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wrowe ULGARIA, bủl-går'e-a, or boot göra, not uncommon, though it is not improbable that

an independent kingdom of the such remarkable longevity may be due rather Balkan Peninsula (q.v.), southeastern to unreliable records and memories than to any

Europe. Bulgaria is bounded on virtues of climate. Over 70 per cent of the the north by the Danube and Rumania; people are engaged in agriculture and most of on the east by the Black Sea; on the them own freehold plots on which they pay a south by Turkey and the Ægean Sea; and on small land tax, while they enjoy free rights the west by Serbia and Greece. Before the over communal grazing and timber lands. A Balkan Wars (q.v.) in 1912–13 the estimated considerable quantity of grain, chiefly wheat, is area of the country was 24,380 square miles, exported; fruit and vegetables are raised in and of South Bulgaria (formerly Eastern abundance; roses are largely cultivated for the Rumelia). 13,700 square miles, total 38,080 production of the attar, which is exported to square miles. According to the census of 1900 the value of $1,500,000 per annum. Wine is the total population was 3,744,283; in 1906, plentiful and cheap; silkworms are bred in 4,028,260; in 1910, 4,337,516. By the Treaty of some regions and tobacco forms an important London (30 May 1913) Bulgaria had gained a crop. Stone quarries and government coal large amount of territory from Turkey, but mines are in operation; domestic industries are being discontented with her share, she turned chiefly carpets, hosiery, woolen and cotton against her former allies (29 June 1913) and goods and ribbons. The highways are still in a was severely defeated in the second Balkan backward condition; most of the traffic is carWar and in consequence lost much of what she ried on by the rivers, and export trade by the had won. Rumania intervened and acquired Black Sea ports of Vara and Bourgas; pasabout 2,900 square miles of territory. Bulgaria senger and merchant steamers run between finally secured only about 10,000 square miles Varna and Constantinople (150 miles). Rustfrom Turkey, while she lost nearly 3,000 square chuk, Vidin and Sistova are the chief Danube miles of her own territory to Rumania, ports. There is a railroad system of nearly with a population of about 273,000. Balkan 1,500 miles in the kingdom; Sofia is connected statistics, however, should be accepted with with the general European system, and several considerable reserve, as it is rare to find any new lines are projected or are in course of contwo authorities in agreement. The most re- struction, one to run from the Danube to the cent figures obtainable give the kingdom of Ægean Sea. The National Bank of Bulgaria Bulgaria an area of 43,320 square miles, and a (capital, $4,000,000) has over 60 branches; total population of 4,467,000, made up of Bul- there is also a State Agricultural Bank, and garians, Turks, Rumanians, Greeks, Serbs, a French, a German and an Austrian bank. Gypsies, Jews, Russians, Germans and other On 1 April 1916 Bulgaria abolished the Julian nationalities. Before 1913 Bulgaria was divided calendar (old style), which is 13 days behind into 12 districts, Saint Zagora, Bourgas, Vidin, ours, and adopted the Gregorian calendar. StaPhilippopolis, Varna, Rustchuk, Tirnovo, Chou- tistics of 1914 showed the Bulgarian revenue men, Pléven, Sofia, Kustendil and Vratza. The as $51,399,000; in 1915, $55,135,975; expenditure, capital is Sofia (q.v.), with a population of 1914, $51,352,520; in 1915, $55,073,240, national 103,000; other chief towns are Philippopolis, debt, 1915, $231,496,540. Imports, 1914, $44,586,Varna, Rustchuk, Slivno, Shumla and Plevna. 860; exports, 1914, $28,813,372.

