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XI. The definitive judgments in civil caufes that are regarded as fettled points, and that have been pronounced by French tribunals, fhall be executed in Switzerland, and vice verfa, after they fhall have been fanctioned by the respective minifters.

XII. In cafe of the failure or bankruptcy of Frenchmen poffeffed of property in France, if there are Swifs creditors and French creditors, the Swifs creditors who fhall have conformed to the French laws for the fecurity of their hypothetic, shall be paid according to the order of their hypothetic on the footing of French creditors: and vice verfa, if Swifs poffeffing property in the Helvetic republic, fhall have both French and Swifs creditors, the French creditors who fhall have employed the requifite formalities to fecure an hypothetic in Switzerland, fhall be arranged with Swifs creditors, according to the order of their hypothetic. With regard to fimple creditors, they shall be treated in the fame manner, without refpect to which of the two countries they belong.

XIII. In all criminal proceedings for heinous offences inftituted either before Swifs or French courts, witneffes fhall be mutually bound to attend from either country in perfon, under the penalties to be fixed by the two countries. The neceffary paffports fhall in this cafe be granted by the government of the party requiring, according to diftance, &c.

XIV. The two republics fhall mutually engage to grant no afylum to the emigrants or perfons banished from the other. They likewife bind themselves to exile, on the first requifition, the perfons of either nation who fhall judicially have been declared guilty of confpiracy against the intereft or external fecurity of the ftate, of murder, poifoning, fire-railing, forgery, violence, theft, and robbery, or perfons accufed of thefe crimes; and the property ftolen in either county and taken to the other, fhall be reftored.

XV. There fhall immediately be concluded between the two republics a treaty of commerce, founded upon the most complete reciprocity of advantage. In the mean time, the fubjects of both nations fhall be treated upon the footing of thofe of the moft favoured nations.

Concluded and figned at Paris, 2d Fructidor (Aug. 19), of the French republic, one-indivifible, 6 (1798).





Subftance of the Treaty of Alliance between the French and Cifalpine Republics, concluded in July 1798.

Art. I. I.THE HE French republic acknowledges the Cifalpine republic to be a free and independent ftate, and guarantees to it its liberty, its independence, and the abolition of every government anterior to that which exifts at prefent.

II. There fhall exift for ever, between the two republics, peace, amity, and good-will.

III. The Cifalpine republic engages to take part in every war in which the French republic may be involved, when a requifition for that purpose fhall be made by the Executive Directory of the French republic. She binds herfelf, immediately on receiving this requifition, to raise all her forces, and to put all her means of war in activity. By the notification of this requifition, fhe will be put in a state of war with every power against whom the requifition is made; and whilst fuch notification fhall not have been given, fhe will continue in a state of neutrality.

IV. The Cifalpine republic having demanded from the French republic an armed force fufficient to protect her liberty, her independence, and her internal tranquillity, as well as to preferve her from every aggreffion on the part of her neighbours, the two republics have agreed upon the following articles:

V. Until it fhall be otherwife agreed, there fhall remain in the Cifalpine republic a body of French troops, to the number of 25,000 men, including the staff and adminiftrations. This corps fhall be compofed of 22,000 infantry, 2500 cavalry, and 500 horfe and foot artillery.

VI. The Cifalpine republic fhall annually furnish to the French republic, for the pay and fubfiftence of thefe troops, the fum of ten millions, which fhall be paid into the military cheft by twelve equal monthly payments; and in the event of war, the shall supply the neceffary additional expenfes; the fhall provide barracks and lodgings for the faid troops in a health or fick nefs; in confideration of which the French republic engages to pay, equip, clothe, and fubfift them in health or in fickness.

VII. The French government may withdraw and replace any part of these troops at their pleasure.

VIII. These troops, as well as the troops of the Cifalpine republic, fhall always be under the command of French generals.

IX. One half at least of the garrifons of Mantua, Peschiera, and Ferrara, fhall always confift of French troops.

X. The Cifalpine republic fhall keep the artillery of thefe three places in the best condition, with complete provisions for a


XI. When

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XI. When there are French and Cifalpine troops in the fame fort, ftation, or cantonment, the rank of the officers being equal, they fhall be commanded by a French officer; but if the rank is unequal, by the fuperior officer, whether French or Cifalpine.

