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1804.

eloquence, nor of luxuriant mind. His British and French conventions, and to speeches were short and to the pur- advance, in the further redemption of pose.

the funded debt, as rapidly as had been On the 5th of November, the second contemplated.” session of the eighth Congress was be- The message was concluded in the gun, and the president's message was following terms: “In the discharge of read in the House, on the 8th of No- the great duties confided to you by our vember. It congratulated our coun- country, you will take a broader view trymen, as “a people who sincerely de- of the field of legislation :—whether the sired the happiness and prosperity of great interests of agriculture, manufac

other nations,” and who “justly tures, commerce, or navigation, can, calculated that their own well within the pale of

your constitutional being was advanced by that of the na- powers, be aided in any of their retions with which they had intercourse,” | lations ? Whether laws are provided and on the fact that the war in Europe in all cases where they are wanting? had not extended more widely, nor be- Whether those provided are exactly come more destructive. It treated prin- what they should be? Whether any cipally of the foreign relations of the abuses take place in their administraUnion;

of the arrangements respecting tion, or in that of the public revenue ? Louisiana, the dealings recently com- Whether the organization of the public menced with the Indians, and treaties agents, or of the public force, is perfect concluded with some of their tribes and in all its parts? In fine, whether any awaiting the constitutional sanctions; of thing can be done to advance the genthe gunboat scheme;* and of the reve- eral good ?-are questions within the nue. In respect to this last subject, the limits of your functions, which will nepresident remarked; “It is also ascer- cessarily occupy your attention. In tained that the revenue, accrued during these and all other matters, which you the last year, exceeds that of the pre- in your wisdom may propose for the ceding; and the probable receipts of good of our country, you may count the ensuing year may safely be relied with assurance on my hearty co-operaon as sufficient, with the sum in the tion and faithful execution.” treasury,t to meet all the current de- The republican majority in Congress mands of the year, to discharge up- was now so considerable that " free. wards of three millions and a half of dom of debate” was nearly impossible; the engagements incurred under the every affair of importance being deter

mined by the supporters of the admin* For Mr. Tucker's remarks on this much ridiculed istration in private caucus, before it plan for defending the harbors of the country and protecting commerce, see his “Life of Jefferson,” vol.

was brought under the notice of the ii., pp. 174–76. The subject will come up again in a legislature. The consequence of such subsequent chapter.

a procedure was, necessarily, that Con † The receipts in the treasury for the year, had been $11,500,000, from which $3,600,000 had been paid in gress was more largely influenced by discharge of the debt

party considerations and party pledges,

CA. III.]

THE TRIAL OF JUDGE CHASE.

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than by the force of sound reason and part of the managers. They were re. sober discussion.

plied to by Messrs. Hopkinson, Martin, Early in December, according to the and others, the counsel for the accused, vote of the preceding session, the House and Messrs. Rodney, Nicholson and proceeded to prepare articles of im- Randolph, the other managers, closed peachment against Samuel Chase, one the argument on the 27th of February. of the judges of the supreme

The trial excited intense interest court, and to the appointment through the country, and it was confiof managers to conduct the business on dently expected that the accused would its behalf, before the Senate. The arti- be convicted. Burr, though under incles of impeachment were eight in num- dictinent for the murder of Hamilton, ber; and they charged the accused presided at the trial with a dignity and with “arbitrary, oppressive, and un- confidence becoming a better man;

and just” conduct in the trial of John much disappointment was shown by the Fries; with several breaches of the dominant party that the defence was law at the trial of Callender; with conducted with ability quite superior “manifest injustice, partiality, and in to that displayed by the prosecution. temperance;" with addressing to the On Friday, the 1st of March, the court Grand Jury, in May, 1803, “an intem- decided on the articles seriatim, and perate and inflammatory political har- each member answered to each charge angue;" etc. John Randolph and five separately. Upon the first article of others were appointed as managers. the impeachment sixteen pronounced

On the 10th of December, they pro- him guilty, while eighteen said ceeded to the trial, and on the 2d of not guilty ; on the second, there January, Judge Chase appeared at the were ten of the former, against twentybar of the Senate, and asked to be al four of the latter; on the third and lowed to the first day of the next term fourth, the numbers on the first article: to put in his answer. The request was were exactly reversed; on the fifth, he

refused, and he was required to was unanimously acquitted; only four

answer the charges on the 4th condemned him under the sixth article, of February, by a vote of twenty-two and thirty declared him innocent; the to eight. The Senate assembled on vote on the seventh was the same as that day; and the accused judge ad that on the second; and on the eighth, dressed the court in answer to the arti- nineteen voted guilty, against but fifcles exhibited against him. A replica- teen voting not guilty. tion in form was made to his answer,

