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about the time of the last date, * when he was accompanied by Lupus, for they make no mention whatever of Severus. Partiality for national traditions must give way in a point in which Constantius could not easily have been mistaken; besides which, there is an incongruity in the Welsh accounts themselves which ought to be rectified. The following is extracted from Achau y Saint, as translated in the Horæ Britannicæ. (Vol. II. page 161.)

“Garmon was a Saint and a bishop, the son of Ridigius from the land of Gallia; and it was in the time of Constantine of Armorica that he came there; and continued here to the time of Vortigern; and then he returned back to France where he died. He formed two choirs of saints, and placed bishops and divines in them, that they might teach the Christian faith to the nation of the Cymry, where they were become degenerate in the faith. One choir he formed in Llan Carvan, where Dyfric (Dubricius) the Saint was the principal, and he himself was bishop there. The other was near Caer Worgorn,t where he appointed Iltutus to be principal; and Lupus (called Bleiddan) was the chief bishop there. After which he placed bishops in Llandaff; he constituted Dubricius archbishop there; and Cadoc, the Saint, the son of Gwynlliw, took his place in the choir at Llancarvan, and the archbishop of Llandaff was bishop there also.”

Now it happens that another note in Achau y Saint says that the College of Caerworgorn was founded by Cystennyn Fendigaid, and soon afterwards destroyed by the Irish. At that time its principal was Padrig. It might be said that Germanus restored the foundation in A. D. 447, when he ap

*“Garmon ap Redgitus o Ffrainc i'r henyw, ac yn amser Gwrtheyrn Gwrthenau i doeth i'r ynys hon.”—Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 43.

+ Llancarvan and Caerworgorn, the latter of which is now known by the name of Llanilltyd or Lantwit, are both in Glamorganshire.

I“ College"-o the word Bangor—the Welsh term for the monastic institutions of the fifth and sixth centuries, is generally rendered.

pointed Iltutus to be its principal. But the genealogies show that Iltutus must have been at that time too young for the office, since about eighty years afterwards he is known to have flourished in the court of Arthur, and in his younger days he was not an ecclesiastic but a soldier. The relationship in which he stood to Germanus was that of sister's grandson, as will appear from the following scale.

[TABLE IX.]

CYNFOR

RHEDYW

Constantine

dr.

Uther

Aldor married ....

Garmon
Emyr Llydaw

Rhiain m. to Bicanus
Tewdwr Hywel Gwyndaf Illtyd

Sadwrn m. Canna

Arthur

Canna

Meugan

Crallo

It does not follow that these generations should be necessarily parallel, but the Chronicles and Triads state that Arthur, Hywel, and Iltutus or Illtyd were contemporary; and if it be said that Iltutus was appointed by St. Germanus in his first visit, the inconsistency will appear more glaring. * But while all other accounts agree that Iltutus was the first principal of the College which afterwards bore his name, the Book of Llandaff decides the question by saying that he received his appointment from St. Dubriciust who lived in an age succeeding that of Germanus. If the foregoing extract be compared with the narration of Constantius, its incongruities increase. Lupus did not accompany Germanus the second time, and therefore could not have been Bishop of Caerworgorn. The same note

* The anachronism did not escape the acuteness of Archbishop Usher“Iltutus S. Germani fuisse discipulum, et in Vincentii Speculo Historiali, et in Landavensium Regesto legimus; licet id ægre temporum ratio patiatur.” Cap. XIII.

+“A Dubricio Landavensi episcopo in loco, qui ab illo Lan-iltut, id est Ecclesiæ Iltuti accepit nomen, est constitutus.” Usher, from the Regestum Landavense.

implies that Germanus lived to remove Dubricius to Llandaff, and place Cadog or Cattwg in his room; but Archbishop Usher puts an end to this idea, by showing that Germanus returned to Gaul, and died in the second year of his last mission. That Dubricius received any appointment from St. Germanus, except perhaps the bishoprick of Llandaff, is questionable ; and, by the order of time, it would appear that the connexion of Germanus and Lupus with the institutions of Caerworgorn and Llancarvan was altogether apocryphal.

