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1855.

Various other bills made successful hesitating about following the course progress through the two Houses. A suggested by the minister to Spain, Mr. retired list for the navy was provided; Soulé, on the 17th of December, 1854, $7,750,000 were appropriated to meet sent a letter resigning his post, under the claims of the creditors of Texas the impression that, unless his plans who

may hold bonds for the payment were to be carried out, he was of no of which the revenues of the state were further use in Spain.

further use in Spain. On the 3d of pledged; a bill to protect emigrant March, the thirty-third Congress closed passengers was adopted; $25,000 were its labors, and the members dispersed appropriated for statuary to be executed to their several homes and summer oc by Hiram Powers; etc. A joint reso- cupations.*

lution, approved on the 15th of In various portions of the country,

February, authorized the presi- the elections of the present season indent to confer the title of lieutenant- dicated the progress of the “Amerigeneral by brevet, in a single instance, can” party, and to a large extent they for eminent services.

General Scott were certainly unfavorable to Pierce's was the recipient of this well-merited administration. Feelings of and distinguished honor.*

mutual dislike seemed to be Just at the close of the session Presi- growing in the community between dent Pierce communicated to Congress “natives” and “foreigners," and riots a voluminous collection of diplomatic and disturbances occurred here and correspondence respecting the Ostend there, indicating a very unhealthy state Conference, held in October of the pre- of a considerable part of the public ceding year. The substance of this mind on this topic. As we have hinted meeting of the American ministers to on a previous page (p. 508) the final England, France, and Spain, at the city settlement of so difficult and perplexof Ostend, may be briefly summed up. ing a dispute as this which has

sprung The point of it consisted in the value up among us, in regard to native born of Cuba to the United States, the almost and naturalized citizens, is yet in the necessity of getting possession of it, the future, and very naturally causes anxitaking measures to this end openly and ety to those who desire peace and confairly, the offering Spain $120,000,000 cord to prevail throughout our beloved for the island, etc. Franklin Pierce country. It also deserves to be noted,

1855.

During the months of January, February, and * President Pierce visited the White Sulphur Springs, March, 1854, the Darien exploring expedition, con- in Virginia, on the 21st of August, where he was sisting of twenty-seven men, under command of Lieut. received by a committee, at the head of which was Isaac Strain of the navy, attempted to ascertain the ex-president Tyler, who addressed the president, practicability of a route for a ship canal across the welcoming him to the state, and congratulating him Isthmus. It was attended with dangers, and difficul- on the prosperous condition of the country. The ties, and sufferings, almost passing belief. For a very president, in reply, complimented Mr. Tyler for what interesting article, prepared from the journal of Lieut. he had done while in the executive chair, and nade Strain and from other sources, by Mr. J. T. Headley, some seasonable remarks on the dangers threatening see “Harper's Magazine” for the months of March, the peace of the country, especially in the growing April, and May, 1855.

spirit of resistance to law and order.

CA. VIII.]

DR. KANE'S ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS.

511

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1855.

that there was a strong disposition in never carried out, and probably while several quarters to organize a new po- things exist as they were some years litical party, upon the principle of re- ago, and are now (in 1865), such a law storing the Missouri compromise, and it will be found impossible to execute resisting what the northern states held in the metropolis of the United States. to be the aggressions of the slave-hold- It is a grave question, a very grave ing sections of the Union. The whigs, question, what shall be done? and we it was said, favored this movement to venture to submit it to the reader as a considerable extent.

one in which he has a vital interest, The legislature of New York, earn- both as a philanthropist, a patriot, and estly desirous to place an effectual bar- a Christian. rier against the further progress of In the spring of the present year,

the intemperance, pauperism and crime, president gave notice to the Danish passed, at its present session, a very government, in respect to the