Soil, Climate, Industry.- The surface of Government.- Bulgaria is a constitutional Old Bulgaria is a gradually sloping plain, monarchy. Legislative authority is vested in broken by occasional mountains, which give the Sobranje, a national assembly consisting rise to rapid tributaries of the Danube. The of only one chamber, to which members are Balkan Mountains or Stara Planina are describ- elected at the rate of one representative to ed under Balkan Peninsula and Balkan Moun- every 20,000 of the population. The members tains. There is little mining, although the are paid for their services; elections are held mountains are rich in minerals, iron, gold, every four years unless the Sobranje is dissilver, manganese and copper. The soil is ex- solved by the King before the expiration of its cellent and the slopes of the mountains are term. With certain exceptions, every man over richly wooded. The climate is healthy, and the 30 is eligible. For decisions concerning highly country enjoys the reputation of possessing important matters of state the Sobranje is more centenarians than any other in Europe. doubled by special election and resolved into a People stated to be 105 to 125 years of age are «Grand Sobranje.) The cabinet is composed of


eight ministers appointed by the King; they ber, and after their adoption of Christianity in hold the usual portfolios – premier, finance, the 9th century they became completely mixed war, etc.

up with the Slavonic inhabitants, though the Religion.— The national religion of Bul- whole became known as Bulgarians. The greatgaria is the same as that of the orthodox Greek est ruler of this kingdom was Symeon (888Church, but it is independent of that body. 927), who subjugated the greater part of the Over 75 per cent of the population belong to peninsula and raised the Archbishop of Bulthat faith; the remainder are Mohammedans, garia to a position independent of the PatriJews, Roman Catholics, Protestants and Grego- arch of Constantinople. Under the son of rian Armenians, whose ancestors seceded from Symeon this empire fell to pieces. The western the Greek Church in the 5th century. The half broke off and formed a separate kingdom, University of Sofia is open to women as well with Ochrida in Macedonia for its capital; and as men; the state subsidizes education, which the eastern portion was subdued by the Byzanis obligatory and free to those who cannot pay tine Emperor, John Zimisces, who reincorpofor it. There are also Greek, Turkish, Ameri- rated it with the empire. The western Bulgarian can, Jewish, French, Armenian and German kingdom existed only till about 1018, when it schools, and education is further promoted by also was subdued by Basil II, “the slayer of the free libraries, museums and technical schools. Bulgarians.) Toward the end of the 12th cen

Military Service.- Despite its small popu- tury, however, the Bulgarians revolted and manlation, Bulgaria possesses a large and efficient aged to establish a third kingdom between the army. It gave a good account of itself in the Balkan range and the Danube, which, someSerbian War of 1885, and a still better one in times weak and sometimes powerful, continued the Balkan Wars. Recruiting is by conscrip- to exist till the advent of the Turks. The last tion; Moslems are exempt on payment of a

ruler of this kingdom was conquered by Bajazet tax of $100 each. Every other Bulgarian sub- I about 1390, and for nearly 500 years the ject is liable to 26 years' service, and the army Turks ruled supreme. In 1876, on account of is consequently composed of many different the atrocities of the Turkish soldiers, an insur

Besides the pure-bred Bulgars, there rection broke out. Russia took the part of Bulare Turks, who cannot pay the tax, Pomakes garia against Turkey, and the war of 1877–78 (settlers and nomads), Jews (“Spanioles” and followed. (See BATAK). By the first article of Poles), Serbs, Greeks, Rumanians, Armenians, the Treaty of Berlin, 13 July 1878, the princiGypsies, Circassians, and naturalized Russians, pality of Bulgaria was constituted, 'made tribuGermans and Levantines. The army actually tary to Turkey and placed under the suzerainty dates from January 1878. From 1389, when of the Sultan. In 1879, Alexander of Battenthe Turks defeated the Slav allies, till 1878, berg, a German prince, was chosen sovereign the Bulgarians, as Christian subjects of Turkey, of part of Bulgaria, the rest being made a sepahad been exempt from military service. The rate province, called Eastern Rumelia, to presoldiers are well-treated, though hard-worked, vent Bulgaria from becoming a strong state. and very particular attention is paid to their In 1885 there was a revolution in Eastern Ruspiritual welfare. Should a regiment contain melia, which annexed itself to Bulgaria. but one Jew and one Mohammedan, a rabbi The annexation of Eastern Rumelia led to and a dervish are provided. The barracks are a quarrel with Russia; Tsar Alexander III comfortably built and equipped with appliances withdrew all Russian officers who had been calculated to promote the health of the troops. training the Bulgarian army and were still servLarge mirrors and framed pictures adorn the ing in it. King Milan of Serbia considered the walls; drunkenness is practically unknown, and moment ripe to realize the territorial aspiralittle smoking is indulged in. The Bulgarian tions of his country and declared war on Bulofficer takes his profession seriously, working garia, 14 Nov. 1885. (See SERBO-BULGARIAN and studying hard with dogged pertinacity and War). After a short, sharp campaign the living within his income. The basis of the Serbians were defeated but saved from extincarmy's theoretical teaching and science is Ger- tion by the intervention of Austria. Russian man; drill, ranks and names are Russian. The