Authorities are not wanting to show that Germanus was the founder of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but they are not worthy of a serious refutation, and even the credulous Constantius does not make mention of any schools founded at this time in Britain. That Germanus made regulations for the stability of the British Church is very probable; and if credit be given to an anonymous treatise which Usher says was written in the eighth century, he introduced the Gallic liturgy into this country. It is certain, however, that his visit was the commencement of a frequent intercourse which subsisted for some time afterwards between the Cambrian and Armorican Churches; and it was by no means unlikely that the one Church should adopt some of the regulations of the other.

In the Welsh accounts Garmon or St. Germanus is called the son of Rhedyw, Rhedygus, Ridicus, or Redgitus; and notwithstanding the variety of names in different MSS. there can be little doubt that the same person is intended.*

It is further stated that he was a native of Armorica; and as proofs remain that his countrymen spoke the same language as the Britons, he

may

have derived from that circumstance one of the qualifications which fitted him for his mission. His sister is said to have been the mother of Emyr Llydaw, an Armoria can prince; but as Usher does not quote this relationship from Constantius, it is probable the prince did not aspire to a higher rank than that of an ordinary chieftain.

* From other authorities it appears that the correct name was Rusticus.

Several churches in Wales bear the name of Garmon; but as he visited this country twice, only one of them can be distinctly referred to his first mission, namely Llanarmon in Iâl, Denbighshire. It is singular that the parish attached to it adjoins that of Mold, in which the “ Alleluiatic Victory” is said to have been gained ; and if Archbishop Usher has correctly determined the locality of the engagement, the church in question is possibly situated on the spot where Germanus is described to have raised a sacred edifice,* formed of the branches of trees interwoven together, in which he and his followers celebrated the services of Easter, and baptized the

* From the manner in which the story is related it may be gathered that the mode of consecration used upon the occasion was no other than the performance of the religious exercises of Lent; and though it does not appear that the consecration of ground for the erection of churches was necessarily confined to that season, yet the time when a similar occurrence took place, as described by Bede, is a remarkable coincidence. The following is a close version of the words of Constantius which relate to this particular.-—“The sacred days of Lent were at hand, which the presence of the divines rendered more solemn, insomuch that those instructed by their daily preaching flocked eagerly to the grace of Baptism. For the great multitude of the army was desirous of the water of the laver of salvation. A church, formed of interwoven branches of trees (frondibus contexta) is prepared against the day of the resurrection of our Lord, and though the expedition was encamped in the field, is fitted up like that of a city. The army, wet with baptism, advances, the people are fervent in faith, and neglecting the protection of arms, they await the assistance of the Deity. In the mean time this plan of proceeding, or state of the camp, is reported to the enemy, who, anticipating a victory over an unarmed multitude, hasten with alacrity. But their approach is discovered by the scouts; and when, after concluding the solemnities of Easter, the greater part of the army, fresh from their baptism, were preparing to take up arms and give battle, Germanus offers himself as the leader of the war."-An exaggerated description follows of the rout of the enemy, who were thrown into consternation upon hearing the word Alleluia shouted thrice by the Britons.

greater part of the army of the Britons, before they proceeded to meet their enemies.

Lupus, it would appear, was the younger and less obtrusive of the two legates, as nothing is related of him in which the other does not bear a part. His name is rendered in Welsh by Bleiddian, a word of similar import. The churches ascribed to him are, Llanfleiddian Fawr in Glamorganshire, which bears the same relation to the town of Cowbridge as Llanbeblig and Llannor do to Carnarvon and Pwllheli;—and Llanfleiddian Fach, or St. Lythian's, in the same county. The latter is a small parish, but probably some parts have been detached from it by the Normans; and the occurrence of these names perhaps gave rise to the tradition, that Lupus was connected with the College afterwards founded at Caerworgorn. The chapels subject to Llanfleiddian Fawr are, Cowbridge (St. Mary,) and Welsh St. Donat’s (Dunwyd :) and, according to the Martyrology of Bede, the commemoration or festival of St. Lupus was held on the twenty ninth of July.

The foregoing are all the churches whose foundations may be attributed to this generation, ending with the accession of Constantine the Blessed, A. D. 433; most of which are situate in the territories of the sons of Cunedda, under whose protection it is obvious they were established. Nearly all the parishes annexed to them are of considerable extent, and have their subordinate chapelries, in which the Saints of the Catholic, or more modern character, predominate. For the support which they gave to the cause of Christianity, the children of Cunedda are called, in the Triads, the second holy family of Britain ; the first being that of Bran ab Llyr Llediaith.

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