stringent law on the subject of dues levied on all vessels pass

selling intoxicating liquors. A ing the Sound, that the treaty of coin. long and animated debate was had in merce which recognized the right to the legislature, and the whole subject, levy these dues, would be terminated in all its details, was thoroughly dis- at the expiration of a year; and also, cussed, the intention being to put a stop that the right would no longer be reto the sale of ardent spirits for any pur- cognized by the United States. The poses except medicinal or other legiti- | Danish government, in reply to this mate ends. Penalties of a severe kind notification, complained that so sudden were incurred by violations of the law, a notice should be given, and that the which was to go into effect on the 4th termination of the treaty would take of July. Considering the good intent away the revenues of which, in the of the legislature, and the importance of present condition of Europe, Denmark vigorous action to restrain the tempters professed to feel greatly in need. to pauperism and crime, who expose On a previous page (p. 490) we have for sale intoxicating drinks, and urge spoken of the expedition undertaken forward to speedy ruin thousands upon for the purpose of searching for Sir thousands every year; considering how John Franklin and his missing comhundreds of families are reduced to pany. Dr. Kane, who had gone with beggary and destitution, how many the first expedition, and who was loth murders are committed, how large a to believe that Franklin and all his portion of the community are degraded men had perished, was placed, through by drink, physically, morally, socially; the liberality of Mr. Grinnell and the we may, without impropriety, express favor of the government, in command here deep regret, that this effort to of a second expedition to proceed upon break down a monster evil has failed the same almost hopeless search. On almost entirely. The law, so far as the the 30th of May, 1853, Dr. Kane, with city of New York is concerned, was seventeen hardy and brave men under

1855.

his command, sailed from New York all who survived, three of the number in the Advance, a strongly built her- having died; they were gladly received maphrodite brig of 144 tons burden, on board, at Disco, about the middle and well provided with every thing of September, and on the 11th of Octo. which experience or judgment could ber the expedition was welcomed back suggest. On the 10th of September again to New York.* they were frozen in on the coast of The still youthful navigator (for he Greenland, at the most northerly point was born in February, 1820) made his ever reached. Here the party passed official report to the secretary of the their first Arctic winter. The following navy, and it was hoped that he might summer was spent in exploring in every live to render many years of service to direction that was practicable, in en- the interests of humanity and for the deavors to ascertain something through honor of his country; but the rigors the Esquimaux, in hunting, etc. The of the Arctic winter had taxed his second winter, that of 1854–55, was health and strength with unwonted seintensely severe and trying, and their verity, and he himself was called upon

stock of fuel became quite ex- ere long to follow his three lost com

hausted. The search having panions to the grave. Every thing been prosecuted two years, with no that affectionate solicitude of friends result, and Dr. Kane deeming it im- and relatives could suggest was done; possible to spend a third winter amid but his health sank beyond possibility the ice, the Advance was reluctantly of arresting the inroads of the fell deabandoned, on the 20th of May, 1855. stroyer; and on the 16th of February, With sledges and in open boats, this 1857, at Havana, in the Island of Cuba, brave party set out on their return the spirit of Elisha Kent Kane passed home; and having gone through suf- away from earth to his final account, ferings of the most bitter and severe Dr. Wm. Elder, we may here state, character, they reached the Danish set- has since published a biography of Dr. tlements at Upernavik at the begin- Kane, in which the reader will find ning of August, completely worn down various matters of interest respecting with a journey of one thousand three the early life and training of our distin. hundred miles in eighty-one days. Ap- guished countryman. prehensions had some time previously In connection with the loss of Sir begun to be entertained respecting the John Franklin and his party, we may fate of Dr. Kane and his party; and mention, that an overland exploring acting upon these, Lieutenant Hartstene party, dispatched by the Hudson's Bay was dispatched in May, 1855, with the Company, discovered on Montreal Isbark Release and the steamer Arctic, to seek for Dr. Kane and the Advance. * For volumes of unsurpassed interest and attrao Early in July they reached Upernavik, tiveness, we may refer the reader to the “ Arctic Ex and fortunately not long after fell in plorations ; the Second Grinnell Expedition in search

of Sir John Franklin, 1853, 4, 5." By Elisha Kent with the brave Arctic explorers, i. e., Kane, ML D., U. S. N. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1857.

CH. VIII.]

THE THIRTY-FOURTH CONGRESS.

513

land, a snow shoe of English make, a due to the fact, that the proceedings of part of a ship's boat, with the word various British consuls in enlisting reTerror distinctly visible on it, and cruits for the Crimean war were severely other articles of less moment. Fresh reprobated in the instructions written interest was excited in this subject also, by Mr. Cushing, the attorney-general, by the interesting circumstance that at to the district attorney at Philadelphia, the close of 1855, a New London whaler concerning the trials had in that city lighted upon the British relief bark for violations of the United States neuResolute, which had been abandoned trality laws. We are glad, however, in the Arctic ice by Captain Kellett, to be able to say, that the British govof the expedition under Sir Edward ernment disavowed all hostile intenBelcher. The Resolute, with her arma- tions in the course they were pursuing; ment and stores complete, as at the time and so the threatened difficulty, as on when she was abandoned, had drifted many another occasion, passed away a thousand miles from the place where without further notice.* she had been frozen in; and the hardy On the 3d of December, the thirtywhalemen of New London took her in fourth Congress began its first session. charge, and brought her safely into In the House, on the question of who port. Congress subsequently voted should be the speaker, a contest im$40,000 for the purchase and refitting mediately sprang up. Messrs. Banks, of the Resolute, and on the 12th of Richardson, Campbell