and Bulgarian conspirators abducted Prince corps of reserve officers — about 3,000 — is com- Alexander and set up a government under posed of merchants, lawyers, teachers, etc. Russian tutelage. A counter-revolution, headed There is a military academy at Sofia. The by Stambuloff (q.v.), succeeded in restoring war strength of the army is considerably over the Prince within a few days. Unfortunately 300,000. A few gunboats and about a dozen Alexander made a false move when he telesmall steamers make up Bulgaria's floating graphed to the Tsar and offered to resign his strength.

crown into Russian hands. This step turned History.-- The Bulgarians were originally Bulgarian opinion against him; he was coma Tartar nation, which in the 4th century set- pelled to abdicate and leave the country on 9 tled on the Volga. The ruins of their former Sept. 1886. For 11 months Bulgaria remained capital may still be seen in the neighborhood without a ruler, its affairs being managed by of Kazan. Their kingdom, which occupied a a regency under the leadership of Stambuloff. part of the Asiatic Sarmatia of the Greeks, was This statesman, an innkeeper's son, was a rude, called Great Bulgaria, and is now comprehended violent man, of uncouth manners but sincere in the Russian government of Orenburg. They patriotism. He had been largely responsible afterward removed to the countries between the for throwing off the Turkish yoke, and now Bog and the Danube and called their territories fought strenuously to resist the aggression of Second Bulgaria. The first Bulgarian kingdom Russia. The Russian candidate for the throne south of the Danube was founded in the latter was rejected and Prince Valdemar of Denmark, half of the 7th century, but the Bulgarians who to whom it was offered, refused the honor. established it were comparatively few in num- Stambuloff sent a commission round the Euro


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pean capitals to find a prince for the vacant post. Their choice eventually fell upon Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, son of Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Princess Clémentine, daughter of King Louis Philippe of France. At the time of his election (7 July 1887), Prince Ferdinand was 26 and an officer in the Austrian Hussars. The task that lay before him was difficult and the enterprise most precarious. Though he never achieved the popularity of his predecessor, the new Prince brought his undoubted ability and ambition to the regeneration of Bulgaria. Aided by Stambuloff, who, like Bismarck, was the master of his sovereign, Ferdinand produced order from chaos with an iron hand. None of the Powers would recognize him, and it took nine years before he succeeded in wearing down the antagonism of those within and without his domain. He cultivated the friendship of Turkey and Rumania and combated the Russian influence permeating Bulgaria. It would perhaps be more correct to ascribe the strong antiRussian policy to Stambuloff rather than to the Prince; the former was the fortiter in re to the suaviter in modo of the latter. With but one passion -- love of his country - Stambuloff labored ruthlessly and mercilessly for a master whom he despised, whom he would neither flatter nor betray. Stambuloff cared nothing for the man; only for the nationality he represented. With fiery, self-sacrificing energy Stambuloff developed the resources of his country — railways, financial reform, education creating an efficient army and fostering every type of commerce and industry. During the seven years that Prince Ferdinand and his Minister worked together) their personal relations grew from bad to worse, developing into fierce hatred. By describing his conduct in an official communication as (infamous," Prince Ferdinand goaded Stambuloff into resignation in 1894. Stambuloff's request that he be permitted to visit a foreign health resort was refused. He made a public declaration that he would be . murdered, and on 15 July 1895 his prognostication was fulfilled; he was murdered and mutilated by four men in the streets of Sofia in the presence of the police. One of his hands, which was cut off in the struggle, is said to be still preserved in his home, to be buried on the day when his murder is avenged.

