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professional instruction. Arranged in the order of seniority of University appointments :
GEORGE CHAPMAN CALDWELL, B.S., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry.
THOMAS FREDERICK CRANE, A.M., LL.D., Professor of Romance
HORATIO STEVENS WHITE, A.B., Professor of German Literature. EDWARD LEAMINGTON NICHOLS, B.S., Ph.D., Professor of Physics.
EDWARD HITCHCOCK, JR., A.M., M.D., Professor of Physical Cultnre.
JAMES MORGAN HART, A.M., J.U.D., Professor of Rhetoric and English Philology.
JEREMIAH WHIPPLE JENKS, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Political
LUCIEN AUGUSTUS WAIT, A.B., Professor of Mathematics.
WALTER SCRIBNER SCHUYLER, Colonel, U.S.A., Professor of
WILLIAM ORLANDO STUBBS, Mechanician to the College of Civil Engineering.
EDWARD CHARLES MURPHY, M.S., C.E., Fellow in Civil Engineering.
CHESTER TORRANCE, C.E., Scholar in Civil Engineering.
Special Lecturers for 1898-99.
The non-resident lecturers before the College of Civil Engineering are as follows:
GEORGE S. MORRISON, C.E., New York, Past President Am. Soc. Civil Engineers: "On Masonry Structure."
MAJOR THOMAS W. SYMONS, Buffalo, N. Y., Corps of Engineers U. S. Army: "The Buffalo Breakwater."
JOHN C. TRAUTWINE, JR., Philadelphia, Pa., Chief Engineer of the Philadelphia Water Bureau: "The Philadelphia Water Works System." ONWARD BATES, C.E., Milwaukee, Wis.. Superintendent of Bridges and Buildings, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. Co., The Engineer at Work."
HENRY GOLDMARK, C.E., Detroit, Mich., Engineer with the U. S, Deep Water Commission: "Locks and Lock Gates for Ship Canals."
GEORGE W. RAFTER, Rochester, N. Y., Consulting Hydraulic Engineer, etc.: Stream Flow in Relation to Forests."
DAVID MOLITOR, U. S. Assistant Engineer on River and Harbor Improvements: "The Present Status of Engineering Knowledge respecting Masonry Construction."
EDWIN DURYEA, C.E., Brooklyn, N. Y. : "Qualities and Habits of Work Necessary to attain Success in Civil Engineering."
GENERAL PLAN OF STUDIES.
The courses of preparatory and professional studies have been planned with a view to laying a substantial foundation for the general and technical knowledge needed by practitioners in civil engineering; so that our graduates, guided by their theoretical education and as much of engineering practice as can be taught in schools, may develop into useful investigators and constructors.
The facilities for instruction and for advanced investigations are believed to be thorough and efficient. Laboratory work is required of the students in chemistry, mineralogy, geology, physics, and civil engineering; for which purpose in addition to the special library and laboratories of the College, all the libraries, collections, and laboratories of the University are open to the students of this college.
The work of the undargraduate student is based upon an extended course upon the mechanics, and the graphics and economics of engineering. The object aimed at is to give as thorough a preparation as possible for the general purposes of the profession in the following subjects the survey, location, and construction of railroads, canals, and water works; the construction of foundations in water and on land, and of superstructures and tunnels; the survey, improvements, and defenses of coasts, and the regulation of rivers, harbors and lakes; the astronomical determination of geographical coördinates for geodetic and other purposes; the application of mechanics, graphical statics, and descriptive geometry to the construction of the various kinds of right and oblique arches, bridges, roofs, trusses, suspension and cantilever bridges; the drainage of districts, sewering of towns, and the relaiming of lands; the design, construction, application and tests of wind and hydraulic motors, air, electrical and heat engines, and pneumatic works; the preparation of detail drawings, of plans and specifications, and the proper inspection, selection, and test of the materials used in construction. A course of lectures is given in engineering and mining economy, finance and jurisprudence. The latter subject deals in an elementary manner only, with the questions
of easements and servitudes, and the ordinary principles of the laws of contracts and riparian rights. A course in political economy extending over one year, of three lectures per week, is given for the purpose of elucidating the economic value of the civil engineer as director of industrial enterprises, and their rôle in the development of the country.
To the fundamental instruction of a general undergraduate course, many special courses are in full operation for graduates desiring advanced study in the separate branches of their profession. Admission to these courses is open to civil engineers of this or other institutions having undergraduate courses similar to our own. Advanced and special instruction is offered in the following subjects: bridge engineering, railroad engineering, sanitary, municipal, hydraulic and geodetic engineering. The object of this instruction is to provide the young graduate with the means of prosecuting advanced investigations after such experience in professional life as may lead him to decide in the choice of a specialty. The same courses are open to teachers and professional men in a more advanced form and with larger liberty in the use of laboratory equipment. Lectures in the museum and laboratories are given to these students for the purpose of directing and aiding their original researches. All graduate work may alternate with a limited number of elective studies in other colleges of this University; but the choice of electives implies suitable preparation for their prosecution, and must, besides, meet with the approval of the Director of the College.