The result was, in consequence, an and on the 7th, the Senate proceeded acquittal ; and Burr,—to the delight to the trial. From that time until the of the federalists, and the chagrin of 20th, the court was engaged in the ex- his own party, who had disowned him, amination of witnesses ; and on that summed up the whole in these words: day the argument was opened by “There not being a constitutional maMessrs. Early and two others on the jority on any one article, it becomes my

Vol. III.-3

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duty to pronounce, that Samuel Chase, tions for president and vice-president Esquire, is acquitted on the articles of were held, and the manifest superiority impeachment exhibited against him by of the republican strength was plainly the House of Representatives."* demonstrated. Mr. Jefferson for presi

The keen disappointment at this dent, and George Clinton for vice-presiunlooked-for result was manifested on dent, received all the votes of New more than one occasion. On the very

On the very Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, afternoon of the day on which Judge Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Chase was acquitted, John Randolph, Pennsylvania, Virginia, the two Caro by resolution, proposed an amendment linas, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, to the Constitution; by which, any fed- and Ohio, with nine out of the eleven eral judge should be removed on the given by Maryland; in all, one hundred joint address of both Houses of Con- and sixty-two votes. On the other side, gress, and the resolution was carried by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and Rua vote of sixty-eight to thirty-three. fus King, the federalist candidates, reMr. Tucker points out several other in-ceived only the votes of Connecticut stances in which the republican ma- and Delaware, with two from Mary. jority displayed its chagrin at this ac- land: in all no more than fourteen. quittal and their own defeat in the On the 3d of March, the eighth Conmatter of the judiciary.

gress closed its career, and the first During the present session of Con- term of Mr. Jefferson's service reached gress, laws were passed for the purpose its conclusion. His biographer, with of preventing the hostile and predatory admiring zeal, sums up the labors of acts of persons on board of foreign ves- the president, during the past four sels in the harbors and ports of the years, in the following words: United States; and for regulating the “With this session, closed Mr. clearance of armed American merchant Jefferson's first presidential term, in vessels. The other subjects which prin- which time he had, by a steady course cipally engaged the attention of Congress, were, the acts providing for the

* The president remarks upon this result, in a letter government of the territory of New

to Volney, in February, 1805. "A word now," he Orleans, and the District of Columbia.

says, “on our political state. The two parties which An amendatory act respecting the Ya- prevailed with so much violence when you were here,

are almost wholly melted into one. At the late presizoo claims was debated for several days,

dential election, I have received one hundred and sixty. and finally passed by a small majority.t two votes against fourteen only. . . Though the During the autumn of 1804, the elec- people in mass have joined us, their leaders had com

mitted themselves too far to retract. Pride keeps them

hostile: they brood over their angry passions, and give * Mr. Benton has given this trial quito at large, them vent in the newspapers which they maintain. taken from the report prepared at the time by two They still make as much noise as if they were the competent short-hand writers : Abridgement of the whole nation. Unfortunately, these being the mer. Debates of Congress," vol. iii., pp. 173–284.

cantile papers, published chiefly in the seaports, are + See Benton's “ Abridgement of the Debates of the only ones which find their way to Europe, and Congress," vol. iii., pp. 315–38.

make very false impressions there."

1805.

CE. IV.]

JEFFERSON'S SECOND INAUGURATION.

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of economy, reduced the public debt thus promoting the national prosperity, more than twelve millions, though he he was rewarded by the national favor, had at the same time lessened the taxes, notwithstanding the unceasing virulence and a host of revenue officers; had with which he had been assailed, as was doubled the area of the United States, evinced by the fact that he received a averted the dangers of war both with greater number of votes at the present France and Spain, chastised the Tripol- election than in that of 1801.*" itans and made war with Algiers and Tunis; extinguished the title to a large

* Tucker's Life of Jefferson,” vol. ii., p. 180. and valuable tract of Indian lands, and John Randolph is still more enthusiastic in his admi. promoted civilization among them. For ration.

them. For | ration. See his life, by Garland, vol. i., p. 198.

CHAPTER IV.