From the moment of Stambuloff's resignation Prince Ferdinand took the reins into his own hands. For the next 10 years a succession of premiers wrestled with the chaotic finances of the country and the thorny question of Macedonia. Efforts were made to establish friendly_relations with Russia and Austria. Prince Ferdinand's eldest son, Boris (b. 30 Jan. 1894) had been baptized a Roman Catholic, the religion of his parents; at the age of two he was rebaptized and received into the Orthodox Greek Church, the Tsar standing as his sponsor. Russia then recognized Prince Ferdinand, and the other Powers followed suit. The Minister for Public Works in Stambuloff's last cabinet_(1892–94), was a Bulgarian journalist, M. Petkoff, who had previously been mayor of Sofia. He was walking with Stambuloff at the time the latter was murdered. In 1903 General Petroff became Premier, and Petkoff joined the cabinet as Minister of the

Interior. On the resignation of General Petroff (5 Nov. 1906), M. Petkoff was called to the helm of Bulgarian affairs. He belonged to the party known as the Stambuloff section of the Liberals, distinguished by its irreconcilable hostility to Russian influence in the Balkans. Less than five months (11 March 1907) later, Petkoff was shot dead on the street by a dismissed employee of the Agricultural Bank. The accession of Count von Aehrenthal (q.v.) as Austrian Foreign Minister in October 1906 was destined profoundly to influence Balkan affairs, and especially those of Bulgaria. For many years Bulgaria had been begging the Powers to relieve her of the burden of the «Capitulations, a relic of Turkish rule. According to these rules, a foreign subject could not be arrested except in the presence of a kavass, dragoman or some other consular official, or tried without similar supervision. Practically all the other Powers had signified their readiness to abolish the Capitulations if consent thereto could be obtained from every one of them. Austria-Hungary, however, had hitherto always objected to any change. Within a month of taking office, Count von Aehrenthal rendered this service to Bulgaria, which cost Austria nothing and yet laid the principality under a great obligation. By this simple stroke the dual monarchy assured to itself the warm sympathy of Bulgaria to an extent long absent from their relations. For 10 years it had been the policy of Count Goluchowsky (Aehrenthal's predecessor) to play off the Slav against the non-Slav Balkan States, e.g., Greece and Rumania against Bulgaria and Serbia, inclining toward the former and treating the latter in a magisterial manner that aroused bitter resentment. Austria's "graceful concession” paved the way for two important events profitable to both parties. Having gained the goodwill of Bulgaria, Austria was able, in 1908, to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina, despite the fierce opposition of Serbia. To Prince Ferdinand, the removal of the Capitulations was the first step toward the realization of his larger policy — complete independence from Turkish suzerainty, and a royal

In September 1908, Prince Ferdinand was received with royal honors at Budapest; 12 days later (5. October) Bulgarian independence was proclaimed and the Prince took the title of_Tsar of Bulgaria; two days later Emperor Francis Joseph issued a proclamation that Austro-Hungarian sovereignty was extended to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The mo·ment was well chosen; the Young Turk revolution had just achieved its object; the Committee of Union and Progress ruled in Constantinople, and there seemed every prospect of Turkey becoming a united and enlightened nation, strong to reassert her claims on Bosnia-Herzegovina and suzerainty over Bulgaria. Shadowy indeed those claims were, for public opinion in western Europe had long ceased to consider them valid. The fact that Tirnovo (Trnovo) was chosen'as the scene of the proclamation of the re-establishment of the Bulgarian kingdom added to the dramatic interest of the situation, for no portion of the Bulgarian soil is so intimately associated with the most stirring events of the national history. The church of the Forty Martyrs, wherein the Prince read the proclamation, was built in 1230




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by John Asen, «Tsar and Autocrat of the joining the Central Powers. Serbia proposed Bulgarians, whose inscription on one of the on the 27th to attack Bulgaria, as the presence pillars reads: "I smote the Greek army

of German and Austrian officers in Sofia looked and all lands have I conquered, from Adrian- suspicious, but Great Britain opposed the plan, ople to Durazzo, the Greek, the Albanian, and apparently still harboring belief in the Bulthe Servian land. :) Here the Bulgarian garian declaration of Warmed neutrality.” Had Tsars were crowned and buried, and many the Serbians not counted till the last moment inscriptions of those times still adorn the walls. on Greece fulfilling her treaty obligations, it Turkey claimed $24,000,000 as compensation; is probable that they would have disregarded Bulgaria offered $7,600,000. An agreement was the British advice. On the 3d of October the arrived at through the intermediary of Russia, Russian government addressed a note to Bulwho advanced most of the money; in April garia declaring that there was no longer any 1909, the Powers recognized Bulgaria as doubt (as to the object of the present military independent, sovereign state.

