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“ Filibustering" against Cuba .....

481 Foreign difficulties and financial distress..

537

President's proclamation.....

481 | Thirty-fifth Congress, first session.

537

Lopez's expeditions..

482 Buchanan's message..

538, 539

Congress-Discussions-Bills passed. 484, 486 Kansas question in Congress.

539

Hungarian question......

486 Walker's filibustering, and result

540

Webster's letter to Hulsemann..

486 Minnesota and Oregon admitted.

541

Kossuth-State of affairs...

488, 489 Troubles in the Gulf....

541

First Grinnell expedition ...

490 Atlantic Telegraph, success, etc..

541, 542

Greytown affair-Clay's death.

490, 491

The fishery question...

492

CHAPTER X.

Garay grant question...

492

1858-1860.

Daniel Webster's death.

493

Pierce and King elected.

493 PROGRESS OF EVENTS DURING TWO YEARS

Tripartite convention-Everett's letter.. 493, 494

Thirty-fifth Congress, second session...

543

Congress in session.

496

Message, important questions, etc..

543, 545

Action of Congress

497

Slidell's Cuba bill....

545

Close of Fillmore's administration

498

Political party issues...

546

Views of Stephens, Jeff. Davis and others. 547

CHAPTER VIII.

John Brown's wild attempt........

548

Thirty-sixth Congress, first session.

549

1853-1857.

Contest for speakership.

549

FRANKLIN PIERCE'S ADMINISTRATION.

Buchanan's message...

550

Inauguration of Pierce-Cabinet, etc.

....... 499, 500 Harper's Ferry committee...

551

Death of Vice-President King

500 The Covode committee, and report.

551

Dr. Kane's second expedition

501 | Political conventions ..

551, 552

Russell's reply to Mr. Everett's letter..

502 The candidates nominated.

552

Case of Kostza..

503 Japanese embassy to United States..

552

Thirty.third Congress-Douglas's bill

503 Prince of Wales's visit......

553

Kansas and Nebraska-Debates..

505 Eighth census, and its results..

553

The Gadsden treaty...

506

Perry and the Japan expedition..

507

CHAPTER XI.

Congress in session...

508

1860-1861.

President's vetoes-Ostend conference 509, 510

Dr. Kane's return-His death..

512 THE LAST YEAR OF BUCHANAN'S ADMINISTRATION.

The Resolute sent to England.

513

Great political struggle....

554

The Thirty-fourth Congress...

513

Abraham Lincoln elected .....

554, 555

Kansas question-Outbreaks, etc..

514

Excitement, furious denunciations, etc..

555

Walker and Central America-Details...

516

South Carolina takes the lead.......

555

Assault on Sumner by Brooks...

518

Yancey, Pickens, etc.....

555, 556

Presidential candidates.....

519

Secession ordinance.

556

Buchanan and Breckenridge elected....

520

Address, declaration, etc.

556

Congress in session-Message..

520

Congress meets-President's message.. ..556, 557

Benton's review of it..

520

House and Senate committees....

559

Dred Scott case-Excitement.

522

Crittenden “Compromise Measures",

559

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VIII.

Buchanan's special messages....

559, 560

I. Benton's Views on the Missouri Compromise,

and other points...

524 Peace conference at Washington.

560

560

II. Opinion of the Supreme Court in the Dred Secession convention at Montgomery, Ala........
Scott case.
527 Jeff. Davis's and Stephens's views..

560, 561

Dishonesty of the South.....

562

563

CHAPTER IX.

Major Anderson's course
Resignations, speeches, etc...

563, 564

1857-1858,

Review of Buchanan's administration....... 565, 566

OPENING OF BUCHANAN'S ADMINISTRATION. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI.

Inauguration of Buchanan

533 I. Buchanan's administration on the eve of

534

Inaugural address, cabinet, etc.

567

the rebellion......

Walker in Kansas...

535

II. South Carolina's address to the slavehold.

536

Lecompton Constitution rejected...

568.

ing States ......

Mormons, and troubles in Utah..

536, 537 III. Declaration as to secession..

568

Book Fifth.

FROM THE

INAUGURATION OF. THOMAS JEFFERSON

TO THE

CLOSE OF THE SECOND WAR WITH ENGLAND.

