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termine all civil disputes between French citizens in the states of Wurtemberg.

VIII. The Duke renounces the further use of the titles de rived from the ceded countries.

IX. The armistice of 29 Messidor shall be fully observed in all the particulars which are not contrary to the articles of the present treaty.

X. The stipulated contributions shall be raised; besides which the Duke shall pay monthly 200,000 livres, from 1 Vendemiaire to the signing of the preliminaries of peace with Auftria.

XI. This treaty shall likewise bind the Imperial towns Esslingen and Reutlingen.


WOELIWARTT. Paris, 20 Thermidor, 4th year

ABEL. of the French republic.

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Treaty of Peace, and of Alliance offensive and defensive, concluded

between the French and Helvetic Republics. THE French and Helvetic republics being equally desirous to

make the most perfect peace and the strictelt friendship fucceed to a war which an oligarchy had provoked, and which for a time had caused a division between the two nations, have resolved to unite themselves together by an alliance grounded on the real interests of the two countries: the respective governments have accordingly appointed, on the part of the French Directory, Citizen C. M. Talleyrand, minister of foreign affairs, and on the part of the Executive Directory of the Helvetic republic, Citizens P. J. Zeltner and Amedee Jenner, who, after a mutual exchange of their full powers, agreed to the following articles :

Art. I. There thall be for a perpetuity, peace, friendship, and good understanding, between the French and Helvetic re publics.

II. There exists, from the present moment, between the two republics, an alliance offensive and defensive. The general result of this alliance is, that each of the republics may, in case of war, claim the co-operation of its ally. The power claiming this co-operation shall then specify against whom the co-operation is required, and in consequence of that special requisition, the power called upon enters into war against the power or powers designated; but it remains in a state of neutrality with respect to such powers as may be at war with the claiming power, and whom it may not have particularly designated. It is acknowledged that the effect of the requisition on the part of the French republic Phall never be to send the Swiss troops beyond the sea. The troops called for shall be paid and maintained by the power calling for them; and in case of such requisition, neither of the two republics shall separately conclude any treaty of armistice or of peace. The particular effe&s of the alliance, when on either fide a requisition thall take place, the nature and the quantity of the succours to be mutually afforded, shall be amicably determined by special conventions, grounded on the principles contained in this article.

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III. The French republic accordingly guarantees to the Helvetic republic its independence and the unity of its government; and in case the oligarchy should attempt to overturn the present Helvetic constitution, the French republic binds itself to grant to the Helvetic republic, upon its requisition, such succours as it may stand in need of, in order to triumph over fuch internal or external attack as may be made against it. It promises its good offices to the Helvetic republic that may insure it the enjoyment of all its rights with regard to other powers; and in order to furnish it with the means of speedily re-establishing its military strength on the most imposing footing, the French republic consents to restore the arrillery that has been taken from it during the present war, and which may be still at the disposal of the French

government at the moment of signing the present treaty, provided the Helvetic republic will send for such pieces of artillery and carry them back into its own territory.

IV. The frontiers between France and Helvetia shall be determined by a particular convention, the basis of which thall be, that every thing which formed part of the ci-devant bishopric of Bafil, and the principality of Porentruy, shall remain defini. tively united to the French territory, as well as the interfection of the Swiss territory comprehended in the department of the Upper Rhine and Mont Terrible; with reservation of the counter cessions and exchanges, which may be judged indifpenfable for rendering these frontiers perfe&ily straight from Bafil to Geneva, and which shall not affect the unions which have already been definitively made to the French territory.

V. In order to secure the communications of the French republic with the south of Germany and Italy, there thall be granted to the said republic the free and perpetual use of two commercial and military roads, the first of which shall pass the north of Helvetia, up the Rhine, along the west and southern banks of the lake of Constance; the second, beginning at Geneva, and traversing the department of Mont Blanc, thall go through the Valais, running into the territory of the Cisalpine republic by a course to be fixed; and it is determined that each flate shall, within its own territories, execute the works necef. Tary for the construction of these two roads. 2

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VI. It is likewise stipulated, that, in order to give to the internal navigation of the two republics all the beneficial improvements of which it is fufceptible, each of them respectively thall, within its own territories, execute the works of art which shall be necessary for the establishment of a communication by water from the lake of Geneva to the Rhine, and from Geneva to that part of the Rhone which is navigable.

VII. The French republic binds itself to furnish to the Helvetic republic all the salt which it may stand in need of, from the fait-pits of La Meurthe, of Jura, and of Mont Blanc. The prices of the said salt, the expenses of carriage, the places and the periods of delivery, shall be regulated at least every ten years between citizens charged by the French government with the preparing of the salt, and the officers of the Helvetic government, without ever permitting the price of the said salt to exceed that paid by the French citizens, and without the fubjeđts of the Helvetic government being ever subjected to paying the taxes which in France may be laid upon that commodity.

VIII. According to the latter article, the Helvetic republic expressly renounces all the drawbacks on salt which it might be entitled to claim in virtue of ancient treaties which existed between France and the Cantons; and it binds itself to take annually from the salt-pits at least iwo hundred and fifty thousand quintals of salt.

