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ing the past year; he alluded, with upon the department of state, Mr. Fillgreat feeling, to the lamented decease more laid before Congress the present of Daniel Webster; and proceeded to condition of the treasury. The receipts give the present position of the fishery for the year were, $49,728,386; the exquestion between the United States and penditures were, $46,008,000; the balEngland. The condition of affairs in ance in the treasury was, $14,632,135. regard to Cuba was next spoken of, and The value of foreign imports during the the proposition of England and France, year was estimated at $207,240,000; for a tripartite convention fully detail- the aggregate exports were, $167,066,od. Having stated, that he had de- 000, besides $42,507,285 in specie. The clined becoming a party to this con- subject of the tariff, the Mexican boundvention, the president went on to say; ary commission, the Indian tribes, etc., “Were this island comparatively desti- were also brought before the two tute of inhabitants, or occupied by a Houses, and the president renewed his kindred race, I should regard it, if vol. recommendations on the various topics untarily ceded by Spain, as a most de- of river and harbor improvements, forsirable acquisition. But under existing tifications, and the like. circumstances, I should look upon its Having congratulated the national incorporation into our Union, as a very legislature and the country on the suchazardous measure. It would bring cess of our policy of non-interference into the confederacy a population of a in foreign affairs, and on the manifold different national stock, speaking a dif- | blessings which we enjoy, Mr. Fillmore ferent language, and not likely to har- closed his message with modestly claimmonize with the other members. It | ing, that he had discharged the duties would probably affect in a prejudicial of his responsible post, to the best of manner the industrial interests of the his ability, and with a single eye to the south ; and it might revive those con- public good. flicts of opinion between the different The proceedings of Congress during sections of the country which lately this, the concluding session, were not shook the Union to its centre, and of very material moment. In the Senwhich have been so happily compro- ate, there was much animated debate mised.”

on the whole subject of the foreign polThe subject of the Tehuantepec route icy of the United States. The (see p. 492); the relations of the United Clayton-Bulwer treaty (1850) States to various South American pow. was brought up; General Cass had a ers; the settlement of the question as great deal to say on the subject of the to the claim of Peru in regard to the “Monroe doctrine"; Messrs. Seward, Lobos Islands; and the steps taken with Chase, Butler, Mason, Soulé, and others, reference to the endeavoring to obtain took part in the discussion; and the a change in the policy of Japan towards country generally was deeply interested other nations; were succinctly set forth. in the important questions involved in Having spoken of the burdens imposed dispute. Various matters of business

VOL. III.-63

1852. 1853.

occupied the attention of the House, erecting a new territorial government and a number of acts of local interest out of part of Oregon, to be called the were passed, together with a great va- Territory of Washington. riety of private bills. On the 11th of On the 3d of March, the session endFebruary, Mr. Mason, from the com- ed, and the thirty-second Congress mittee on foreign affairs, submitted a closed its career.

At the same date, report in regard to the question of the the administration of Millard Fillmore treaty stipulations with Great Britain was brought to an end, and he retired

concerning Central America, in from the lofty station which he had

which the opinion was express-well and worthily filled for nearly three ed in favor of existing British colonial years. They were years of importance establishments in Central America, but in our history, and we think that it will decidedly against her establishing new be admitted by all candid observers, ones. The Mexican Garay grant was who may have noted the progress of again brought up, but no action was affairs under Mr. Fillmore's presidency, had on the subject. The plan of a rail that he maintained the national honor road from the Mississippi to the Pacific and dignity in intercourse with foreign was repeatedly discussed in the Senate, powers; he was ever the advocate of and an amendment was finally adopt- measures calculated to promote peace, ed to the appropriation bill, authoriz- harmony, concord, and attachment to ing the president to use $150,000 for the Union; and in every section of our the expenses of surveys, explorations of vast country he received the meed of the route, etc. A bill was also passed, I praise which was justly his due.

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Inauguration of Franklin Pierce- His Inaugural address, cabinet, etc. - Death of Vice-president King - The

Mesilla Valley - Dr. Kane's second expedition -- Other expeditions— Lord John Russell's reply to Mr. Everett's letter - Case of Kostza — The thirty-third Congress —Substance of the president's message — Senator Douglas's bill — Kansas and Nebraska - Debate in the Senate — The House's course and debate — The Gadsden treaty – Commodore Perry and the Japan expedition — Political movements - Congress in session - Mr. Pierce's vetoes

- Colonel Kinney and emigration to the Mosquito coast — Other acts of the session - The Ostend conferenceThe “American” party — Efforts in New York to suppress intemperance - The Sound dues question — Dr. Kane's return from the Arctic regions — His death — The Resolute sent to England - Apprehension of difficul. ties with Great Britain - The thirty-fourth Congress — Long contest for the speakership-Substance of the president's message — The Kansas question - Proceedings in the territory - Outbreaks, etc. — Walker and Central America --Some details — Further troubles in Kansas -Efforts of parties there — Disgraceful attack on Mr. Sumner by P. S. Brooks — The democratic, republican, and whig conventions— Candidates nominated — Buchanan and Breckenridge elected president and vice-president — Congress in session – Mr. Pierce's last message - Mr. Benton's review of it - Business of the session, the tariff, etc. — The Dred Scott case — - Excitement Congrecs adjourns— End of Franklin Pierce's administration. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VIII.–Senator Benton's views on the Missouri Compromise, etc. — IL. Opinion of the Supreme Court.

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The ceremonies connected with the sion. Indeed, it is not to be disguised, inauguration of the fourteenth president that our attitude as a nation, and our of the United States, were such as are position on the globe, render the acqui. usual on those occasions, and need not sition of certain possessions, not within to be again specially described. Frank- our jurisdiction, eminently important lin Pierce, on the 4th of March, 1853, for our protection, if not, in the future, stood up in the presence of a large con- essential for our preservation of the course of his fellow-citizens, and with rights of commerce and the peace of much dignity and propriety delivered the world. Should they be obtained,

his Inaugural address. It was it will be through no grasping spirit,

expressed in clear terms, and but with a view to obvious national in. gave a cheering outline of the spirit terest and security, and in a manner and proposed policy of the new admin- entirely consistent with the strictest istration. It was not too long, and observance of national faith.” The dealt with such topics as are appropri- new president also took occasion to reate to the day and the audience. “The iterate, that “the rights, security, and policy of my administration,” said Mr. repose of this confederacy, reject the Pierce, “will not be controlled by any idea of interference or colonization, on timid forebodings of evil from expan- | this side of the ocean, by any foreign


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