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trimes, however, are nothing in comparison to those of the Bishop of Rome.
By a former message, the Directory announced to you that the French troops occupied the castle of St. Angelo, and the Capitol. They communicate to you to-day the ulterior news which they have received from Rome, and which contains the details of one of the greatest events of modern history..
On the 27th Pluviofe, General Berthier arrived under the walls of Rome: he did not enter the city himself, but remained in his camp
On the morning of the 27th, the anniversary of the 23d year of the reign of Pius the Sixth, the Roman people proceeded to thę Camps Vaccino, where they drew up a folemn act of the resumption of their right of sovereignty.
In this proclamation it is said in substance, that the Roman people, oppressed for a long period by a government of priests, a real political monster, have attempted several times in vain to throw off the horrible yoke; that a secret magic of superfition, of interest, and of armed force, combined against their effurts, had rendered hitherto their efforts useless; but that at length this government had fallen asunder of itself, by its alternatives of imbecility and insult, of meanness and pride : that the Roman people, fearful of seeing a horrible anarchy, or a worse tyranny fucceed, had collected all their courage and strength to prevent the effects of this diffolution; that they had in consequence determined to reclaim their rights of sovereignty ; that finally this united people declare with one voice and spirit, to God himself, and to the universe;
That the Roman people have had no hand in the horrible attacks and affallinations by which the government have fo grievously offended the French nation, and her invincible republic : attacks which the people detest and abhor, and the infamy of which will recoil upon the heads of the authors.
That in suppressing, abolishing, and annihilating the political, economical, and civil authorities of this government of priests, the people have erected themselves into a free and independent sovereign ; that they have refumed all their legislative and executive powers ; that they will exercise them by their representatives, according to the rights of men, which are imprescriptible, and according to the principles of justice, truth, liberty, and equality.
That in consequence, by this act, all political, economical, and civil faculties exercised in the name of the Pope, are provisionally transferred to departments and members named by the people, at the head of whom are five councils, invested with the powers which the congregation of state filled.
This act contains besides, the nomination of all the other magiflrates, prefects, ediles, officers of the provisional government.
Finally, the people name eight deputies to go in their names to the general of the troops of the republic, in order to implore from him the powerful protection of a generous nation--of those Frenchmen whose example has been the light that has enlightened the Romans, and whose friendship will guide and guarantee their return to liberty and their regeneration.
The act is dated Rome, the 15th February 1798, the first year of liberty proclaimed in the Capitol: it is followed by the fignatures of all the Roman citizens, knowing how to read and write, to the number of several thousands ; in presence of whom, and a countless number of people, it is said, that the act was read with a loud and clear voice, confirmed and approved with acclamations and universal joy.
After the proclamation, trees of liberty were planted before the Capitol, and in other public places.
At noon the deputation, bearing the colours of the Roman republic, presented to General Berthier the wishes of the people and the provisional government,
The general proceeded to the Capitol himself, to reply to the Roman people in the name of the French.
He traversed Rome in the midst of an immenfe crowd, applaud, ing our arms. He ascended the Capitol, invoked the manes of Cato and Brutus, and declared, according to the intentions of the Executive Directory, that the French republic professes this principle, that the people are sovereign, and recognised the independence of the Roman republic, consisting of all the territory which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope by the treaty of Campo Formio.
The Directory annex to this message a copy of the declaration of General Berthier, in French and Italian.
After this declaration, transmitted to the provisional consuls, the general in chief made the tour of the Capitol, in the midst of immense crowds, rending the air with cries of, Live the French republic, the Roman republic, and liberty !
He pailed through Rome to return to his camp. The same exclamations, the fame joy followed him.
He says, in a dispaich of the 27th Pluviofe, “ The altars of liberty ase re-erected in the Capitol. All the people are content.
On the 28th, he writes that this revolution was effected in the greatest order, and that “ Rome offers the imposing and majestic spectacle of a wise people resuming their dignity, breaking their chains, and preserving only a cold contempt for their op
In another dispatch of the ad of this month, he announces every thing that could consolidate the great work of the ever memorable day of the 27th Pluviose.
The municipality of Rome is organized, as well as the civic guard, which has taken the oath of fidelity to the Roman republic.
The French general has taken those precautions which worship and prejudices might require on his part. On the 30th Pluviose, the churches of Rome resounded with a Te Deum, to celebrate the day on which Rome regained her liberty, and proclaimed her republic. Fourteen cardinals sung this hymn themselves in St. Peter's : they are not of the number of thole who counselled the hosrible perfidy committed against France, the authors of it are for the most part fled, the rest are taken.
The Pope quitted Rome on the ad of this month, at four o'clock. He demanded from the French two officers, who were granted him to serve as a safeguard. It was not thought proper to keep him prisoner, because he threw himself upon our loyalty. Nor have the attentions due to his great age been forgotten ; but he felt himself that he could not remain at Rome, that he ought to consummate the revolution, give place to liberty, and resign himself to his lot. Free Rome has been purged from the presence of the despot, his arms have been removed, and his retreat has been celebrated by a solemn fête.
