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the general staff as a Deputy-Assist- a present of horses, from the King of
ant-Quartermaster-General. At this England to the Maharajah Runjeet
period he drew up an able and elabo-Singh, arrived at Bombay, with a let-
rate paper on the Statistics of Wagur, ter of compliments from the minister
which was forwarded to Government, for India, Lord Ellenborough, to the
in January 1827, by Colonel Shuld- Sikh Chief. At the recommenda-
ham, Quartermaster-General, with tion of Sir John Malcolm, Lieutenant
many high encomiums on the industry Burnes was nominated, by the Su-
and research of the reporter, and on preme Government, to proceed with
the value of the information which these to Lahore, the capital of the
the document contained. For this Punjaub country. The authorities,
report Lieutenant Burnes received the both in England and India, conceiv-
thanks of Government, with a hand-ing that much information might be
some reward in money. He had also derived from such a journey, in addi-
the high testimony of the Governor, tion to the mission in which he was
Mountstuart Elphinstone, in his fa- ostensibly employed, directed Lieu
vour. In the following year similar tenant Burnes to obtain full and com-
marks of approbation were bestowed plete intelligence in reference to every-
on him for a valuable memoir on the thing pertaining to the geography of
Eastern Mouth of the Indus. In ad- the Indus. That a better colour
dition to the customary forms of ap- might be given to a deviation from
probation, Lieutenant Burnes was, on the customary route so far as Hydra-
this occasion, specially complimented bad, he was entrusted with presents to
on the proofs which his labours af- the Ameers of Scinde. A regular
forded of a disposition to combine the escort of British troops was declined,
advancement of general knowledge and a guard of wild Beloochees was
with the exemplary discharge of his found sufficient to ensure protection,
official duties. A few months after he while they permitted an intercourse
furnished the authorities with a Me. with the natives which a more regular
moir supplementary to the report al-force would have prevented. The ex-
ready mentioned. In the early part pedition moved from Mandavee, in
of the same year (1828) he presented Cutch, on the 1st of January 1831, and ||
a memorial, applying for permission on the 28th arrived at the western
to visit the line of country imme- mouth of the Indus. After many an-
diately beyond our north frontier, and noying delays and obstructions thrown
lying between Marwar and the Indus, in their way by the jealousy of the
including the examination of the Ameers, the party reached Hydrabad
Loonee river. The projected journey on the 18th of March. The unlooked
was, however, for a time delayed, and for detention, meanwhile, had been
on the 18th March he was appointed turned to good account, a full survey
Assistant Quartermaster-General to of all the mouths of the Indus, and a
the army.
map of the lower portion of its course,
In September 1829 he was appointed and of the land route to Tatta, having
to act as assistant to the political agent been the fruits. On the 23d of April
in Cutch, in prosecution of the survey they once more embarked on the In-
of the north-west frontier, Lieutenant dus; and, after visiting the various
(now Major) Holland, of the Quarter-places of note along that river, ar-
master-General's department, hav-rived at Lahore on the 18th of July.
ing been nominated to act with him They next proceeded across the Sut-
in the intended survey. An account ledge to Loodianah, and here Burnes
of the expedition, written by himself, first met the present King of Cabul,
will be found in the Transactions of the Schah Soojah-ool- Molk, then liv-
the Royal Geographical Society of ing as a guest within the British ter-
London, 1834. Early in the year 1830 ritories, and maintaining, while a pen-

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sioner on our bounty, the forms of edition. It was immediately transsovereignty and ceremonies of state. lated into the German and French His impression of the character of languages, and Burnes, in his next this personage seems to have been visit to Cabul, in 1837, found that the most unfavourable. “From what I Russian emissaries had been using learn," says he, “ I do not believe the the French edition as a handbook on Schah possesses suficient energy to their way. seat himself on the throne of Cabul; While in England, in 1834, Burnes and if he did regain it, he has not tact was made a Fellow of the Royal So. to discharge the duties of so difficult ciety, and an honorary member of sea situation." In December be visited veral other learned bodies.

In May Kurnaul and Delhi, and was presented of that year he received, from the to the Great Mogul, the fifteenth de- Royal Geographical Society, the fourth scendant from Timour. “The mum- royal premium of fifty guineas for his mery of the ceremony," says he, “ was navigation of the river Indus, and a absurd, and I could not suppress a journey to Balkh and Bokhara across smile as the officers mouthed, in loud Central Asia. At the meeting of the and sonorous solemnity, the titles of Royal Asiatic Society, on February King of the World, the Ruler of the 21, 1835, the late Earl of Munster, Earth, to a Monarch now realmless, Vice-President, in the chair, Lieutenand a Prince without the shadow of ant Burnes was elected an honorary power."

