M., W., 9. Professor ATKINSON and Mr. HASSELBRING. (Required of Civil Engineers, and open to election without any prerequisite in botany, to those interested in these problems.)

4. Short winter course in Botany for students in Agriculture. Two hours. A study of general morphology and of the fundamental principles of plant growth with special reference to cultivated plants. Fungus diseases of cultivated plants. Hours by appointment. Mr. MURRILL.

5. Geographical Botany. Spring term. Lectures, S., 9. The distribution of plants over the surface of the earth. Practical field studies in plant distribution; also the preparation of an herbarium representing the local flora. Photographs are used to illustrate the distribution of plants. Assistant Professor ROWLEE, and Mr. HAST


6. Exotics. One or two hours. The conservatory in connection with the department offers excellent opportunities for students who wish to become familiar with practical methods in propagation and cultivation of conservatory plants, and in practical greenhouse work. Mr. Shore, the expert gardener, will have charge of the instruction and practical work. Students desiring to take this course should consult Professor ATKINSON who will have charge of conference and reports. Hours by appointment.

II. Advanced Undergraduate Courses.

These advanced courses may be elected in any order which the student chooses, the only prerequisite being courses 1 and 2. They are also open to election by graduate students.

Comparative Histology, and Phanerogamic Botany.

7. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Angiosperms. Three hours through the year. Lectures, Th., 9. Laboratory work Wednesday afternoon and Thursday morning. A study of the genetic relation

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