Trees of liberty are planted in all the communes of the ci-devant ecclesiastical itates. Ii was somewhat difficult to destroy in Rome the prejudice and hatred which the Papal government had attempted to excite against the French army, by circulating the fear of violation and pillage, and by accrediting the false opinion, that, under pretence of wishing to revenge a great crime, France speculated upon the conquest of the country, in order to make a shameful traffic of it with other powers; but this finifter inpression has been done away by the frank reply of General Berthier to the act of the Roman people. He showed that the French are not merchants of flaves : far from trading in men, they are the deliverers of them. An order has been given to celebrate at Rome the affecting and farewell fate of the brave and illfated Duphot.
Grand monuments are about to be erected on the spots where Baffeville and Duphot were massacred.
The Roman people themselves proposed a fête of an antique and noble character, dedicated to the glory of the French republic, and which is to take place in the 'Roman Forum, under the triumphal arches of the Emperors Titus and Severus.
You will be satisfied, citizens representatives, with learning, that such great events have taken place without the effufion of blood ; that the public treasury, the monuments of the arts, proQ2
perty and persons, have been respected; and that the discipline of the army of Italy, equal to its valour, has merited the esteem and adıniration of the Romans restored to themselves.
The Directory has but one trait to add
The provisional gavernment of the Roman republic has appointed an ambassador to the French republic. He set yff on the 3d Ventose. Oh, citizens representatives! what a feature in the history of the world is the sending to Paris of a minister from the Roman consuls, to thank the French for the generous support given by them to the deliverance of Rome! What foul, however under the influence of apathy, could remain insensible to so glorious a fight? Who can, without transport, hear the recital of the awaking of the Roman people from their flumber? Who could refuse to falute the renascent republic ? But, above all, how fublime to bear the title of French citizen, and to see that great people extinguish for ever the thunders of the Vatican, with the jame hand that is erecting again, in the Capitol, altars to liberty!
The Executive Directory cannot doubt the effect which this national sentiment will produce upon you, citizens representatives ; and they have reason to believe that you will approve, in a solemn manner, the conduct of the army of Italy.
(Signed) MERLIN, President.
LAGARDE, Sec. General,
Proclamation of General Berthier, at Rome, on the 27th Pluviose. THE "HE Roman people are restored to their rights of sovereignty
by proclaiming their independence, by assuming the government of ancient Rome, and by constituting the Roman republic.
The general in chief of the French army in Italy declares, in the name of the French republic, that he acknowledges the independent Roman republic, and that it is under the special protection of the French arms.
The general in chief also acknowledges, in the name of the French republic, the provisional government chosen by the Roman people.
All temporal authorities proceeding from the Pope are therefore suppresled, and shall exercise no functions whatever.
The general in chief shall make every disposition necessary to secure the independence of the Roman people, and to perfect the organization of their government, in order that their new laws may be founded on the basis of liberty and equality.
He will adopt every measure calculated to promote the happiness of the Romans.
The French general Cervoni is charged with the direction of the police, and providing for the security of the city of Rome; and also with the installation of the new government.
The Roman republic, acknowledged by the French republic, comprehends all the territory which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope after the treaty of Cảmpo Formio.
Note sent on the 15th Sept. 1797, to the Government of Berne.
Puris, 29 Fructidor (15 Sept.). THE Executive Directory, convinced that the million of Mr.
Wickham to the Helvetic cantons, has no reference what. ever to the respective interests of England and Switzerland, and that his sole object is to excite and further plots against the internal and external security of the French republic, charge Citizen Mingaud to invite and require the government of the canton of Berne, and also the other Helvetic cantons, if necessary, to give directions for Mr. Wickham's immediate departure from the territories of Switzerland, (Signed) REVEILLIERE LEPAUX, Pref.
LAGARDE, Sec. Gen.
Reply of the Canton of Berne. THE republic of Berne, always holding in the highest estimation the good intentions of the French republic, has taken into mature confideration the note transinitted to them by Citizen Mingaud, in the name of the Executive Directory of the French republic.
They have to remark, that, for nearly a century past, British agents or ministers have uniformly resided in Switzerland, and that Mr. Wickham, whose departure from Switzerland is required by the Executive Directory, being accredited to all the Itates of the Helvetic confederacy as minister plenipotentiary, the republic of Berne cannot decide separately on a subject which so essentially involves the rights of others, and the neutrality of the Helvetic body, as declared and recognifed by all the powers now at war.
The government of Berne, always employed in maintaining harmony and good understanding with France and the other belligerent powers, fubmits the above confiderations to the wisdom and good sense of the Executive Directory, affuring the Directory, at the same time, that the government of Berne, in concert with the co-states, will lose no tinue in coming to a resolution