member for having “ fixed, with ac. The sanction of the Governor. Ge- curacy, the position of Bokhara and neral for the travellers to proceed into Balkh, and the great Himalayan MounCentral Asia having been finally given tains, and having done more to the in the end of December, the journey construction of a map of those counwas commenced on the 2d of January tries than had been done since Alex1832. The details have been publish- ander the Great." On this occasion ed in his celebrated “ Travels to Bok- he was complimented by Sir Alex. hara," one of the most interesting ander Johnstone for having almost works in the English language. He ascertained a continuous route and returned to Bombay, January 18, 1833. link of communication between WestIn the following June he received or ern Asia and the Caspian Sea, as also ders to proceed to England as the bear- for his excellent diplomatic arrangeer of his own dispatches; and he arziv- ments with the Ameers of Sindh. ed in London early in October, the While yet a mere youth, he had confame of his adventures having long pre- tributed, from India, many valuable ceded him. His reception at the India papers to the Royal Asiatic Society; House, as well as by the Board of and the Museum of that Society conControl, was cordial in the extreme; tains the Bokhara cloak worn by him and on the 30th of December he was in his travels in the Punjaub. To introduced at Court. He afterwards the British Museum he presented one received the special acknowledgments of the richest collections of Indian of the King, William IV., for the un- coins in this country, for which he published map and memoir which he received a letter of thanks from the had presented to his Majesty. His Trustees of that National Institution. celebrated work on Bokhara was pub- After a sojourn of eighteen months lished, at London, in the early part of in Great Britain, during which time 1634; and its success was almost un- he visited his native town, Montrose, precedented for a book of travels. Lieutenant Burnes left London on Nearly 900 copies were sold in a single April 5, 1835, and reached India on day. Mr Murray, the publisher, of the 1st of June, through France and Albemarle Street, gave the author Egypt, and so by the Red Sea packet. L.800 for the copyright of the first on his arrival at Bombay he was di

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rected to resume the duties of Assist- of his own melancholy and untimely ant to the Resident at Cutch, Colonel fate. His chief characteristics were Pottinger. In the following October intrepidity, discretion, and wonderful he was deputed on an important mis-sagacity. As a proof of these, it is sion to Hyderabad in Scinde, and, in narrated of him that he dined one all the momentous affairs in which he Christmas day, in great state, with one was engaged, and in subsequent ne- of the Rajahs, whose watches he had gotiations, he displayed his accustom- on that day twelvemonth regulated, ed ability and judgment, and accom- in the disguise of an Armenian watchplished the most important results. maker. Had he been discovered, his Shortly after his return to India, in head would not have remained five acknowledgment of his diplomatic and minutes on his shoulders. His brother, other services, he was knighted and Lieutenant Charles Burnes, of the advanced to the rank of Lieutenant- 17th regiment of Native Infantry, who Colonel in the army. On the final perished with him, was born on Janurestoration of the Schah Soojah to ary 12, 1812, and appointed a cadet on the throne of Cabul, in September the Bombay establishment, in 1835, 1839, Sir Alexander was appointed Po- by Mr Lush, as a compliment to the litical Resident at that capital, with a services of Sir Alexander. Dr James salary of L.3000 a-year. He was Burnes, K.H., is now the only reslaughtered, along with his brother maining brother of the family in the Charles, and seven other officers, at Company's service. Another brother, the insurrection of Cabul, November Mr Adam Burnes, is a solicitor of great 2, 1841, in the 36th year of his age. respectability in Montrose, where his father is still living. A work, by Sir Alexander, on Cabul, is on the eve of publication, under the superintendence of another brother, Dr David Burnes, physician in Londen, who has preserved every letter which Sir Alexander had addressed to him during twenty years.

Sir Alexander Burnes was the first traveller who opened the Indus to the policy of England, and extended his researches to the shores of the Oxus, the ruins of Samarcand, and those remote territories which have, within so short a space of time, become the scene of great political events, and


CAMPBELL, JOHN, a lieutenant-prisoner by the American Revolucolonel in the army, who distinguish- tionary Generals. ed himself in India, was the second son of Lord Stonefield, a Judge of the Court of Session, and Lady Grace Stewart, sister to John Earl of Bute, and was born at Edinburgh, December 7, 1753. He received his education at the High School of his native city, and at the age of eighteen became an Ensign in the 57th regiment. Three years afterwards he was appointed jority of the second battalion of the Lieutenant of the 7th foot, or Royal 42d regiment. In one engagement Fusileers, with which regiment he with Tippoo Sultan, when the latter served in Canada, where he was made was repulsed with great loss, Major

In 1775 he was promoted to a Captaincy in the 71st foot, and some time after was appointed Major of the 74th, or Argyleshire Highlanders. In February 1781 he exchanged into the 100th regiment, and with this corps he served with distinction in the East Indies, against the troops of Hyder Ali, during which period he was appointed to the ma

