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Cartel for the Exchange of Prisoners of War between Great Britain

and France. WE 7E the undersigned commissioners for the transport service,

and for the care and custody of prisoners of war, on the part and in the name of his Britannic Majesty; and M. Joseph Niou, commissary for prisoners of war, on the part and in the name of the French government; being duly authorized to take proper meafures for carrying into execution an exchange of prisoners, have agreed upon the following articles :

1. An exchange of prisoners of war thall immediately take place between the two countries, man for man, and rank for rank; and the French government shall begin, by sending over to England, in a French cartel vessel, a number of British prifoners, with the proportion of five officers to one hundred men, upon the arşival of whom in England the British government will cause an equal number, of the same ranks, of French prifoners, to be sent, in an English cartel vesel, to France. The British government shall then cause to be sent to France, in an English cartel vessel, a number of French prisoners, with the same proportion of officers as above mentioned, for whom the French government shall return, by a French cartel vefsel, the same number and ranks of British prisoners. The exchange 'fhall be continued according to the fame alternate plan, until one or the other of the two governments shall think proper to put a stop thereto; and, in that case, the party so discontinuing is to return, without delay, whatever number of prisoners may appear to be against it on the balance of the exchanges that may to that time have taken place in consequence of this cartel.

II. In order to prevent any difficulties that might otherwise arise from the diversity of ranks of officers in the service of the two countries, it is hereby agreed, that the table hereto annexed, of corresponding ranks in the English and French services, shall uniformly be attended to by both parties; and that officers on either side, of ranks of which there shall be no corresponding officer or officers in possession of the other power, shall be exchanged for their equivalent, according to the scale of value in men specified in the said table.

III. All the prisoners on both sides to be exchanged by this cartel Thall be selected, according to their ranks, by the respective agents of the countries to which they belong, residing at Paris or in London, without any interference whatever on the part of the government in whose poffeffion they may be.

IV. It being stipulated, that the British prisoners shall be sent to England in French veílels, and the French prisoners conveyed to France in British vessels, it is hereby agreed, that the whole expinse attending such vessels ihall be defrayed by the respective



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Beer 2 quarts.

countries by which they may be employed; and that the prison-
ers, during their pallage, shall be furnished with the following
daily allowances-viz.
British Prisoners.

French Prisoners.

lb. Bread


1 Beef

Beef Beer 2 quarts, or wine

i quart. A table of which allowances is to be affixed to the mast of each cartel vefsel.

V. All prisoners on both sides, not being officers, who, from wounds, age, or infirmities, are rendered incapable of further service, and also all boys under twelve years of age, shall be forth with returned to their respective countries, without regard to their numbers or equality of exchange ; but the selection of persons of the descriptions mentioned in this article, is to be left entirely to the agents and surgeons of the government of the country in which they are detained.

VI. All surgeons, surgeons' mates, pursers (or aides-commiffaires), pursers' stewards (or commis aux vivres), secretaries, chaplains, and schoolmasters, being the classes comprehended under the denomination of non-combattants, and also passengers not of the sea or land service, in whatever ships taken, shall not be considered as prisoners, but shall be immediately set at liberty, to return to their respective countries, without being placed to the account of exchange.

VII. All officers bearing authentic commissions in the land service, and those belonging to the sea service of the following ranks-viz. Admirals




Mates (or pilots)

Midshipmen (or aspirants); and also masters and mates, or second captains of merchant vessels exceeding the burden of eighty tons, together with the captain, and in the proportion of three other officers to each hundred men, of privateers of fourteen carriage guns and upwards, shall either be permitted to return to their respective countries on parole, not to serve until regularly exchanged; or fhall have the usual indulgence of parole granted to them in the country in which they are detained. And it is agreed, that whatever officers may, by virtue of this article, return to their respetive countries, shall be suffered to depart from their present places of confinement 10 Dover, or Gravelines, as soon as conveniently may be after the figning of the present cartel; and X X 2


also, that all officers residing on parole in their own countries, Thall signify to the agent of the country to which they are prison- ! èrs their respective places of residence, which they are on no account to change, without first intimating their intention to the said agent; and they are, moreover, at the expiration of every two months, to transmit to the said agent a certificate of the particular places where they may reside, signed by the magistrates or municipal officers of such places.

