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combinations of the following subjects are recommended as the most suitable for entrance to the course in the College of Architecture: Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Free-Hand Drawing, and the alternative Modern Language.
[For details as to subjects and methods of admission see pages 3372.
For admission to the freshman class communication should be addressed to the Registrar. See pages 33-52.
For admission to advanced standing from other colleges and universities, communications should be addressed to the College of Architecture. See pages 52 and 53.
For admission to graduate work and candidacy for advanced degrees, communications should be addressed to the Dean of the University Faculty. See pages 64-72.]
DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE IN ARCHITECTURE.
A good course in Architecture may be divided into four main parts; I, Construction, both theoretical and practical; 2, Expression, or the technical representation of architectural and decorative ideas on paper; 3, Composition, which includes the science of convenient and effective planning and the art of architectural and decorative design; 4, that broad field which the literature of architecture covers and in which are included History of Architecture and the many interesting and important questions which arise in connection with the practice of architecture and which often belong to the allied professions, such as Engineering and Law. The following course has been based upon this frame work. Minor changes and additions may be made from time to time, but the scheme of teaching will, in general, be carried on as described below in detail.
Construction and Practice.
Under this head are grouped all of those courses bearing on the purely practical work of the profession as distinguished from the aesthetic. The aim is to give the student a thorough grounding in the principles underlying sound construction, sanitation, and the best practice in the installation of all modern conveniences. After the pure mathematics, the technical work begins with a course in Mechanics of Materials in which the theory of mechanics is taught and the strength of materials discussed. This is followed by the work in Structural Details which makes direct application in a special way of the principles taught in the preceding course.
The ordinary problems relating to materials and construction are taken up in the Masonry Construction and Working Drawings. This
work consists of lectures, recitations, general discussions, and drawing. In the lectures, recitations, etc., the work of the various trades is taken up and materials, methods, and workmanship thoroughly discussed, ending with a careful and systematic study of specifications. Heating and ventilation are studied in a separate course under a specialist; and plumbing and sanitary engineering of buildings, and the discussion of building contracts are subjects for special work in the seminaries. The drawing in connection with the above work is made to conform as closely as possible to the work done in the preparation of working drawings in an office, with the advantage that it can be arranged in a consecutive and progressive order. In conjunction with the lectures on the planning of domestic buildings (part of this course), the student makes sketch plans and designs for a series of buildings ranging from the simple laborer's cottage to the more elaborate mansions built without the hamper of a cost limit. Following this special drill in planning and design, he is required to design a building of moderate cost-usually a dwelling-house-under such limiting conditions as might be imposed by a client, prepare the complete scale working drawings, and make typical full size details for its construction.
Throughout all of his work the student is required to construct scientifically rather than by "rule of thumb." In the senior year he is prepared to take up the course in advanced construction which is devoted to the consideration of steel and fireproof construction, and consists of a series of fully illustrated lectures and the working out of steel framing plans, foundations for heavy buildings, and the details of steel columns, girders, and trusses.
This includes free-hand drawing, drawing from the antique and from life, modeling, sketching from nature, elements of architecture, shades and shadows and perspective. The aim of this work is to train the eye to a sense of form and color, the hand to steadiness and delicacy of touch, and the judgment to a nice distinction between values. In all of this work the attitude of the architectural student is precisely that of the sincere art student. False, exaggerated effects for the sake of attracting attention are discountenanced, but vigorous, effective presentations of architectural ideas, in harmonious tones inspired from nature, are heartily encouraged.
This subject is taught by means of a succession of problems throughout the second, third and fourth years. Programs of competition are issued upon pre-arranged dates, and each student is required to hand
in a set of drawings showing his own interpretation of the problem as governed by the conditions. These drawings are judged by a jury composed of the entire faculty of architecture, the acceptable drawings being graded mention, first mention, second medal and first medal, according to the excellence of solutions. In the judgment each member of the faculty pays particular attention to that part of the work which is the result of his special teaching. For example, the Professor of Construction studies the constructability of the designs while the Professor of Free-Hand Drawing criticizes the sculptural details and the general color schemes of the designs. Thus not only do the drawings receive careful criticism, but the Professors are able to follow the results of their teaching, while all in the faculty maintain a lively interest in the progress of architectural design, which is conceded to be the chief aim of architectural schools. In order to avoid the danger of becoming too theoretical, the course in working drawings, described under construction, is introduced after the students have spent their sophomore year in design. Experience has shown that this work has a wholesome influence upon the students, rendering more practical and sensible their work in. the latter part of the course.
History of Architecture, etc.
