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134

Oficers. Sc. in Quartermaster's Department.

er to

for vessels engaged in commerce as take shelter under it in time of storm.

General Bernard's estimate to complete the work was $2,216,950
The several appropriations up to this date amouut altogeib-

1,160,000 Leaving, of the estimate not yet appropriated, a balance of 1,056,950

The whole length of the breakwater, according to the plan is 3,600 feet The deposite of stone already extends 2,700 feet; of which there are elevated five feet above the plane of high water, 1,007 feet; nearly level with high water, 950 feet; Averaging fifteen feet above the sea bottom 743 feet.

The whole length of the ice breaker, according to the plan is 1,500 feet. The deposite of stone extends already 1,400 feet;-of which there are elevated above the level of high water, 978 feet ; level with high water, 300 feet; Averaging 14 feet above the sea bottom, 122 feet. Officers and Agents, Civil and Military, in the employ of the Quarler

Master's Department, not named in the Army Register.
Names and nature of service.

Where Employed. Compensation. Heman A. Fay, Military Storekeeper Albany, N. Y. Pay & il Capt lost Hrzekiah Johnson, do

Pittsburg, Penn.

do W. A. Gordon, Clk Qr M Gens Office. Washington $1150 per annum Levin Belt,

do

do .

900 do William Harper, Clk Qr Mast Office. Philadelphia 50 per month Daniei Stinson do

New York

50 do John Haverty,

do
St. Louis

70 do Wm. S. Ferguson, do Asst Q M Office New Orleans 70 do H.K Newcomb, do

Baton Rouge

40 do J. F. Mills,

do

Fort Crawlord 40 do William J. Eustis, do

Fort Muroe

35 do Charles Tileman,

do

Jefferson Barrack 30 do
John A. Racker,

do
Detroit

25 do S. S. Routh,

do
Charleston

35 do GW. Colburn,

do
Boston

25 do Samuel Ryan,

do
Fort Howard

25 do T. S. J. Johnson,

do
Pittsburg

21 do S J. Jones,

do
Baltimore

7 do Micha-1 Sanno, Superin'dent Bar'cks Carlisle

12 50 do Beni Dewalt, Kr Dismantled Post. Billingsport

25 do Philip Brandt, do

Fori Mimin

25 do Thus. McCrate, do

Evige.combe

10 p m $z 2 rp d Jonathan Edwards, do

Salem

du & Irpd William Webb, do

Fairhaven

5 do Jol L_Hill,

do
Phippsburgh

5 do Henry Plumer, do

Gloucesier

do R. Cahoon,

do
Marbleliead

do M. Blackwell, do

Fort Warren

5 do J A Thomas,

do
East Haven

5 do Geo:ge Hooper, do

Ft Norfik &Crany's! 20 per month
Jas. Å. i.ee, Veterinary Surg drag'on Jefferson Barracks 90 do
W. W. Woodbridge, Prover drag'. borses, &c do

60 do Wm Strickland, Eng's Del Break werBreakwater 3000

per annum Henry F itall, Surgeon

do
do

50 John Burton, in charge of U. S. brig

70 do John Hegerty, Draightsman.

do

40 do IG R. Orme, Cik Office Del Breakwir Chester

1 25 per day

5

per month

Operations of the Engineer Department during the pust year.

I. FORTIFICATIONS. 1. Fort Independence, Boston Harbor.-In making.the necessary preparations for commiring the repairs of this work, it was perceived that the amount of funds appropriated for that object would not be sufficient to effect it. Under these circumstances, it was deemed proper to limit the operations, for the present, on Castle Island, to the building of the sea wail, for its preservation, and the repairing of the south-west wharf. The former has been put under contract, and measures were taken for the early completion of the latter, 2. Fort Warren, George's Island, Boston Harbor:- The calls upon the department, during the last season, have been so numerous, and of a nature so pressing, as to render it impossible, with its limited means, to mature the plans for this work. 3. Fort Adams. Newport Harbor, Rhode Island.-Great progress has been made in this work. The operations on it have been conducted in a inanner altogether satisfactory; it is in a good state, and

exhibits some of the finest specimens of workmanship to be met with in our public works. 4. Fort Hamılton, Narrows New York. A small amount of the last appropriation for this work, yet unexpended, will be applied in the course of the year, to give the work that de

