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power, beyond present jurisdiction, as session, the Senate entered upon an aniutterly inadmissible.” In speaking of mated debate respecting Central Amer domestic affairs, Mr. Pierce gave his ican affairs (see p. 498). Mr. Clayton, views on various points, such as, offices secretary of state under General Tay. held under the government, the grounds lor, had returned to the Senate, and he of appointment and removal, and the immediately undertook an elaborate integrity ana economy expected of pub- vindication of the treaty concluded by lic men by the people; the respective himself and Mr. Bulwer. He also disrights and privileges of the federal gov- cussed the Monroe doctrine, and affirmernment and the state governments, in ed, that it had never received the sancregard to the many difficult and delicate tion of the United States government questions which are liable to disturb the in any form. This was on the 9th of harmony and concord of the Union; March; on the 14th, Mr. Mason made a the compromise measures of 1850, which reply, and was followed by Mr. Douglas are regarded as constitutional and un- on the same side. Mr. Clayton, next hesitatingly to be carried into effect; etc. day, rejoined, and Mr. Douglas took

The Inaugural was well received, and occasion to deliver a long speech on the seemed to indicate that the new admin- subject. On the 21st, Mr. Everett eloistration was to be conducted on truly quently expressed the views which he national grounds, and to be guided by entertained on the points at issue, and principles which would commend it and urged peace and forbearance as the true its acts to the consideration and support policy of our country, and as the best of the whole country. The oath of means of attaining wide spread prosoffice was administered to Mr. Pierce, perity and power. and he retired from the presence of the The vice-president, William R. King, crowd with the good wishes of thous- who was suffering from a pulmonary ands, and with high hopes of a prosper- disease at the time of his election, went ous and successful career.

to Havana, in hopes that the genial On the 7th of March, the president climate of Cuba might afford him re sent in to the Senate, then in extra lief. The oath of office was adminissession, the names of the gentlementered to him there, by the United States whom he had selected for his cabinet.consul, in accordance with a special act His nominations were immediately con- passed for the purpose.

Findfirmed. William L. Marcy was ing no benefit from his visit, Mr.

made secretary of state; James King returned to the United States Guthrie, secretary of the treasury; Ro- early in April, and died at his planta bert McClelland, secretary of the inte- tion in Alabama, on the 18th of April. rior; Jefferson Davis, secretary of war; Mr. Atchison, of Missouri, who had James C. Dobbin, secretary of the navy; been elected president pro tempore of James Campbell, postmaster-general; the Senate, was henceforth charged Caleb Cushing, attorney-general. with the duties belonging to the vice

Before the adjournment of the extra | president's office.

1853

1853.

CH. VIII.]

EXPEDITIONS SET ON FOOT.

501

1853.

A large number of diplomatic ap- after Sir John Franklin and his partý, pointments was made at an early day. set sail from New York. It consisted James Buchanan was sent to England; of a single vessel, the Advance, with a T. H. Seymour, to Russia; Pierre A. company of only seventeen persons, Soulé, to Spain ;* P. D. Vroom, to Prus- under the command of Dr. Kane. They sia; H. R. Jackson, to Austria; Solon were supplied with provisions calculated Borland, to Central America; James for two years, independent of what they Gadsden, to. Mexico; etc. The mission might gain by hunting. Their immeto France was not filled so speedily as diate destination was Smith's Sound, the others; John Y. Mason was, how- the farthest point to the north ever, sent out in the course of the year. that had been reached. Thence,

The Mexican boundary commission, if the ice permitted, they were to push early in the year, assigned the Mesilla their way into regions hitherto unexValley (about one hundred and seven- plored. If the northern passages were ty-five miles long by forty broad), to blocked up, they intended to have reMexico; whereupon, Governor Lane, course to dogs, using their boats as of New Mexico, holding that this allot sledges, in order to make a thorough exment was wholly wrong, issued a proc- ploration of the region, in search of lamation, and took possession, until the traces of the lost navigators. The requestion of boundary should be settled sult of this adventurous expedition, unbetween the United States and Mexico. der the guidance of the noble-hearted

