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As this work has been prepared for, and is published by the Closer Union Society, the author feels that it is necessary to explain that the aim which underlies it is to provide a manual of reference to the Constitutions of other countries which havə achieved Closer Union. At first it was intended merely to bring up-to-date a manual prepared for the Convention of 1891 in Australia by Mr. R. C. Baker (now the Hon. Sir R. C. Baker, K.C.M.G.), who very kindly gave permission for this to be done. But it was found that conditions had altered so greatly since 1891 that a mere bringing up-to-date of Sir R. C. Baker's manual would scarcely serve the purpose required;, and the author :therefore decided to incorporate only those parts: 03. SR. O Baker's work which will be found in Chapters II., III.angry.of. Part II. of this book. As the book appears, it has been composed:with

the sole idea of supplying at once some elementary knowledge; audiere necessary references for a far more complete knowledge, of such parts of the achievements of other countries in the matter of Closer Union as appeared to be of practical use to South Africa. The test of utility will explain some otherwise inexplicable omissions. Thus nothing has been said of the American Executive, and the Executive Department of Government generally, receives far less attention than the other two great Departments. Similarly, the organization of the separate States is dealt with only in one confessedly inadequate chapter; and the Constitution of Germany is hardly ever referred to. These and other omissions are all due to the fact that the author has tried always to keep before him the single aim of utility for those who are studying the problem of Closer Union in South Africa.

To say that is to touch on another difficulty with which the author has continually found himself confronted—that of deciding how deeply he should go into those many intricate questions of legal interpretation which appear to be the inevitable consequence of the adoption of a written Union Constitution in any country, and here the author can only say that he has tried in every case to avoid unnecessary technicality without descending to a treatment of his subject which would be merely popular and superficial, and


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worthless to the serious student. At the same time he does not pretend to have done more than scratch the surface of many a vital problem. Each of the separate subjects, for instance, enumerated in the chapter on the Distribution of Legislative Power opens a long vista of legal decisions: these the author has been compelled to avoid.

As for the historical chapters in Part I., the author believes that a study of the development of Union in Canada and Australia is particularly necessary in South Africa at this moment, and he knows by experience how difficult it is to obtain a clear account of that development. In the case of the United States there is no such difficulty. In this connection the author wishes to acknowledge his debt to Messrs. Quick and Garran. Chapter II. of Part I. is based almost entirely upon their historical introduction to the Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth. That invaluable work has been throughout of the greatest assistance to the author, who would like to pay a sincere tribute of admiration to the ability and research of its joint authors.

No attempt !ras been made to discuss or illustrate the working of the Australian Corfstreütion: the material for such an attempt has not yet beeat puldished in a collected form, and lack of time has made it impossible for the author to undertake the necessary research:

Finally, the author' may perhaps be allowed to say that he has scrupulously tried to avoid any expression of personal opinion while deliberately preferring to rely in almost every case on quotation ; and to plead in extenuation of both obvious defects and latent errors that it has been necessary to bring out this book in a very short time and under the stress of a great pressure of other work.

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worthless to the serious pretend to have done : vital problem.

Each enumerated in the chap opens a long vista of 1 compelled to avoid.

As for the historical c: a study of the develop particularly necessary i knows by experience he that development. In such difficulty. In this ledge his debt to Messrs is based almost entirely Annotated Constitution invaluable work has bei the author, who would to the ability and resea'

Nóattemptiltas:been of the Australian Crist has not yet been pult has made it impossibi. research:

Finally, the author'i scrupulously tried to while deliberately pre quotation ; and to pl and latent errors that i' in a very short time a other work.

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