The College of Civil Engineering is quartered in a substantial brown stone structure, two hundred feet long and seventy feet wide, specially designed for the purposes of the college. In addition to the laboratories and museums, the building contains the working library of the college, aggregating about three thousand volumes, reading-rooms, class rooms, and draughting rooms. The building contains also the offices of the professors, the offices of the U. S. Weather Bureau for the State of New York, and the meteorological observatory of the college of civil engineering. The astronomical department of this college is housed in an observatory containing all the instruments required to find time, latitude, longitude and azimuth. The instruments are duplicates, in the main, of similar ones in use by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The great Hydraulic Laboratory with its equipment, buildings and appurtenances is located at the Fall Creek gorge, within a short distance from the College buildings.
The Civil Engineering Laboratories within the college build
ing, cover a floor area of about fifteen thousand square feet. They comprise :
1. A General Laboratory containing a large collection of machines and apparatus for the experimental study of subjects connected with the theoretical instruction of the lecture-rooms, and as preparation for the special laboratories.
2. An Hydraulic Laboratory with complete appliances for determination of "efficiency "; piping, mouth-pieces, and special castings, for the derivation of coefficients; wiers provided with all forms and heights of notches and orifices; gauges, electrical and automatic devices for the most refined measurements of weights, pressures, velocities, equilibrium, viscosity, efflux in closed and open conduits, water reaction, etc. On the south bank of Fall Creek another laboratory is nearly finished consisting of a canal about five hundred feet long, sixteen feet wide and with ten feet of water depth. It is provided with waste and calibrating wiers at the upper end: and close to the canal and outside of it, a pipe 48 inches in diameter will tap a steel stand pipe six feet in diameter and seventy feet high. The stand pipe can be fed at will from the canal directly, or from the 48 inch pipe above mentioned. The six feet pipe pierces the roof of a building which will house nearly all the machinery for experiments with water motors; and by means of reducers, the coefficients of efflux for pipes varying from four feet to six inches in diameter can be derived for suitable lengths and all conditions of internal surface and alignment. This house will also supply power for the maneuvers and apparatus in the canal above. Half way up, above the lower laboratory, a platform built around the stand pipe and reached by spiral stairs, will supply orifices of all sorts for experiment with thin plates, and short tubes and nozzles, valves and elbows. The canal will be used for experiments upon the motion of water in open channels; upon the regulation of wiers, the relative conditions of the dragging and suspending power of running water; the resistance of water to the motion of boats, as to their form, size, surface condition and ratio of their cross-section to that of the canal; experiments upon the motion of sewage as to diameter and grade of pipes, and the effect of flushing; and in addition to numberless experiments of much importance, this canal provides both material and problems for study in connection with the pollution of streams, purity of filter effluents and other special features of the sanitary laboratories described further on.
3. A Cement Laboratory provided with automatic machines for the establishment of standard tests. The furniture of this laboratory has been designed by specialists in view of its needs. Standard conditions are aimed to be obtained in all tests, nearly independent of
human agencies; and from the sifting of the cements, through the operations of moulding, mixing, condensing, and testing, to even portions of the computations, every maneuvre in this laboratory is done by machinery. The time of setting of cements is obtained by a machine describing curves characteristic of their nature.
4. A Bridge Laboratory for the study of stresses in many types of trusses, the determination of the effect of permanent and variable strains upon the nature and requirements of bridge designs and their details, etc. This laboratory has under way important investigations, and has lately been fitted with an original apparatus of great accuracy for determining the compressibility and modulus of elasticity of stones. 5. The Gravimetric Laboratory where cold and hot pendulums swing in connection with other instruments of precision. The college mechanician has now completed a set of half second pendulums for field work determinations of the force of gravity, and studies on the form of the earth like the extremely accurate ones devised by President Mendenhall for the U. S. Coast Survey, with improvements suggested by previous experience with them.
6. A Geodetic Laboratory for the determination of the values and errors of graduation of circles and levels of high precision, fitted with level testers, collimators, cathetometers, etc., etc.
7. A Magnetic Laboratory in which is acquired the skill necessary to use the Kew magnetometer and Barrow's circle. The instrumental constants are derived in an isolated " copper house"; but the magnetic quantities are obtained each year, by the students in civil engineering, at the astronomical stations of the systematic survey of the State. This work has been carried on since 1874 under the ausdices of Cornell University.
8. A Metric Laboratory for the absolute comparison of lengths, provided with line and end comparators and dividing engines, with independent microscopes mounted on isolated piers. This room is built with hollow double walls, and provision has been made to maintain it at a constant temperature. It has been constructed with great care, and contains a four meter comparator of extraordinary precision. Telescopic observations may be made through tubes in the walls, which avoid the necessity of entering the room, thus disturbing its temperaIn this laboratory are placed many other machines and apparatus for experimentation in such portions of optics, thermo-dynamics, etc., as form special parts of the educational equipment of the engi
9. A Bacteriological Laboratory in which students may become acquainted with bacterial forms and such portions of the subject as bear upon sanitary engineering. The optical apparatus has been ex