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The Welsh Saints from the Accession of Cystennyn Goronog A. D. 542
to the Death of Maelgwn Gwynedd A. D. 566.
This period includes the reigns of Cystennyn, Cynan Wledig, Gwrthefyr or Vortimer the Second, and Maelgwn; who are popularly styled kings of Britain, though it would appear from the writings ascribed to Gildas, that three, at least, of them were contemporary princes, reigning at the same time in separate provinces,* which is more consistent with the view of affairs presented by the bards and genealogists.
The second bishop of Llanbadarn was Cynog, who was raised, upon the death of St. David, to the archbishoprick of Menevia. He appears, however, to have presided but a short time at both places, as no particulars of his life have been recorded, and his parentage, churches, and festival, are alike unknown. The short duration of his presidency at Menevia is shown by the fact that he was in turn succeeded by Teilo, who had been the associate and fellow-student of his predecessor.
Teilo,t the second bishop of Llandaff, was the son of Enlleu ab Hydwn Dwn ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, by Tegfedd, daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn. His Latin name was Teliaus, and, by a sort of monkish trifling with the sound of
* Namely; Constantinus, the tyrant, as he is called, of the Damnonii, or people of Devon and Cornwall; Vortiporius, the tyrant of the Dimetæ, or inhabitants of the western part of South Wales; and Maglocunus, the tyrant of North Wales.
† “Nai, fab Cefnder i Ddewi.”-Myv, Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 53.
of the word, he was also called Hros and Eliud.* born at a place once called “ Eccluis Gunnian,” or “Gunniau," in the neighbourhood of Tenby, Pembrokeshire. It is said that he studied first under Dubricius, by whose assistance he attained to great proficiency in the knowledge of the Scriptures; his next instructor was Paulinus, under whom he
pursued the same study, and in whose school he was the associate of St. David. Under the patronage of Dubricius, he opened a college at Llandaff, which was called Bangor Deilo; and his settlement at that place may serve to account for his appointment to fill the see of 'Llandaff upon the retirement of his patron to the Isle of Bardsey. The idea that he was made bishop of Llandaff at the time Dubricius was raised to the archbishoprick of Caerleon is irreconcilable with chronology; and the assertion that he succeeded Dubricius as archbishop, without the intervention of St. David,+ is contrary to all received history, unless it be supposed that Llandaff was an archbishoprick independent of Caerleon, a position which is certainly untenable. The original diocese governed by Teilo, as ascertained by the absence of churches founded by St. David, was coextensive with the ancient Lordship of Glamorgan, containing the present rural deaneries of Groneath, Llandaff, and Newport. How long he continued to preside over this limited district is uncertain ; but in the reign of Maelgwn Gwynedd, a plague, called “ Flava pestis,” and in Welsh “Y Fall felen," is recorded to have desolated the Principality. Upon this occasion, Teilo, with several others, retired to Cornwall, and afterwards to Armorica, where he was honourably received by Samson, the bishop of Dole. After he had remained seven years and as many months in Armorica, he returned, with several of his disciples, to his native country; and upon his arrival was elected to the archbishoprick of Menevia, then vacant by the death of Cynog. Like St. David, however, he retained a predilection for the seat of his original bishoprick, and, appointing Ismael to the situation of bishop of Menevia, he removed the archbishoprick to Llandaff.* In order to maintain his title to the primacy undisturbed, he appears to have kept under his immediate government the whole of the diocese held before by St. David, with the exception of the part north of the river Tivy, which was henceforth attached to the diocese of Llanbadarn.t In support of this view it may be explained that churches founded by Teilo still exist throughout the whole of the country specified, and that one of them, Llandeloi, is situated within a few miles of the cathedral of St. David's; but north of the Tivy, no church of this description is to be found. The proof, however, does not rest solely upon the analogy of existing monuments; for the records of Llandaff show that its bishops continued for several centuries to claim the whole of the country from the mouth of the Taradr, or extreme point of Monmouthshire, to the mouth of the Tivy,t including, of course, Pembrokeshire and so much of Herefordshire as lay to the west of the river Wye. It does not appear that any separate district was apportioned as a diocese for Ismael, who must have been no more than an assisting suffragan, and his name is not inserted in the list of prelates of St. David's. In his time, therefore, the diocese of Menevia was united to that of Llandaff; and the circumstance may account for the claim afterwards made by the bishops of Llandaff, which, if maintained, would have involved the existence of the bishoprick of St. David's, which it went to deprive of its entire territory. But in effect it was little better than nominal, though attempts were not wanting to enforce it. There is reason to suppose that Oudoceus, the successor of Teilo at Llandaff, retained Monmouthshire and the adjacent part of Herefordshire under his jurisdiction ; but he did not succeed to the bishoprick of St. David's,* the affairs of which were administered by Ceneu ;t and though the extent of its territories at the time of its separation, and for two centuries afterwards, is not determinable, it is clear that from the ninth century, or the establishment of the princes of Dinefwr of the line of Rhodri Mawr, it has maintained, with an occasional intrusion from the bishops of Llandaff, nearly the same limits as at present.