He also called for the aid of the commander, we shall take occasion to

United States troops; but it narrate further on. was not given. The Mexican governor In the present connection, we may of Chihuahua, published a counter-proc- mention, that four other expeditions lamation, and resisted the action of were fitted out, in accordance with the Governor Lane to the extent of his provisions of Congress, (p. 498), for power. Santa Anna, who was at the prosecuting explorations and selecting time in authority in Mexico, entertained the best route for railroad communicavery

inimical feelings towards our coun- tion between the Atlantic and Pacific. try; and for a time, serious difficulty The first, under Major Stevens, was to seemed likely to grow out of this matter. proceed from St. Paul, Minnesota, to

On the last day of May, the second the Great Bend of the Missouri River, expedition under the auspices of Mr. thence to the most available pass in the Grinnell (p.490), to proceed in the search Rocky Mountains, from the forty-ninth

parallel to the head-waters of the Mis

souri. The second, under Lieutenant * Mr. Soulé, when on his way to Spain, in the au tumn, passed through New York. While there, he Whipple, was to proceed from the Miswas waited upon by a number of Cuban exiles, who sissippi, along the head waters of the congratulated him on his appointment. Mr. Soulé replied to their address in strong language, and an ovea Canadian, across the Rio Peco, entering his determination co do everything in his power which

the valley of the Rio del Norte near became the interests and dignity of the United States. Albuquerque, thence through Walker's

1853.

Pass in the Rocky Mountains to the have given an account of the triparti's Pacitic, some where on the coast of convention proposed by England and southern California. The third, under France to the United States, with refCaptain Gunnison, was to pass through erence to the guaranteeing Cuba to the Rocky Mountains near the head Spain for ever; we have also quoted waters of the Rio del Norte, thence some passages from Mr. Everett's letter westwardly along the Nicollet River of on this subject, in which the reasons are the Great Basin, thence, north to the given at length for declining to enter Lake Utah. The fourth was to operate into the proposed convention. In the in California, in the region west of the course of the summer, a letter from Lord Colorado to the Pacific, examining the John Russell, dated February 16th, passes of the Sierra Nevada, and en- 1853, was published in the United deavoring to ascertain the best route States. It was addressed to Mr. Crampbetween Walker's Pass and the mouth ton, the British minister at Washington, of the Gila, and from that point to the and begins by saying, that the object Pacific at San Diego.

of the argument introduced by Mr. The importance of these expeditions Everett with so much preparation, and the reader need not be told, was very urged with so much ability, is clearly great, and very valuable results were to procure the admission of a doctrine, to be expected from the efforts of the that the United States have an interest parties sent out, in respect to the geo- in Cuba, to which Great Britain and graphy, the soil, the productions, etc., France can not pretend. If, it was of the vast western possessions of the urged, the object of the United States United States.

is simply to prevent Cuba from falling As a matter worthy of record, we into the hands of any European power, may state, that the opening of the In- the convention proposed would secure dustrial Exhibition in the Crystal Pal- that end. But if it is intended to mainace, New York, took place on the 14th tain that Great Britain and France have of July. It was attended by the pres- no interest in the maintenance of the

ident of the United States, and present status of Cuba, and that the

several members of his cabinet; United States alone have a right to a by the Earl of Ellesmere, Sir Charles voice in that matter, the British govLyell, and other English gentlemen of ernment at once refuses to admit such eminence; and by a large concourse of a claim. Her possessions in the West citizens and visitors. The opening ser-Indies, to say nothing of the interests vices were impressive and appropriate of Mexico and other friendly states, to the occasion, and the happiest results give Great Britain an interest in the were looked for from the effects of this question which she can not forego: and exhibition, not only upon our own coun- France has similar interests which she trymen, but also upon foreign nations will doubtless urge at the proper time. and people.

His lordship expended much ability in On a previous page (p. 493), we controverting the arguments of Mr.

1853.

CH. VIII.]

THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS.

503

1853.

1853.

Everett, and closed his dispatch by say- tion for the outrage on Austria, entered ing, that, while fully admitting the fully into the question, set forth the right of the United States to reject the grounds on which the United States proposal, Great Britain must at once government is prepared to act in all resume her entire liberty, and upon any similar cases, demonstrated that Ausoccasion that may call for it, be free to tria had no cause of complaint, and act singly, or in conjunction with other justified the course of Captain Ingrapowers, as to her may seem fit. ham as eminently proper under the cir