1801-1815.

HIST ( R Y

OF THE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

CHAPTER I.

1801-18 02.

OPENING YEAR OF THE NEW ADMINISTRATION.

luaugural Address of Thomas Jefferson — His cabinet appointments — Letter to John Dickinson — The question of

r'mrvals from office a perplexing one - Jefferson's views on the subject, in letters to Monroe, Gerry, and Lincoln — Case of the New Haven collector — The judges appointed by John Adams - Answers to Macon's queries — R. R. Livingston minister to France — The navy — The demands of the pasha of Tripoli - Commodore Dale and the American squadron in the Mediterranean — The opening of the seventh Congress — Jefferson sends a message instead of delivering a speech -- The message -- Mr. Tucker's remarks on it — Measures for economy and reform - Revision of the judiciary act-Jefferson's views on the subject — Bill for repeal of the act brought into Congress -- Long and earnest debate — Memorial against the repeal — Views of the federalists — The bill passed — Not wholly approved by the party — Subsequent arrangements as to the courts — Repeal of laws establishing internal taxes — Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Tucker quoted on this point – Other acts of the session — Congress adjourns in May, 1802.

On Wednesday, the 4th day of the occupant for the preceding four March, 1801, the Senate of the United years. On his right, Burr was seated; States assembled in their chamber, and and on his left, John Marshall, the Aaron Burr took the oath of office as chief justice of the United States. vice-president. Soon after, Thomas After a short pause, Jefferson arose Jefferson, attended by the heads of and addressed the audience in the fol- .

the departments, the marshallowing terms:

of the district, his officers, and other gentlemen, came into the Senate

Friends and Fellow-Citizens ; chamber, and took his seat in that “Called upon to undertake the duchair of which he had himself been l ties of the first executive office of our

1801.

1801.

country, I avail myself of the presence animation of discussions and of exerof that portion of my fellow-citizens tions has sometimes worn an aspect which is here assembled, to express my which might impose on strangrateful thanks for the favor with gers unused to think freely, and which they have been pleased to look to speak and to write what they think; towards me, to declare a sincere con- but this being now decided by the voice sciousness, that the task is above my of the nation, announced according to talents, and that I approach it with the rules of the Constitution, all will of those anxious and awful presentiments, course arrange themselves under the which the greatness of the charge, and will of the law, and unite in common the weakness of my powers, so justly efforts for the common good. All too inspire. A rising nation, spread over will bear in mind this sacred principle, a wide and fruitful land, traversing all that though the will of the majority is the seas with the rich productions of in all cases to prevail, that will, to their industry, engaged in commerce be rightful, must be reasonable; that with nations who feel power and forget the minority possess their equal rights, right, advancing rapidly to destinies which equal laws must protect, and to beyond the reach of mortal eye; when violate which would be oppression. I contemplate these transcendent ob- Let us then, fellow-citizens, unite with jects, and see the honor, the happiness, one heart and one mind, let us restore and the hopes of this beloved country to social intercourse, that harmony and committed to the issue and the auspices affection without which, liberty, and of this day, I shrink from the contem- even life itself, are but dreary things. plation, and humble myself before the And let us reflect, that having banmagnitude of the undertaking. Utter- ished from our land that religious inly, indeed, should I despair, did not the tolerance under which mankind so long presence of many, whom I here see, bled and suffered, we have yet gained remind me, that, in the other high au- little, if we countenance a political inthorities provided by our Constitution, | tolerance, as despotic as wicked, and I shall find resources of wisdom, of capable of as bitter and bloody persevirtue, and of zeal, on which to rely cutions. During the throes and conunder all difficulties. To you, then, vulsions of the ancient world, during gentlemen, .who are charged with the the agonizing spasms of infuriated man, sovereign functions of legislation, and seeking through blood and slaughter to those associated with you, I look his long-lost liberty, it was not wonderwith encouragement for that guidance ful that the agitation of the billows and support which may enable us to should reach even this distant and steer with safety the vessel in which peaceful shore; that this should be we are all embarked, amidst the con- more felt and feared by some, and less flicting elements of a troubled world. by others; and should divide opinions

“During the contest of opinion as to measures of safety; but every through which we have passed, the difference of opinion is not a difference

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