Ancient Greece, in her philosophy, her literature and her art, has affected to an incalculable degree the civilization of modern times. The architectural influence percolating through Rome and the Renaissance has brought down to to-day traditions and architectural motives which serve admirably as sources of inspiration. Imitation, however, of decorative forms which served to describe the kind of civilization which existed in ancient times, is hardly more justifiable than would be the use to-day of Egyptian hieroglyphics as wall decorations in our buildings. They belong to the past and should be considered as possessing only historical and archæological interest. The broad principles, however, of proportion and scale, and the subtleties of of line and silhouette are matters which will always deeply concern the student of architecture and should be carefully studied in the monuments of all ages. The reserve of the Greeks contrasted with the wonderful daring of the Gothic builders presents an illustration of the qualities that are needed in our own building architects. The study of the History of Architecture is regarded in this course as a source of inspiration rather than as a means of acquiring materials and motives for use after leaving the University. While it is true that the work in design shows throughout the three years a good deal
of absolute imitation of historic forms, this wholesale adaptation is encouraged in the belief that the students will recognize in this way the true relation of historic motives to modern work: in other words it is believed that the students will see that historic motives are useful and necessary as helps in the study of the broad principles of composition, but that they should be only considered necessary during student days. History of Architecture is taught through lectures illustrated by means of models, photographs and lantern slides.
The subjects cared for by the Seminary, such as legal questions, professional practice, special engineering problems, etc., are practically only touched upon. With all the work which belongs to the technical training of an architect, it would be unwise to use the time necessary for a more exhaustive treatment of these allied subjects. The students become familiar with the breadth of field in these directions and are advised to employ experts for the solution of all problems which do not come properly within the scope of an architect's practice. Eminent specialists are invited each year to talk before the students on subjects allied to architecture but which cannot be specially taught in a College of Architecture. Stained glass, mosaics, furniture, mural painting, etc., are some of the topics that come under this head.
The rooms of the College are located on the second and third floors of Lincoln Hall, and consist of the offices, library, lecture rooms, drafting rooms, rooms for freehand drawing, water color, modeling, etc. The material equipment is especially complete along those particular lines wherein the student needs most help and guidance. The library, of course, takes first place, and is one of the best working libraries of its kind in this country. It comprises nearly all works of any note that have been published during the last century on the subject of architecture or architectural construction; a vast number of photographs and plates mounted and arranged for ready reference; and the bound volumes and current numbers of the leading architectural periodicals both foreign and American. Not only is the library most complete, but above all, it is accessible at all times, and the students have free and unhampered access to books, plates and photographs, and are encouraged and urged to use the best of the material for direct reference in the drafting rooms.
Next to the library in direct helpfulness to the students in design is the constantly increasing collection of drawings made by advanced students and graduates of the École des Beaux Arts. Aside from any
question of style, these are easily among the best architectural drawings ever made, and as they hang about the halls and drafting rooms of the College, their value as examples of drawing, rendering, and expression can hardly be over estimated.
A collection of plaster casts both large and small furnishes subjects for freehand drawing in pencil and charcoal; and choice pieces of pottery, faience, terra cotta, etc., are used as studies for such of the water color work as is undertaken indoors.
Through the patient and untiring efforts of Professor Babcock over a period of twenty-five years, the College now has in its possession a large and valuable collection of wood, stone, and plaster models illustrating the historical development of architectural form and construction.
For the work in construction there is, in addition to the library and models, a fine collection of working drawings of well known modern buildings which is being constantly added to by contributions from the offices of many of the leading architects from all parts of the country; and as large a collection of samples of building materials as can be handled within the limits of space available.
An important part of the equipment for lecture work and illustrations is an electric lantern and a large collection of lantern slides (several thousand) that is revised and enlarged each year.
The College of Architecture possesses a Traveling Fellowship and a Resident Fellowship. The Traveling Fellowship of the value of $2,000 is awarded in alternate years to the winner of an architectural competition. The first competition was held in October, 1898, and the second will occur during the summer or fall of 1900. Candidates: must be under the age of thirty, and must be either graduates of the College of Architecture or those who have satisfactorily completed the two year special course. Details of the second competition will be sent to all qualified candidates several weeks in advance of the issue of the program of competition. For further information address the Professor in charge of the College of Architecture, Ithaca, N. Y. A Resident Fellowship of the annual value of $500 is open to all graduates of schools of architecture of approved standing in the world. The award is made in June for the following year, and each candidate must submit drawings and other credentials and file a formal application with the Registrar of the University on or before April 15th. Application forms may be obtained of The Registrar,. Ithaca, N. Y.