This dispatch, with a similar one from cumstances. The reply of Mr. Marcy the French government was read, on was considered conclusive, and was rethe 16th of April, to Mr. Marcy, the ceived every where with approbation. secretary of state, who promised to lay On Monday, the 5th of December, them before the president, though he the thirty-third Congress commenced intimated, that probably no further con- its first session. Senator Atchison tinuance of the discussion would be took his seat as presiding officer in the deemed called for. The publication of Senate; and the Hon. Linn Boyd, of this letter called out Mr. Everett again, Kentucky, was chosen speaker of the and in writing to Lord John Russell, House. The president's message was

he vindicated the positions he sent in the next day, and was

had previously taken, and re- read to both Houses. It was plied to his lordship's objections. His an elaborate production, and was full reply was, as might be expected, very of matter for the consideration of the ably written, and attracted the atten- national legislature. The foreign relation of the people at large. We regret tions of the United States were fully that our limits do not admit of quoting considered; such as, the position of from this last letter of the able states- questions yet unsettled with Great Britman just named.

ain; the state of our affairs as respected The case of Kostza, a Hungarian re- Cuba and Spain; the case of Kostza fugee, and the course pursued by Cap- and the conduct of our officers abroad tain Ingraham in rescuing him from in regard to that individual; the disAustrian

power, excited considerable pute with Mexico as to the boundary attention at this date. Kostza, it ap line; the various matters in progress pears, had taken the preliminary steps with other South American states; etc. to become an American citizen, but was The president also spoke of the efforts seized by the Austrian consul-general making by our commissioner to China at Smyrna, as a refugee. His release to advance American interests, and

gave was demanded by our consul, and Cap- intelligence of the arrival of Commotain Ingraham threatened, that unless dore Perry in Japan, without being he were given up, he should fire into able to state any particular results yet the Austrian brig where Kostza was arrived at. confined. Mr. Marcy, in reply to Mr. The president's view of domestic matHulsemann's note, demanding satisfac- | ters was, on the whole, very cheering,

1854.

and he was of opinion, that the graver Many and important suggestions were controversies as well as their causes made by the several secretaries for the were passing away.* In regard to the consideration of Congress. finances, it was stated, that the balance The principal work of the session in the treasury, June 30th, 1853, was, may be summed up

in brief

space, so $14,632,136. The amount received dur- far as our present purpose is concerning the year was, $61,337,574; amount ed.* At the beginning of the year expended, $43,554,262 ; leaving a bal- | 1854, Mr. Douglas, in the Senate, from ance of $32,425,447 of receipts above the committee on territories, reported expenditures. Since the 4th of March, a bill for the territorial government of there had been paid on the public debt, Nebraska, in one section of which it $12,703,329, leaving unpaid, $56,486,- was provided, that whenever the said 708. Beside recommending a reduc- territory should be admitted into the tion of the tariff, Mr. Pierce took up Union as a state or states, it should be the subject of internal improvements, with or without slavery, as the and

gave his views upon the matter, constitution at the time of adwhich were substantially in accordance mission may prescribe. Another secwith those entertained by the leading tion extended the provisions of the men in the democratic ranks. Referring existing laws for the surrender of fugito the compromise measures of 1850, as tive slaves over the territory. Towards having set at rest many litigated ques- the close of the month, the same Senations, and giving some good advice as tor reported a substitute for the bill, to cultivating a fraternal spirit among providing for the establishment of two the people, and practicing rigid econ- territories, one to be called Nebraska omy and frugality in the administration and the other Kansas, and extending of public affairs, the president closed his over both the Constitution, and all laws message with announcing the death of of the United States, except the eighth the vice-president on the 18th of the section of the act for the admission of preceding April

Missouri into the Union, passed in 1820, The reports of the heads of the va- which section was declared to have been rious departments were transmitted with superseded by the principles of the the message, and were full of valuable legislation of 1850, commonly called information in regard to the treasury, the compromise measures," and was conthe navy,

the
army, the post-office, etc. sequently inoperative.

An animated debate, as a matter of * “Mr. Pierce," says Senator Benton, "found the course sprang up upon the old question country in the most happy and tranquil state; peace of slavery extension and limits, and the and prosperity at home and abroad, and slavery agitation stone-dead. Felicitating himself upon this delightful state of the country, he made it a topic of na- According to the newspapers of the day, there tional congratulation in his first annual message, anı! were in the Senate, thirty-five democrats and twentydilatod upon the happy auspices which saluted his two whigs, with five vacancies. The House was comnascent administration."-See Appendix to Benton's posed of one hundred and fifty-nine democrats, seventy. “ Examination of the Dred Scott Case," p. 156. one whigs, and four free-soilers.

*

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