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termine all civil difputes between French citizens in the states of Wurtemberg.

VIII. The Duke renounces the further use of the titles derived from the ceded countries.

IX. The armistice of 29 Meffidor fhall be fully observed in all the particulars which are not contrary to the articles of the prefent treaty.

X. The ftipulated contributions fhall be raised; befides which the Duke fhall pay monthly 200,000 livres, from 1 Vendemiaire to the figning of the preliminaries of peace with Auftria. XI. This treaty fhall likewife bind the Imperial towns Efslingen and Reutlingen.

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Treaty of Peace, and of Alliance offenfive and defenfive, concluded between the French and Helvetic Republics.

THE French and Helvetic republics being equally defirous to make the most perfect peace and the strictest friendship fucceed to a war which an oligarchy had provoked, and which for a time had caused a divifion between the two nations, have refolved to unite themselves together by an alliance grounded on the real interests of the two countries: the refpective governments have accordingly appointed, on the part of the French Directory, Citizen C. M. Talleyrand, minifter of foreign affairs, and on the part of the Executive Directory of the Helvetic republic, Citizens P. J. Zeltner and Amedee Jenner, who, after a mutual exchange of their full powers, agreed to the following articles:

Art. I. There fhall be for a perpetuity, peace, friendship, and good understanding, between the French and Helvetic republics.

II. There exifts, from the prefent moment, between the twa republics, an alliance offenfive and defenfive. The general refult of this alliance is, that each of the republics may, in cafe of war, claim the co-operation of its ally. The power claiming this co-operation fhall then specify against whom the co-operation is required, and in confequence of that fpecial requifition, the power called upon enters into war against the power or powers defignated; but it remains in a flate of neutrality with respect to fuch powers as may be at war with the claiming power, and whom it may not have particularly defignated. It is acknowledged that the effect of the requifition on the part of the French. republic fhall never be to fend the Swifs troops beyond the sea.

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The troops called for fhall be paid and maintained by the power calling for them; and in cafe of fuch requifition, neither of the fwo republics fhall feparately conclude any treaty of armistice or of peace. The particular effects of the alliance, when on either fide a requifition thall take place, the nature and the quantity of the fuccours to be mutually afforded, fhall be amicably determined by special conventions, grounded on the principles contained in this article.

III. The French republic accordingly guarantees to the Helvetic republic its independence and the unity of its government; and in cafe the oligarchy fhould attempt to overturn the prefent Helvetic conftitution, the French republic binds itfelf to grant to the Helvetic republic, upon its requifition, fuch fuccours as it may fland in need of, in order to triumph over fuch internal or external attack as may be made against it. It promises its good offices to the Helvetic republic that may infure it the enjoyment of all its rights with regard to other powers; and in order to furnish it with the means of fpeedily re-eftablishing its military ftrength on the moft impofing footing, the French republic confents to restore the artillery that has been taken from it during the prefent war, and which may be still at the difpofal of the French government at the moment of figning the prefent treaty, provided the Helvetic republic will fend for fuch pieces of artillery and carry them back into its own territory.

IV. The frontiers between France and Helvetia fhall be determined by a particular convention, the bafis of which thall be, that every thing which formed part of the ci-devant bishopric of Bafil, and the principality of Porentruy, fhall remain definitively united to the French territory, as well as the interfection of the Swifs territory comprehended in the department of the Upper Rhine and Mont Terrible; with refervation of the coun-. ter ceffions and exchanges, which may be judged indifpenfable for rendering thefe frontiers perfectly straight from Bafil to Geneva, and which fhall not affect the unions which have already been definitively made to the French territory.

V. In order to fecure the communications of the French republic with the fouth of Germany and Italy, there shall be granted to the faid republic the free and perpetual use of two commercial and military roads, the first of which fhall pass the north of Helvetia, up the Rhine, along the weft and fouthern banks of the lake of Conftance; the fecond, beginning at Geneva, and traverfing the department of Mont Blanc, fhall go through the Valais, running into the territory of the Cifalpine republic by a courfe to be fixed; and it is determined that each flate fhall, within its own territories, execute the works neceffary for the construction of these two roads.


VI. It

VI. It is likewife ftipulated, that, in order to give to the internal navigation of the two republics all the beneficial improvements of which it is fufceptible, each of them refpectively thall, within its own territories, execute the works of art which fhall be neceffary for the establishment of a communication by water from the lake of Geneva to the Rhine, and from Geneva to that part of the Rhone which is navigable.

VII. The French republic binds itself to furnish to the Helvetic republic all the falt which it may ftand in need of, from the falt-pits of La Meurthe, of Jura, and of Mont Blanc. The prices of the faid falt, the expenfes of carriage, the places, and the periods of delivery, thall be regulated at least every ten years between citizens charged by the French government with the preparing of the falt, and the officers of the Helvetic government, without ever permitting the price of the said salt to exceed that paid by the French citizens, and without the fubjects of the Helvetic government being ever fubjected to paying the taxes which in France may be laid upon that commodity.

VII. According to the latter article, the Helvetic republic exprefsly renounces all the drawbacks on falt which it might be entitled to claim in virtue of ancient treaties which exifted between France and the Cantons; and it binds itfelf to take annually from the falt-pits at least two hundred and fifty thousand quintals of falt.