preparations, and the Russian Minister was The next important event in the history of instructed to leave Sofia if the Bulgarian goyBulgaria was the formation of the Balkan ernment did not openly break with the enemies League (q.v.) and the Balkan Wars in 1912 and of the Slav cause and of Russia within 24 1913. However much Bulgaria was to blame hours by sending away the officers belonging for the second war, the Treaty of Bucharest to the armies of states who are at war with the (10 Aug. 1913), imposed upon her by Serbia, Powers of the Entente.” An unsatisfactory Montenegro, Rumania and Greece, was a colos. reply_led to a rupture of diplomatic relations, sal blunder on the part of those who dictated and Bulgaria formally entered the conflict on it. It left Bulgaria sullen and dissatisfied, and 5 Oct. 1915. On the 19th an imperial manirobbed her of the fruits of her early victories. festo issued in Petrograd stated that the BulShe failed to receive any part of that_district garian troops have attacked our loyal ally of Macedonia inhabited chiefly by Bulgars. Serbia, already bleeding in a struggle against Serbia and Greece had obtained most of the a stronger enemy." See WAR, EUROPEAN. spoils, and Rumania had rectified her frontier Bibliography.- Abadjieff, C., Die Hanat Bulgaria's expense. This legitimate griev- delspolitik Bulgariens? (Munich 1910); Anance was destined to affect the course of the drassy, J., La Bulgarie et la guerre générale great European War (q.v.) that broke out a (Budapest 1916); Anon, Ferdinand of Bulyear later. The sympathies of Rumania were garia : the amazing career of) (London 1916); with the Allies, but she could not enter the Anon, Nationalism and War in the Near East war without an understanding with Bulgaria. (Oxford 1915); Baker, Valentine (Pasha), On behalf of Greece, M. Venizelos had prom- War in Bulgaria? (London 1879); Balkaniised the support of his country to Great Britain cus) (pseud.), The Aspirations of Bulgaria, and France if the necessity should arise. In translated from the Serbian (London 1915); a communication to King Constantine (11 Jan. Barkley, H. C., Between the Danube and the 1915) he pointed out that, if Greece allowed Black Sea: or, Five Years in Bulgaria (LonSerbia “to be crushed to-day.

we should

don 1876), and Bulgaria before the War) have to submit to the disturbance of the Balkan (London 1877); Beaman, H., M. Stambuloff equilibrium in favor of Bulgaria, who, thus (London 1895); Blanqui, J. A., Voyage en