*“Post incrementum ætatis, virtutum et sapientiæ, congruo nomine Helios a sapientibus nuncupatus est. Elios autem Græcè Latinè Sol interpretatur. Fulget enim ut Sol ejus doctrina, fidelium illustrando corda. Sed illiteratis hominibus extremum vocabuli corruptè proferentibus, adolevit quod non Helios sed Heliud appellatus est.”—Life by Galfridus.“Non Elios sed Eliud."-John of Teignmouth.
+ The assertion was made in the Regestum Landavense, at a time when the clergy of Llandaff wished to show that their diocese had never been subordinate to the primacy of Menevia.
* Regestum Landavense; Life by Galfridus; and Usher pp. 83, 517, 559, 560.
+ The extension of the diocese of Llanbadarn confirms the supposition that its bishop at this time was Afan, the brother of Teilo.
# There is abundant evidence of this in the formulæ of the Councils of Llandaff, which are inserted at length in Spelman's Concilia.
The churches founded by Teilo, or dedicated to him, which still exist, are the following:
DIOCESE OF ST. DAVID'S.
Llandeilo Fawr, V.-3 chapels, Taliaris (Holy Trinity,) Capel yr Ywen, and Llandyfaen, Carmarthenshire.
Brechfa, C. Carm.
Cilrhedin, R.-1 chapel, Capel Ifan (St. John,) Carin. and Pembrokeshire.
Llandeilo, C. Annexed to Maenclochog, Pemb.
* Usher, p. 1155. + Giraldus, and Records of St. David's quoted by Godwin.
Llandeilo Talybont, V. Glamorganshire.
DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF.
Llandaff Cathedral, (St. Teilo and St. Peter.)—1 chapel, Whitchurch (St. Mary,) Glamorganshire.
Merthyr Dyfan, R. Glam.
Llandeilo Cressenny, V.-i chapel, Penrhos (St. Cattwg,) Monmouthshire.
Llanarth, V. Monm.
The foregoing list, so far as regards the diocese of St. David's, may be compared with another which is curious for its antiquity. Between the years 1022 and 1031, in the reign of Canute, king of England ; Rhydderch ab lestin, a prince of Glamorgan, obtained the sovereignty of South Wales,* and taking advantage of the opportunity, made an endeavour to restore the ancient diocese of Teilo. He therefore granted to the church of Llandaff, all such churches in the counties of Carmarthen, Pembroke, Brecon, and Radnor, as bore the name of that saint, together with several manors, lands, and villages, according to the following schedule ;t extracted literatim from « Godwin's Bishops."
IN CANTREF MAURI
1 Lantelia maur cum suis duob. 3 Lanteliau garth teuir. territorijs.
4 Lanteliau maur brumur. 2 Lanteliau nant seru.
5 Lanteliau bechan in diffrinteiui.
* Welsh Chronicles in the Myv. Archaiology.
+ Its heading, according to the first edition of Godwin, is :- De omnibus subscriptis vestita fuit ecclesia Landauensis, simul et episcopus Joseph, pace quietâ et tranquillâ tempore regnantis Ritherich per totam Gualiam, et admonitione Ælnod Archiepiscopi Cantuarensis simul cum literis commendatitiis Cnut regnantis Angliam.
| The Hundreds of Caio and Catheiniog, in Carmarthenshire, between the rivers Towy and Tivy. The names of some of the places in this docu