XII. The French republic fhall give up to the Cifalpine republic, on the terms agreed on between Citizen Buonaparte and the Executive Directory of the Cifalpine republic, as much of the artillery taken from the enemy as the Cifalpine republic fhall require.

XIII. The fort which has been planned out at the rock D'Amfo by the French engineers, under the orders of Citizen Buonaparte, to command the valley of Sabia, fhall be conftructed without delay. The works neceffary to complete the forts of Pefchiera and Mantua fhall also be carried on without delay, as well as the fortification of the heights of Valleggio, and the little fort of Coetto, according to the plans approved by Citizen Buonaparte: the whole to be performed at the expenfe of the Cifalpine republic.

XIV. The Cifalpine republic fhall organize an armed force compofed of Italian and auxiliary troops, the number of which, horfe and foot, fhall be regulated by a separate convention. She fhall always keep in readiness 120 field-pieces, upwards of 60 pontoons, and a flotilla on the lake of Garda.

XV. The Cifalpine republic fhall not fuffer any French emigrant to refide within her territory. Every French emigrant found on the territory of the Cifalpine republic fhall be arrested, in order to his being tranfported to the place which the Executive Directory of the French republic fhall point out. Every Cifalpine emigrant found on the territory of the French republic fhall be likewife arrested, and placed at the difpofal of the Cifalpine republic.

Subftance of the Treaty of Commerce between the French and Cifalpine Republics, concluded in July 1798.

Art. I. NEITHER of the two republics, French and Cifalpine, thall ever prohibit the importation or the confumption of any merchandife of the growth or manufacture of the other republic, its ally.

II. Neither of the two republics fhall prohibit the exportation of any of its productions or manufactures to the other republic, its ally, except grain or flour, which may be occafionally difcontinued; but only in cafes of fcarcity, and when the fame prohibition fhall be extended to every other nation.


III. In cafe either of the two republics fhall judge it proper to impofe a duty upon any production or merchandise of the growth or the manufacture of its ally, fuch duty fhall not exceed fix per cent. ad valorem.

IV. Until a general peace, all duties fhall be reduced one half, when productions or merchandife of the growth or manufacture of both republics fhall be transported in the waggons or fhips of either-thefe commodities, if in waggons, are to be conducted by citizens of one or other of the faid republics; or if in veffels, by a crew, three-fourths of which fhall be citizens of the one or the other republic.

V. At the period of a general peace, the advantage stipulated by the preceding article fhall ceafe, with regard to productions or merchandife imported in veffels; but the productions or merchandife of the growth or manufacture of France, fhall not be imported into the ports of the Cifalpine republic, but in French or Cifalpine veffels, wholly to the exclufion of the veffels of every other nation, under pain of confifcation of fhip and cargo, and 3000 livres of fine, to be levied upon the proprietors, configners, and agents of the veffel or cargo, or upon the captain or mate.

VI. The valuation which fhall ferve as the bafis for regulating the duties on importation fhall be proved by the invoices or written declarations which may accompany the goods. In cafe the comptrollers of the cuftoms fhall fufpect the invoices or declarations to be forged, it fhall be lawful for them to detain the merchandise, paying for it at the rate of the invoice or declaration, with an addition of 25 per cent.

VII. Each veffel or waggon fhall be furnished with a declaration made before the conful, or, if there be no conful, before the municipal officer of the place where it fhall have been loaded. This declaration fhall mention the country in which the faid merchandise was produced or manufactured.

VIII. Both republics fhall employ all their good offices and influence, in order to obtain from intermediate ftates the defirable facilities for the tranfit of their refpective commerce, either by an exemption of the duties it may be liable to in paffing through thefe ftates, or by the reftitution at leaving them of what was paid upon the entry.

IX. There shall be established relays of post-horses and offices for letters on the road from Milan to Paris: this road fhall be directed through the Valois and the Pays de Vaud, and fhall alfo pafs through Laufanne, proceeding by the road ufed by the peace of 1748. The French and Cifalpine repub. lics fhall be at the expenfe of these establishments on their respective territories. They fhall also unite in demanding from


the Helvetic republic the formation of fimilar establishments on its territory.

X. The Executive Directory of the French republic fhall employ its good offices with the powers of Barbary, in order that the Cifalpine flag may be treated with the fame refpect by their corfairs as the French.


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