rengthened, would either now or some time Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841 (Paris 1843); hence be in a position to attack us, when we Bousquet, G., Histoire du peuple Bulgare) should be entirely without either a friend or an (Paris 1909); Brailsford, H. N., Macedonia : ally.” He proposed to make "adequate con- its races and their future? (London 1906); cessions to Bulgaria; but he confessed, "on Buelens, F., La Bulgarie contemporaine account of Bulgaria's greed, it is not at all (Brussels 1905); Bulgaria of To-Day: official certain, whatever concessions we make, that edition of the Bulgarian ministry of commerce we shall be able to satisfy her .. There and agriculture (London 1907); Calary de Lawas every indication that Bulgaria might have mazière, R., Les Capitulations en Bulgarie) been won for the Allies had her price been (Paris 1905); Caleb, A., La Bulgarie et le paid, as her most distinguished generals traité de Berlin(Geneva 1909); Cambon, V., favored a Russian alliance; but nothing was Autour des Balkans? (Paris 1890);, Chaunier, done to conciliate her. The Bulgarian Premier, A., La Bulgarie : étude d'histoire diplomatique, M. Radoslavoff, declared in July and again (Paris 1909); Cholet, Count A. P. de, Etude in August that Bulgaria was prepared to enter sur la guerre Bulgaro-Serbe? (Paris 1891); the war as soon as she received the necessary Curtis, W. E., “The Lost Provinces of Turkey guarantees. But the Russian disaster in the (Chicago 1903); Dicey, E., The Peasant State: Carpathians and the failure of the Dardanelles Bulgaria in 1894) (London 1894); Drander, campaign persuaded King Ferdinand that by A. G., Evénements politiques en Bulgarie joining Germany and Austria he would be on (Paris 1896), and “Cinq ans de règne : le prince the winning side. A secret treaty was signed Alexandre de Battenberg en Bulgarie (Paris about 17 July 1915 between Bulgaria, Germany, -1884); Dupuy-Peyou, L. L., La Bulgarie aux Austria and Turkey. Bulgaria was promised Bulgares) (Paris 1896); Eliot, Sir C., Turkey her price, in the shape of Serbian Macedonia, in Europe) (London 1908); Falkenegg, Baron with Salónica and Epirus thrown in. During von, Bulgarien, Vergangenheit und GegenSeptember began the Austro-German advance wart (Berlin 1900); Floericke, K., Geschichte that was to deal the final blow to Serbia. On der Bulgaren) (Stuttgart 1913); Forbes, Toynthe 21st M. Venizelos asked the Allies for bee, Mitrany and Hogarth, The Balkans: a 150,000 men; they were promised on the 24th, history of Bulgaria, etc.) (Oxford 1915); Fox, and Greece began mobilizing. Bulgaria was F., Bulgaria) (London 1915); Gladstone, W. also mobilizing; a deputation of ex-ministers E., Lessons in massacre: or, the conduct of waited on the King and warned him against the Turkish government in and about Bulgaria

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since May, 1876' (London 1877); Gubernatis, Comte de, Le Bulgarie et les Bulgares? (Florence 1899); Guechoff, J. E., The Politics of the Balkan League (London 1915); Guérin Songeon, R. P. Histoire de la Bulgarie) (Paris 1913); Herbert, W. V., By-Paths in the Balkans) (London 1906); and (The Chronicles of a Virgin Fortress, being some unrecorded chapters of Turkish and Bulgarian history) (London 1896); Hilferding, A. F., Geschichte der Serben und Bulgaren' (Bautzen 1864); Huhn, Maj. A. von, The Struggle of the Balkans for National Independence under Prince Alexander (London 1886); Huyshe, W., The Liberation of Bulgaria: war notes in 1877' (London 1894); Jireček, C. J., Geschichte der · Bulgaren (Prague 1876), and Das Fuerstenthum Bulgarien? (Prague 1891); Kanitz, F. P., Donau-Bulgarien und der Balkan' (Leipzig 1882); Kazezes, N., (Greeks and Bulgarians in the 19th and 20th Centuries (London 1907); Koch, A., Prince Alexander of Battenberg: reminiscences of his reign in Bulgaria) (London 1887); Lamouche, L., La Bulgarie dans le passé et le présent (Paris 1892); Landemont, Comte A., L'élan d'un peuple: la Bulgarie jusqu'au traité de Londres 1861–1913) (Paris 1914); Leger, L., La Bulgarie? (Paris 1885); Launay, L. de, La Bulgarie d'hier et de demain (Paris 1912); Macdonald, J., Czar Ferdinand and his People) (New York 1913); Macfie, R. A., With gypsies in Bulgaria (Liverpool 1916); MacGahan, J. A., The Turkish Atrocities in Bulgaria (London 1876); Mach, R. von, “The Bulgarian Exarchate) (London 1907); Mahoney, P. C., (Bulgaria and the Powers) (Dublin 1915); Miklositch, F., Vergleichende Grammatik der bulgarischen Sprache (Vienna 1879); Miller, W., Travels and Politics in the Near East) (London 1898), and "The Balkans (New York 1896); Moeller, R., Der Serbisch-Bulgarische Krieg 1885?_(Hanover 1891); Moltke, (The Russians in Bulgaria and Rumelia in 1828 and 1829). (London 1854); Monroe, W. S., Bulgaria and her People (Boston 1914); Moore, F., The Balkan Trail (New York 1906); Mórfill, W. R., Grammar of the Bulgarian Language (London 1897); Murray, W. S., (The Making of the Balkan States) (London 1912); Muzet, A., Aux pays Balkaniques) (Paris 1912); Pears, Sir E., Forty years in Constantinople (London 1916); Price, W. H. C., Light on the Balkan Darkness) (London 1915); Pypin and Spasovitch, History of the Slavonic Literature (Paris 1881); Report of the International Commission to inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan War) (Washington 1914); Ruland, W., Auszug der bulgarischen Geschichte) (Berlin 1912); St. Clair, S. G., and Brophy, C. A., (A Residence in Bulgaria (London 1869); Samuelson, J., Bulgaria past and present (London 1888); Scelle, G., La situation diplomatique de la Bulgarie avant la proclamation de son indépendence (Revue gén. de droit international, Paris 1908); Schurman, "The Balkan Wars' (Princeton 1915); Stambler, B., Les Roumains et les Bulgares: le traité de Bucarest? (Paris 1914); Stoyanoff, Z., Autobiography of a Bulgarian Insurgent (London 1913); Strausz, A., Die Bulgaren (Leipzig 1898); Toula, F., Reisen und geologische Untersuchungen in Bulgarien