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Campbell was wounded, but did not 31st year of his age. He had, a short quit the field till the enemy were de- time previously, attained the rank of feated. He was afterwards engaged Lieutenant-Colonel. A monument in the siege of Annantpore, which he was erected to his memory in the reduced and took from the enemy. In church at Bombay, by order of the May 1783 he was appointed to the pro- East India Company. visional command of the army in the COPLAND, PATRICK, LL.D., ProBidnure country. His defence of fessor of Natural Philosophy at Aber. the important fortress of Mangalore, deen, son of the minister of Fintray, where he was stationed, against the in Aberdeenshire, was born at the prodigious force of Tippoo, amount. manse of that parish in January 1749. ing to about 140,000 men, with 100 Having obtained a bursary by compieces of artillery, is justly accounted petition, he received his education at one of the most remarkable achieve- Marischal College and University of ments that ever signalised the British Aberdeen ; and, on March 28, 1775, he arms in India. The garrison, under was elected Professor of Natural Phi. Major Campbell's command, consisted losophy in that institution. In April only of 1883 men, of whom pot more 1779 he was transferred to the chair of than two or three hundred were Bri- Mathematics in the same University, tish soldiers, the remainder being which he filled till July 9, 1817, when Seapoys, or native infantry. This lit- he again became Professor of the Natle garrison, however, resisted for two tural Philosophy class. He taught, months and a half all the efforts of with great reputation and success, for Tippoo, after which, a cessation of upwards of forty years, and, on June hostilities taking place, the siege was 27, 1817, his colleagues conferred on turned, for a time, into a blockade. him the honorary degree of LL.D. in The bravery and resolution displayed acknowledgment of his eminent serby Major Campbell on this occasion, vices. His course of Natural Philosowere so much admired by Tippoo, phy was illustrated by one of the who commanded the enemy in per- most extensive and complete sets of son, that he expressed a wish to see apparatus in the kingdom, mostly the him. The Major, accompanied by work of his own hands, or made by several of his officers, accordingly workmen under his superintendence. waited on Tippoo, who presented to As a lecturer, he was distinguished by each of theni a handsome shawl; and, his clear method and impressire manafter their return to the fort, he sent ner of communicating kuowledge, and Major Campbell an additional present fixing the attention of his hearers. of a very fine horze, which the famish- He was the first in the North of Scoting garrison afterwards killed and land who gave a regular series of Poate. After sustaining a siege of eight pular Lectures on Natural Philosophy, months, during which they were re- divesting that science of its most ab. duced to the greatest extremities by struse calculations, and suiting the disease and famine, the garrison at subject to the mechanic and operative length capitulated, January 24, 1784; tradesman. His attention was also and on the 30th they evacuated the fort, successfully directed to other sciences. and embarked for Tillicherry, one of In Mr Samuel Parke's Chemical and the British settlements on the coast Philosophicai Essays," due credit is of Malabar. The fatigue which Co- given to Dr Copland for having inlonel Campbell endured during this troduced into this country an expememorable siege had undermined his ditious method of bleaching by oxy. constitution, and, in the following muriatic acid, which had been shown month, he was obliged, by ill health, to to him merely as a curious chemical quit the army and retire to Bombay, experiment by the celebrated Pro. where he died, March 23, 1784, in the fessor De Saussure, while at Geneva,

with the Duke of Gordon, in 1787. on Original Sin," and has long been
Mr Thomas Thomson, however, in the acknowledged as a work of standard
article Bleaching, in the Encyclopædia merit. In 1807 he was ordained mi-
Britannica, denies that Dr Copland nister of Stow, in the Presbytery of
had any claim to the first introduc- Lauder, and in this parish he officiat
tion of the new process into Great ed with great acceptance for nearly
Britain, ascribing the merit of it to thirty-four years. On every subject
the celebrated James Watt. During connected with theological literature
his long and useful life, Dr Copland Dr Cormack had amassed a large
was in frequent correspondence with stock of sound and valuable infor-
Watt, Telford, Maskelyne, Leslie, nation, and the fruits of his re-
Olinthus Gregory, M. Biot, Dr Hut- searches appeared in numerous lit-
ton, and other distinguished literary tle works, original and translated,
and scientific men. In 1782 he was with which, from time to time, he
elected a Corresponding Member of favoured the public. Of these, it
the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- is only necessary to mention the
land, and, in 1807, an Associate of the Lives of the Philosophers;" "Bar-
Linnæan Society of London. He was zillai the Gileadite," a work abound-
also a member of other learned bodies. ing in most useful and important con-
Declining health caused him, in Sep-siderations on old age; and a series of
tember 1822, to resign his Professor-Illustrations of Faith," which were
ship, in which he was succeeded by written originally for the "Scotish
Dr William Knight, and he died No-Christian Herald," and have since
vember 10 of that year, in the 734 year been collected into a small volume.
of his age.
He married Elizabeth, Dr Cormack died suddenly in his own
daughter of Dr David Ogilvy, surgeon, church, on Sunday, December 20,
R. N., by whom he had three sons and 1840, in the 64th year of his age. He
one daughter.
had entered the church in good health,
CORMACK, JOHN, D.D., an emi- but did not preach that day, the Rev.
nent modern divine of the Church of Mr Brydon officiating in his stead.
Scotland, was born in 1776. At an During the service he was observed
early period of his life he distinguish- to drop his head on his breast, and it
ed himself by his superior attainments being supposed that he had fainted,
in divinity; and when a student at he was immediately carried out. Be-
the Hall, he carried off the prize then fore the service was concluded, a note
annually awarded to the best essay on was handed to the preacher, and read
a given subject in theology. This by him to the congregation, announc-
essay was published many years after ing that their esteemed pastor had
in a revised and greatly extended expired, which produced a deep feeling
form, under the title of "A Treatise of sorrow among his attached people.

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