, and two or December, 1856, she arrived at Spit- three others, were prominent candihead. Lieutenant Harstene was in com- dates.

dates. Ballot after ballot was had, mand, and he was charged with the day after day, and it was not till two duty of presenting the Resolute to the months of the public time had been English government. We may well wasted, and the plurality rule believe, that the queen and the people had been adopted, that Mr. N. of England received this mark of Amer- P. Banks, on the 2d of February, 1856, ican good feeling and courtesy with es- received one hundred and three votes pecial satisfaction.

for speaker, while one hundred were During the autumn, apprehensions cast for Mr. Aiken, of South Carolina, began to be felt of approaching difficulties with England. Some of the * Late in August, some of the directors of the New London journals, it appears, talked in

talked in York, Newfoundland, and London Submarine Telegraph

Company, went out to witness the laying down the a very belligerent tone, and it was said telegraphic cable between Cape Ray and Cape North, that the English government had sent a distance of sixty miles. One end of the cable was several vessels of war to rein

fastened on the shore at Cape Ray, and the paying out force the West India squadron, thirty hours, when the weather became too stormy to

began; it was continued successfully for more than with a view to restrain “filibustering” proceed further in the attempt, and the cable was reand privateering expeditions from the luctantly cut off

, after some forty miles length had ports of the United States. Probably, York, on the 5th of September

, purposing to renew the

been sunk in the sea. The party returned to New in part, this exhibition of hostility was undertaking at as early a day as practicable.

Vol. III.—65

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and eleven were scattering. President also defended the principles of the Pierce, wearied out with waiting for Kansas-Nebraska bill. the organization of the House, adopted This Kansas question, a very vexatious an unusual course, and, on the 31st one as it has proved, we may properly of December, sent his message to the notice here. From the nature of the Senate. In this document the presi- case, difficulty was likely to spring out dent brought to the notice of the legis- of the position of affairs, when the Mislature the various questions of interest souri compromise had been repealed; and importance which at the time re- and almost immediately it became a quired their attentive consideration. matter of contest, whether the influence He spoke of the views of the British of southern or northern men should government as to the interpretation of predominate in forming and moulding the treaty of 1850, in regard to Central | the institutions and principles of the American affairs; the recruiting for territory, and the state soon to grow up the Crimean war carried on by English and demand admission into the Union. agents in the United States; the ques. In March, an election was held for memtion of the Danish Sound dues; our re- bers of the territorial legislature, and lations with Spain; etc. In regard to the candidates in favor of introducing finances, it was stated, that the balance in slavery into the territory received a dethe treasury, July 1st, was $18,931,976; cided majority. It was alleged, estimated receipts for the year, $67, however, on the other side, that 918,073; making available resources of the election was carried by illegal voters nearly $87,000,000. Expenditures for having come into the territory from the year were estimated at a little over Missouri, and interfered with those who $71,000,000, which would leave a bal- had a right to vote, viz., the bona fide ance in the treasury, July 1st, 1856, of residents. Governor Reeder, not long nearly $16,000,000. The recommenda- after, was on a visit to the eastern tions in the message were principally on states, and in a speech which he made the subject of the army and the navy, he said, “Kansas had been invaded, the appointing a commissioner to survey conquered, subjugated, by an armed the line between Washington territory force from beyond her borders, led on and the British possessions, etc. The by a fanatical spirit, trampling under president devoted considerable space to foot the principle of the Kansas bill the existing difficulties in Kansas; the and the right of suffrage.” state-rights question, with particular The violence of party spirit increased, reference to the fugitive slave law; and riot and even blood-shed were the history of this topic; and such like; the consequences. The settlers opposed and gave it as his opinion, that the to slavery-introduction complained, in south had not "persistently asserted a memorial to Congress, cf the Missouclaims and obtained advantages over rians having entered the territory and the north in the practical administra- deprived them of their rights; the protion of the general government.” He slavery men denounced any attempt to

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