(Vienna 1890); Vymazal, F., Die Bulgarische Sprache schnell und leicht erlernen? (Vienna 1888); Ward, Capt. M. C., Handbook of the Armies of the Balkan States? (War Office, London 1900); Wiesner, A. K., Aus Serbien und Bulgarien (Leipzig); Woods, H. C., The Danger Zone of Europe? (London 1911); also, Washed by Four Seas) (London 1908). See also bibliography under BALKAN PENINSULA AND BALKAN Wars.

HENRI F. KLEIN. Editorial Staff of The Americana. BULGARIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Bulgaria and the adjacent districts of Macedonia are considered to have been the cradle of the old Slavic languages. The ancient Bulgarian language was the richest of them all, and was the scriptural language of the Greek-Slavic Church and the great medium of ecclesiastical literature in the ancient Slavic lands. The Russian language is said to have been molded by missionaries of the Greek Church sent from Bulgaria about the 11th century, while the future empire was still in a state of semi-barbarism. The Russian tongue has preserved many inflections which the Bulgarian has lost. After the overthrow of the Bulgarian kingdom at the close of the 14th century, the grammatical structure and purity of the language became impaired by mixture with the Wallachian, Albanian, Rumanian, Turco-Tartar and Greek vernaculars; and the modern Bulgarian language has only the nominative and vocative of the seven Slavic cases, all the rest being supplied by prepositions. It has an article, which is put after the word it qualifies, like that of the Albanians and Wallachians. Among ancient Bulgarian ecclesiastical literature must be mentioned the translations of the Bible by Cyril and Methodius, and the writings of John of Bulgary in the 10th century. Grammars of the Bulgarian language have been published by Neofyt in 1835 and by Christiaki in the following year. Venelin, a young Russian scholar, sent to Bulgaria by the Russian archæographical commission, published in 1837 a grammar and two volumes of a history of the Bulgarians, but died while he was engaged in preparing a third volume. A new grammar was given to the public by Bogojev in 1845 and finally, in 1849, by the Rev. E. Riggs, an American missionary, stationed at Smyrna, who also sent a Bulgarian translation of Gallaudet's (Child's Book on the Soul to New York. Dictionaries of the Bulgarian language have been compiled by Neofyt Rilski, who also published a work on education, and Stojanowicz. A Bulgarian version of the New Testament was printed at Smyrna in 1840 for the British and Foreign Bible Society. The Bulgarian national songs are numerous, and are similar to those of the Serbians. Czelakowsky's collection of Slavic songs contains a number of Bulgarian songs. Bobojev has published several historical poems. Among more recent writers the poet Christo Boteff (d. 1876), who exercised a powerful influence on the national spirit, is regarded as one of the greatest poets Bulgaria has produced; while the poet-novelist Ivan Vazoff is the most popular author to-day. He is also a dramatist and was at one time a soldier and a revolutionary. His best works were written during the years of his exile in

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