VIII. The settlement of the balance now existing on the account of such exchanges of prisoners of war of both countries, as have taken place from the commencement of hoftilities to the day of the date hereof, shall be deferred until the termination of the present war; but it is clearly understood, that all officers, on both sides, who have been released and permitted to return to their respective countries on parole, since the commencement of the war, and who have not hithertó been regularly exchanged, are not to serve in any capacity, either civil or military, unul they sha:) have been duly exchanged for prisoners of equal sanks, according to their original engagements.

Done at the Transport Office, London, the 13th day of
September 1798.




Tuble of the corresponding Ranks in the English and French Ser.

vice, with their Value in Men.


English. MEN, Vice-admiral commanding in

Admiral commanding in chief, having the temporary chief

60 rank of admiral.

Admiral carrying his flag at Vice-admiral.

the main : Vice-admiral

Chief of a iquadron.


20 Poft captain of three years

standing, whose rank anCaptain of a ship of the line. swers to that of colonel.

Ditto, having rank of lieutenant-colonel

15 Masters and commanders, or

captains not post, having

rank of major, amongst Captain of a frigate,

whom are included captains of fireships, who are mafters and commanders

Lieutenant French.

English. MEN.

Lieutenant without distincLieutenant of a ship of the line.


6 Lieutenant, when all the

French shall be exchanged, Ensign of a ship of the line.

and in default of English

lieutenants, midshipmen 4 Midshipman, master of a mer- Midshipman, master of a

chant veslel, and captain of a merchant vessel, and capprivateer.

tain of a privateer

3 Lieutenant of a merchant ver

sel or privateer, and all petty Mates, and all petty officers 2

officers, Seamen, volunteers, and others, Seamen, volunteers, and

being considered as common others, being considered seamen.

as common seamen RANKS IN THE LAND SERVICE. French.

English. MEN. General of division, command. Captain-general, field. ing in chief.


60 General of division.

General of brigade.

Lieutenant-general 30 Inferior to the preceding-fu

Major-general 20 perior to the following. Chief of brigade.

Chief of battalion or squadron.



Sous Lieutenant.


3 Non-commissioned officers, Non-commissioned officers, down to the rank of corpo

down to the rank of corral, inclusive.

poral, inclusive

2 Soldiers.






PROCLAMATION. At the Court at St. James's, the 29th of August 1798, present the

King's most excellent Majesty in Council. WHEREAS, by the unjust aggresion of the persons exer

cising the powers of government in France, now in hoftility with his Majesty, many parts of Italy have been forcibly taken poffeffion of, and the ancient governments thereof subJerted, and new governments erected, under the influence of their councils, for the purpose of aiding more effe&ually their designs against the common interests of Europe, and especially for the prosecution of their hostile intentions against the com-merce, navigation, and property of his Majesty's faithful subjects : and whereas divers acts, injurious to the just rights of his Majesty and to the interefts of these kingdoms, have in consequence been committed ; his Majesty is pleased to declare (by and with the advice of his Privy Council) that such parts of the coasts of the Mediterranean as are occupied by the arms of the said persons exercising the powers of government in France, or are subject to the government of persons acting notoriously under their influence and direction, and especially the coasts and ports of Genoa, and those of the territory of the Pope, shall be considered as in a state of hostility with his Majesty ; and all his Majesty's subjects and others are required to treat and consider the inhabitants and subjects thereof as his Majesty's enemies.


Mesage to the Council of Five Hundred on the 28th Fructidor

(September 14). THE Executive Directory is desirous to inform you that the

French troops have entered Egypt. The French nation, the Ottoman Porte itself, and the oppreffed people of that fine but unfortunate country, are at last avenged.

This memorable event had been long foreseen by a small number of men to whom glorious and useful ideas are familiar; but it was too much the custom to rank it among chimerical projects. It was reserved for the French republic to realize this new prodigy.

The causes which prepared and insured its success are now to be retraced.

For nearly forty years the Beys with their Mamelucks, those domincering flaves of Egypt, practised the most shameful vexations on the French settled in those countries, on the faith of our treaties with the Porte. From the period of the domination of Ali Bey, about 1960, we may particularly date the excess of those outrages. That audacious usurper, after having thrown off the yoke of the Grand Seignior, by ignominiously expelling his Pacha, refuling to pay tribute, and arrogating the right of making money of his own coin, infulted our consuls, menaced our droga mans with the most infamous punishments, and practifed nutre. rous impofitions on our merchants. His fucceffors, Krahil Bey, and Mohamed Bey, partly deserve fimilar reproaches; but their vexations were more moderate. Mourad Bey, and Ibraham Bey,


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