IX. The citizens of the French repablic may go and come to Helvetia, furnished with regular paffports: they fhall be at liberty. to form all and fuch establishments there, to exercise every kind of industry which the law permits and protects; their perfons and property fhall be fubject to the laws and ufages of the country. The citizens of the Helvetic republic, fhall enjoy in France, and in all the dominions of the French republic, the fame rights on the fame conditions.

X. In all litigated points refpecting individuals, which cannot be fettled by reference, or by the decifion of the courts, the plaintiff fhall be obliged to follow up his action before the natural judges of the defendant, unless the parties be prefent on the very spot where the bargain had been contracted, or have agreed upon the choice of the judges to whofe decifion they would leave the matter in difpute. In litigated points, having for object landed property, the fuit fhall be carried on before a tribunal or a magiftrate of the place where the property is fituated. The litigations that may arife between the heirs of a Frenchman who dies in Switzerland, with regard to his fucceffion, fhall be transferred before the judge of the refidence which the Frenchman poffeffed in France; and the fame shall be obferved with regard to the fucceffion of a Swifs who may die in France.



XI. The

XI. The definitive judgments in civil caufes that are regarded as fettled points, and that have been pronounced by French tribunals, fhall be executed in Switzerland, and vice verfa, after they fhall have been fanctioned by the respective minifters.

XII. In cafe of the failure or bankruptcy of Frenchmen poffeffed of property in France, if there are Swifs creditors and French creditors, the Swifs creditors who fhall have conformed to the French laws for the fecurity of their hypothetic, shall be paid according to the order of their hypothetic on the footing of French creditors: and vice verfa, if Swifs poffeffing property in the Helvetic republic, fhall have both French and Swifs creditors, the French creditors who fhall have employed the requifite formalities to fecure an hypothetic in Switzerland, fhall be arranged with Swifs creditors, according to the order of their hypothetic. With regard to fimple creditors, they shall be treated in the fame manner, without refpect to which of the two countries they belong.

XIII. In all criminal proceedings for heinous offences inftituted either before Swifs or French courts, witnesses shall be mutually bound to attend from either country in perfon, under the penalties to be fixed by the two countries. The neceffary paffports fhall in this cafe be granted by the government of the party requiring, according to diftance, &c.

XIV. The two republics fhall mutually engage to grant no afylum to the emigrants or perfons banished from the other. They likewife bind themselves to exile, on the first requifition, the perfons of either nation who fhall judicially have been declared guilty of confpiracy against the intereft or external fecurity of the ftate, of murder, poifoning, fire-railing, forgery, violence, theft, and robbery, or perfons accused of these crimes; and the property ftolen in either county and taken to the other, fhall be restored.

XV. There fhall immediately be concluded between the two republics a treaty of commerce, founded upon the most complete reciprocity of advantage. In the mean time, the fubjects of both nations fhall be treated upon the footing of those of the moft favoured nations.

Concluded and figned at Paris, 2d Fructidor (Aug. 19), of the French republic, one-indivifible, 6 (1798).




Subftance of the Treaty of Alliance between the French and Cifalpine Republics, concluded in July 1798.

Art. I.THE French republic acknowledges the Cifalpine republic to be a free and independent ftate, and guarantees to it its liberty, its independence, and the abolition of every government anterior to that which exifts at prefent.

II. There fhall exift for ever, between the two republics, peace, amity, and good-will.

III. The Cifalpine republic engages to take part in every war in which the French republic may be involved, when a requifition for that purpose fhall be made by the Executive Directory of the French republic. She binds herfelf, immediately on receiving this requifition, to raise all her forces, and to put all her means of war in activity. By the notification of this requifition, fhe will be put in a state of war with every power against whom the requifition is made; and whilst fuch notification fhall not have been given, fhe will continue in a state of neutrality.

IV. The Cifalpine republic having demanded from the French republic an armed force fufficient to protect her liberty, her independence, and her internal tranquillity, as well as to preferve her from every aggreffion on the part of her neighbours, the two republics have agreed upon the following articles:

V. Until it fhall be otherwife agreed, there fhall remain in the Cifalpine republic a body of French troops, to the number of 25,000 men, including the staff and adminiftrations. This corps fhall be compofed of 22,000 infantry, 2500 cavalry, and 500 horfe and foot artillery.

VI. The Cifalpine republic fhall annually furnish to the French republic, for the pay and fubfiftence of thefe troops, the fum of ten millions, which fhall be paid into the military cheft by twelve equal monthly payments; and in the event of war, the shall supply the neceffary additional expenses; the fhall provide barracks and lodgings for the faid troops in a state of health or fick nefs; in confideration of which the French republic engages to pay, equip, clothe, and fubfift them in health or in fickness.

VII. The French government may withdraw and replace any part of thefe troops at their pleasure.

VIII. Thefe troops, as well as the troops of the Cifalpine republic, fhall always be under the command of French generals.

IX. One half at least of the garrifons of Mantua, Peschiera, and Ferrara, shall always confist of French troops.

X. The Cifalpine republic fhall keep the artillery of thefe three places in the beft condition, with complete provisions for a


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XI. When

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