1805-1807.

TWO YEARS OF JEFFERSON'S SECOND TERM.

The presidents second inaugural address — His position and prospects — The ninth Congress — The president's mes

sage — Confidential message respecting Spanish affairs Course pursued by Spain - Pinckney and Monroe envoys to Spain - Unsuccessful in their mission — Action in Congress — Resolution appropriating money for the president to use as he wished - Debate in the House — Armstrong and Bowdoin sent as envoys — Imminence of war with Spain — The administration charged with paying the $2,000,000 appropriation into the coffers of Napoleon - Mr. Tucker's reply - Relations with England unsatisfactory – Vessels of the United States seized and condemned - Carrying trade broken up - American seamen impressed by British officers — Remarks of the president in his message. Course pursued by Congress — Views of the parties — Criminations and recriminations

– The question of the right of Congress to appropriate money for internal improvements - What was done in Congress — Proposal to lay a tax upon slaves imported into the United States — Further attempt respecting the judiciary - State of parties in the House - Discussion as to the successor of Jefferson in the presidential chairMadison and Mon prominent-John Randolph's course - M efferson's letters and views — Aaron Burr and his schemes -- Course adopted by the president — His proclamation - Opening of Congress — The message – Daring attempt to suspend the habeas corpus act — The conspiracy of Burr — His trial - The details - Burt escapes conviction - Remarks on his career.

1805.

On the 4th of March, 1805, it was and the political sentiments of its author, the pleasing duty of Thomas Jefferson clearly and forcibly. He was now in again to address his fellow-citizens, be- his sixty-second year, and his well fore entering upon the duties and re- weighed words are worthy the sponsibilities of his second term of ser- reader's careful examination. vice as president of the United States. We regret that our limits do not admit In style and language the second Inau- of their being quoted in full in this gural address is hardly equal to the place. first; yet it evinces the powers of mind, Having thus, as he deemed it right

1805.

1805.

and proper, entered into a vindication discord in the dominant party. The of his administration, and congratulated republicans from the south favored the people on the prospects of peaceful Varnum of Massachusetts, as a and harmonious counsels and acts in the candidate for the speakership, future, the president took again the in opposition to Macon, and the appointoath of office, and entered with high ment of the latter was not secured, exhopes upon the duties of his lofty posi-cept by a very slender majority, and tion. In the interval between the in- at the third ballot. The federalists auguration and the meeting of Congress, hoped to secure a man of their own he sought relief from public cares and stamp, John Cotton Smith, in consetoils, in attending to his plantations and quence of this variance, but were not his slaves; and in the circle of his pri- strong enough to accomplish their aim. vate friends, and family, whom he could The next day, the president sent in assemble at Monticello. In October, his message. It commenced with a he returned to Washington; “and per- passage respecting the “health laws,"

haps,” says his biographer, “he suggested by “the affliction of two of

never felt so forcibly the trans- our cities, under the fatal fever, which ition from rural quiet, and the pure in latter times has occasionally visited pleasures of domestic intercourse, to the our shores ;” and next it expatiated upfeverish anxieties of the statesman, as on the unfriendly aspect of the relations on the present occasion. His course, of the Union with various foreign states, during the first four years that he had especially with Spain. The treaties held the helm, had been singularly formed, or being negotiated with sevprosperous; and if he had not always eral of “our Indian neighbors," and the met with a smooth sea, he had been progress they were making towards able to continue his course over it by civilization, were properly noted. The the strong gale of his popularity; but expedition of Lewis and Clarke was ad. from this time he met with adverse verted to; and a large addition to the winds and opposing currents which number of gun-boats was suggested. greatly impaired the comfort of the The receipts for the year had been voyage, and in some degree its suc- upwards of $13,000,000, from which

$2,000,000 had been paid under the The ninth Congress commenced its British treaty and convention, and first session on the 2d of December. $4,000,000 of the debt, leaving a The republicans were decidedly in the balance of $5,000,000 in the treasury. majority, yet not so much so, as might | Various recommendations were made have been supposed from the large vote in regard to the organization of the by which Jefferson was placed a second militia, the navy, etc.; and the message time in the presidential chair. Indica- closed with a renewed and “public tions were not wanting of a tendency to assurance, that he would exert his best

endeavors to administer faithfully the * Tucker's "Life of Jefferson," vol. ii., p. 184. executive department, and would zeal

W* cess.

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