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Ciwa; Llangiwa, Monmouthshire.
Cofen ; Llangofen; Monmouthshire ; and St. Goven's chapel, Pembrokeshire.
Curig Lwyd, a bishop, probably of Llanbadarn Fawr ; he was the founder of Llangurig, Montgomeryshire, and his crosier was preserved in the neighbouring church of St. Harmon's in the time of Giraldus Cambrensis. There was another Curig or Cyrique, a saint of Tarsus in Cilicia, who was martyred while an infant at the same time with his mother, Juliet or Julitta. Llanilid a Churig,* Glamorganshire, and “Capel Curig a'i fam Iulita,”+ Carnarvonshire, are dedicated to Juliet and Cyrique together. Juliet is also the saint of Llanulid under Dyfynog, Brecknockshire. It is uncertain to which of the persons named Curig, the churches of Porth Curig, Glamorganshire, and Eglwys Fair a Churig, Carmarthenshire, are dedicated. The festival of Juliet and Cyrique is June 16,
Cwyfyn, the son of Arthalun of the vale of Achlach in Ireland.
Cynfab; Capel Cynfab formerly in the parish of Llanfair ar y Bryn, Carmarthenshire. Nov. 15.
Cynfarwy; the son of Awy ab Llênog, a prince of Corne wall; Llechgynfarwy, Anglesey. Nov. 7.
Dwyfael, the son of Pryderi ab Dolor of Deira and Bere nicia.
* Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 625.
+ Ibid. p. 36.
Gwrthwl; Llanwrthw), Brecknockshire; and Maesllanwrthwl in Caio, Carmarthenshire. March 2.
Gwyddelan; Llanwyddelan, Montgomery shire ; and Dolwyddelan, Carnarvonshire. August 22.
Gwyddfarch; the son of Amalarus, prince of Pwyl. He was one of the saints of Meifod, Montgomeryshire.
Gwynen. Qu. Llanwnen, Cardiganshire.
“ Issui or Ishaw,”+ a martyr; Partricio or Partrishaw, a chapel under Llanbedr, Brecknockshire. October 30.
Llyr, a virgin; Llanllyr, Cardiganshire; and Llanllyr yn Rhos, now written Llanyre, Radnorshire. October 21.
Machraith ; Llanfachraith, Anglesey; and Llanfachraith, Merionethshire. January 1.
Mechell or Mechyll, the son of Echwydd ab Gwyn Gohoyw. He was the founder of Llanfechell, Anglesey; and was buried in the church-yard of Penrhos Llugwy in the same county, where there was lately a stone with the following inscription, HIC IACIT MACCVQ ECCETI.I
Mordeyrn; Nantglyn, and Mordeyrn's chapel formerly in the parish of Nantglyn, Denbighshire. July 25.
* Sir H. Nicolas's Chronology of History. + The correct orthography of this name is unknown.
# Rowlands's Mona Antiqua.
Rhediw; Llanllyfni, Carnarvonshire. November 11.
Rhidian, a member of the college of Cennydd at Llangennydd in Gower ;-Llanrhidian, Glamorganshire.
Rhuddlad, a daughter of a king of Leinster in Ireland ;* Llanrhuddlad, Anglesey. September 4.
Rhwydrys; a son of Rhwydrim or Rhodrem, king of Connaught. Llanrhwydrys, Anglesey. November 1.
Samled; Llansamled, Glamorganshire.
The foregoing list concludes the series of Primitive Christians, whose names have been collected from various authorities but principally from the records of the Welsh genealogists; and on a comparison of these records with each other, and with collateral testimony wherever accessible, has been founded the present attempt to bring order out of confusion by tracing the history of the saints, as nearly as possible, according to their chronological succession :-with what success, the reader must judge for himself. At first sight the Welsh pedigrees present the appearance of an entangled maze, but when unravelled and adjusted they form a regular tissue, the figures interwoven in which are consistent, and by their analogies clearly demonstrate where the threads are broken, and how far the ravages of time may be repaired. The clue to the arrangement is that the web should commence about the departure of the Romans, and, this being attended to, its several pieces will agree together. One objection, however, to the testimony of the genealogists, as regards the saints, must be obviated. From their representation it would appear that large crowds of people, chieftains with their families and dependents, renounced together the pursuit of arms, and becoming inmates of a monastery, devoted themselves to religion. This it might be urged was a practice unusual in other countries, and that the representations of the genealogists were therefore improbable; but the objection is overthrown by Bede who declares that a similar practice prevailed in Northumbria, where it had degenerated into open abuse ;* for chieftains uncontrolled by ecclesiastical discipline founded monasteries, the government of which they assumed to themselves, inviting together all sorts of persons and especially their dependents, many of whom retained their wives and continued to have children.t In their lives they differed little from laymen, and Bede in his Epistle to Egbert, archbishop of York, earnestly intreats him to interfere and put an end to such irregularities. The abuse of the system is not charged against the Britons, who also differed from the Northumbrians in another particular,—they had no nunneries ;# while those in Northumbria were numerous, and in many instances their government was irregularly committed to the wives of chieftains.
* Rowlands's Mona Antiqua.
To the churches founded according to the peculiar mode of consecration practised by the Britons,|| succeeded in due course those of the second and third foundation, upon which it is not necessary to enlarge, as sufficient has been said already. Both these classes were Catholic, the second being founded chiefly by native princes, and the third by foreigners. But as it must be a source of gratification to Welshmen, to reflect that their churches of the first and most important class were established at a time when their ancestors did not acknowledge the authority of Rome, it may not be improper to adduce some positive evidence as to the degree of separation which existed between the Britons and the Catholics, and such may be found at the period where these researches terminate. In the year 692, Aldhelm, a priest who was afterwards bishop of Sherborne, was deputed at a general synod of the Saxons to write a treatise against the Paschal cycle and form of Tonsure adhered to by the Britons. He accordingly wrote an epistle to Geruntius, king of Cornwall, which is still extant, and is important as it proves, that though the points in dispute were in themselves of little consequence, the division amounted to an entire separation of communion. The following extracts are given according to the translation of Cressy.-
* " Adridente pace ac serenitate temporum, plures in gente Nordanhymbrorum, tam nobiles quam privati, se suosque liberos, depositis armis satagunt magis acceptâ tonsurâ, monasterialibus adscribere votis, quam bellicis exercere studiis. Quæ res quem sit habitura finem posterior ætas videbit.”-Bedæ Hist. Eccl. A. D. 731.
+ Epistola ad Ecgberctum Antistitem.
“But besides these enormities (the Tonsure and Paschal cycle) there is another thing wherein they doe notoriously swerve from the Catholick Faith and Evangelical Tradition, which is, that the Preists of the Demetæ, or South-west Wales, inhabiting beyond the bay of Severn, puffed up with a conceit of their own purity, doe exceedingly abhorr communion with us, insomuch as they will neither ioyn in prayers with us in the Church, nor enter into society with us at the Table: yea moreover the fragments which we leave after refection they will not touch, but cast them to be devoured by doggs and unclean Swine. The Cupps also in which we have drunk, they will not make use of, till they have rubbed and cleansed them with sand or ashes. They refuse all civil salutations or to give us the kisse of pious fraternity, contrary to the Apostles precept, “Salute one another with a holy kisse.' They will not afford us water and a towel for our hands, nor a vessell to wash our feet. Whereas our Saviour having girt himself with a towell, washed his Disciples feet, and left us a pattern to imitate, saying “As I have done to you, so doe you to others.' Moreover if any of us who are Catholicks doe goe