IX. The citizens of the French repablic may go and come to Helvetia, furnished with regular passports: they shall be at liberty to form all and such establishments there, to exercise every kind of industry which the law permits and protects; their persons

property thall be subject to the laws and usages of the country. The citizens of the Helvetic republic shall enjoy in France, and in all the dominions of the French republic, the same rights on the same conditions.

X. In all litigated points respecting individuals, which cannot be settled by reference, or by the decision of the courts, the plaintiff shall be obliged to follow up his action before the natural judges of the defendant, unless the parties be present on the very spot where the bargain had been contracted, or have agreed upon the choice of the judges to whose decision they would leave the matter in dispute. In litigated points, having for obje& landed property, the fuit Thall be carried on before å tribunal or a magistrate of the place where the property is situated. The litigations that may arise between the heirs of a Frenchman who dies in Switzerland, with regard to his suc. ceffion, thall be transferred before the judge of the residence which the Frenchman pofseffed in France; and the same shall be observed with regard to the succession of a Swiss who may die in France, VOL. VII.

XI. The

XI. The definitive judgments in civil causes that are regarded as settled points, and that have been pronounced by French tribunals, ihall be executed in Switzerland, and vice versa, after they shall have been sanctioned by the respective minifters.

XII. In case of the failure or bankruptcy of Frenchmen posseffed of property in France, if there are Swiss creditors and French creditors, the Swiss creditors who shall have conformed to the French laws for the security of their hypothetic, shall be paid according to the order of their hypothetic on the footing of French creditors: and vice versa, if Swiss posselling property in the Helvetic republic, shall have both French and Swiss creditors, the French creditors who shall have employed the requisite formalities to secure an hypothetic in Switzerland, shall be arranged with Swiss creditors, according to the order of their hypothetic. With regard to fimple creditors, they shall be treated in the fame manner, without respect to which of the two countries they belong.

XIII. In all criminal proceedings for heinous offences insti. tuted either before Swiss or French courts, witnesses shall be mutually bound to attend from either country in person, under the penalties to be fixed by the two countries. The necessary passports shall in this case be granted by the government of the party requiring, according to distance, &c.

XIV. The two republics shall mutually engage to grant no asylum to the emigrants or persons banished froin the other. They likewise bind themselves to exile, on the first requisition, the persons of either nation who shall judicially, have been declared guilty of conspiracy againit the interest or external secu. rity of the state, of murder, poisoning, fire-raising, forgery, violence, theft, and robbery, or persons accused of these crimes; and the property stolen in either county and taken to the other, Shall be reitored.

XV. There shall immediately be concluded between the two republics a treaty of commerce, founded upon the most complete reciprocity of advantage. In the mean time, the subjects of both nations shall be treated upon the footing of those of the koft favoured nations. Concluded and signed at Paris, 2d Fru&tidor (Aug. 19), of the French republic, one-indivisible, 6 (1798).


P. J. ZeltNÉR.

Substance Substance of the Treaty of Alliance between the French and Cisalpine

Republics, concluded in July 1798. Art. I. THE French republic acknowledges the Cisalpine re

public to be a free and independent state, and guarantees to it its liberty, its independence, and the abolition of every government anterior to that which exists at present.

Il. There shall exist for ever, between the two republics, peace, amity, and good-will.

III. The Cisalpine republic engages to take part in every war in which the French republic may be involved, when a requisition for that purpose shall be made by the Executive Directory of the French republic. She binds herself, immediately on receiving this requifition, to raise all her forces, and to put all her means of war in activity. By the notification of this requifition, the will be put in a state of war with every power against whom the requisition is made ; and whilft such notification shall not have been given, she will continue in a state of neutrality.

IV. The Cisalpine republic having demanded from the French republic an armed force fufficient to protect her liberty, her independence, and her internal tranquillity, as well as to preserve her from every aggression on the part of her neighbours, the two republics have agreed upon the following articles :

V. Until it Thall be otherwise agreed, there shall remain in the Cisalpine republic a body of French troops, to the number of 25,000 men, including the staff and administrations. This corps shall be composed of 22,000 infantry, 2500 cavalry, and 500 horfe and foot artillery.

VI. The Cisalpine republic shall annually furnish to the French republic, for the pay and subsistence of these troops, the fum of ten millions, which shall be paid into the military chest by twelve equal monthly payments; and in the event of war, the Thall supply the necessary additional expenses; the shall provide barracks and lodgings for the said troops in a state of health or fickness; in consideration of which the French republic engages to pay, equip, clothe, and subsist them in health or in sickness.

VII. The French government may withdraw and replace any part of these troops at their pleasure.

VIII. These troops, as well as the troops of the Cisalpine republic, shall always be under the command of French generals.

IX. One half at least of the garrisons of Mantua, Peschiera, and Ferrara, shall always consist of French troops.

X. The Cisalpine republic shall keep the artillery of these three places in the best condition, with complete provisions for a year.

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XI. When

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