gree of finish which can only be attained after the lapse of sufficient time to allow the defects in construction, that cannot be foreseen, to develop themselves. 5. Fort Columbus and Castle Williams, Governor's Island, New York.-Satisfactory progress has been made in the repairs of Fort Columbus, which are nearly completed. The operations for the repair of Castle Williams have been confined to the building of a wharf and the collection of materials. 6. Fort Schuyler, Throg's Neck, East River, New York-The attention of of the officer charged with the construction of this fort, bas been directed principally to the accomplishment of such preparatory measures as shall enable him to commence and prosecute his operations with advantage, as soon as the plans shall be matured and adopted. These are not yet in readiness, in consequence of incessant engagements of the officer of the department. 7. Fort Delaware, Delaware river.-The latter end of April, 1833, a commencement was made on the Pea Patch Island, to construct the temporary quarters and workshops, preparatory to a demolition of the walls of the old fort. This object has been effected. Twenty-two thousand yards of the masonry of the old fort have been demolished by mining; 10.000 yards of the same have been removed, and transported to the exterio of the dyke surrounding the island, for its preservation; of which 300 running yards have been thus secured, and 400,000 bricks of the old work cleaned, preparatory to their being used in the construction of the new work. To accomplish the removal of the material of the old fort, the most economical plan was to excavate the draining ditches of the island to such a size as would suit them for navigation with lighters. The extent of this excavation is 6,700 cubic yards. 8. Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, Virginia.-Much has been done towards its completion, yet, owing to the great demand for labor, and the consequent difficulty in commanding it at Fort Monroe, though an advance of fifteen per cent. was offered, the outwork on the tront of attack is not in a state as far advanced as it was hoped it would be. 9. Ford Calhoun, Hampton Roads, Virginia.-It has for some time been a leading object at this work to compress the substratum, by the accumulation of nia. terials upon it, to a state which will produce an'equijibrium when it shall be required to sustain the weight of the walls, and the armameiit of the fort. Twelve thusand five hundred tons of stone have been added to the mole, and eleven thousand eight hundred tons of building stove deposited on and near the walls during the year. 10. Fort Macon, Beaufort, North Carolina.-This work is completed. The works for the preservation of its site have been prosecuted with considerable advantage, and give promise that they will accomplish the desirable object for which they were begun. 11. Fort Caswell, Oak Island, North Carolina.-This fort is completed. 12. Fortifications in Charleston harbor, South Carolina. -Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie have betn much improved as regards their ability for defence, and the latter thoroughly repaired. Works to arrest the encroachments of the wate', on the site of Fort Moultrie, have been commenced; but sufficient time bas not yet elapsed to justify the expression of any opinion as to their ultimate effect. About 16,500 tons of stone have been added to the mole

to be occupied as a foundation

to Fort Sumter, and the necessary preparatiuns made to commence the construction of this work as soon as the mole shall be finished. 14. Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Georgia.About two months at the commeneement of the last working season, at this work were lost in consequence of the absence of the superintending engineer, who was withdrawn from his command to meet a pressing demand elsewhere. The work was prosecuted, however, with great efficiency during the remainder of the season, and the progress has been such as to give satisfaction.' 14. Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Florida.- Operations have for some time, been directed to the repairing of the sea wall connected with this work, with a hope uf accomplishing the object of the law on the “ubject, by the middle of January or February, 1834. 15. Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor, Florida. The condition of this work is. in a high degree satisfactory. The masoliry, with the exception of a very smali portion,

is completed, and the entire work will, in all probability, be tinished by the end of March 1834. *16. Fort at Foster's Bank, Pensacola Harbor, i lorida.-It was hoped, in the early part of the year,

that the nature of the service would be such as to permit a convention of the Board of Engineers to revise, among others, the project for this work, and to fix its pred cise locality. This hope was, however, disappointed, and the funds have in part been, and

1136

Improvement of Harbors and Rivers.

the balance will be, applied to the collection of materials, and to making such preparations as will enable the constructing engineer to commence the work under the next appropriaLion to advantage, as soon as the plans shall be matured. 17. Fort Morgan, Mobile Point, Alabama.- This work is completed. 18. Fort Livingston, Grande Terré, Louisiana.The land on which it is to be located is prvate property; and much time has, unavoidably, been consumed in effecting a purchase. It is expected that the negotiation with the owner will soon be brought to a satisfactory termination, when the purchase and collection of materials will be made preparatory to commencing the work. 19. Contingencies of fortifications.-A considerable portion

of the appropriation under this head has been applied, during the year, to the repairs of Fort Jackson, Battery Bienvenu, Tower Dapre, and Fort Wood, Louisiana, and Fort Washington, Maryland.

I INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS: 1. Chicago Harbor, Illinois. - It being impossible to command the services of an engineer officer at this place, the works were given in charge to the commanding officer at Fort Dearborn. Owing to the position of Chicago, consiberable difficulty, was experienced in the early part of the season in procuring suitable materials and workmen 10 commence, as almost every thing, except timber and stone, had to be drawn from Buffalo. But little has been done therefore, further than to collect some materials and workmen, and to construct a small portiun of ope of the piers. A commencement in a position like this is, however,

of

great value, and hopes are entertained of being able to prosecute operations with advantage during the next working season. 2. La Plaisance Bay, Michigan.-Eight hundred and forty feet of new pier work were sunk at this place within the year; piles were driven the whole length of the pier, and secured by caps. Considerable stone has been de posited in the pier, and, as far as the appropriation extended, the work has been prosecuted satisfactorily. 'S. Black Rock Harbor, New York.-The rroney which has been applied to the works, has been principally in procuring stone the on Bird Island, and in repairing the traverse pier. 4. Buffalo Harbor, New York.-The public works for securing the harbor at Buffalo bave the appearance of great strength and durability. The whole front wall of the mole on the south side of the harbor, together with the coping and flagging, are completed. The new light-house on the mole head is complete in every part. B. Dunkirk Harbor, New York. This harbor is formed by two points projecting into the

lake. the western pier extends into the lake 416 yards. The works which have been already constructed stand well and in good condition: the pier are filled in with stone, level with the top timbers, based upon solid rock, and plauked. The pier has been extended this season 118 yards. This harbor has at its entrance 12 feet of water, and from 12 to 15 on the anchorage. 6. Presqu' Isle Harbor, Pennsylvania.-The north breakwater of this barbor is now connected with the main land of the peninsula, and filled in with brush and stone; it has been extended this season 400 yards. The stone in the piers have settled about 2 feet on an average, the planks have been taken off, and the

piers filled to a level with the top timbers, and re-planked as far as the old ones would answer; the whole will be covered as soon as plank can be obtained. The depth of water has been increasing in the channel every year from the commencement of the works ; 12 feet of water may be carried the whole length of the channel to the entrance of the bay, and then 9 1-2 feet to the borough pier, which is one and a half miles from the entrance.

This harbor is capacious, when compared with others on this lake, and very important to the country. It is the naost suitable point for a Daval station on the south shore of the lake.

7. Conneaut Creek, Ohio.-These piers extend into the lake 415 yards. The depth of the water in the channel at its shoalest place is eight and a half feet. The stone in the ppers have settled very considerably, and must be filled in even with the top timbers; some large stone are required around the head of the piers, and on the outside mixed in with brush; 202 yards of pi r have been constructed since the 30th of September, 1832. 8. sshtabula, Ohio. - Ihese piers extend into the lake 428 yards. A rock lies across this channel, about 200 yards from the head of the pier, extending 200 feet in length, six and a half feet below the surface of the water, the whole width of the channel. The machinery for cutting up this rock works to good advantage. 9. Cunningham's Creek, Ohio.- This is an open pier extending into the lake, and bridged.

The appropriation of 8500 last winter was insufficient to complete the work or pier head. 10. Grand'River, Ohio.-Thrse piers estepd into the lake 480 yards, and will admit Vessels drawing 12 feet of water, a greater depth than could have been wished, as greater quantities of stone are required to fill in the piers, and to secure them in their place against the effects of the current. 11. Cleaveland, Ohio.-'The piers at this harbor extend into the lake 525 yards, giving a depth of water in the channel ot'eleven and a half feet at its shoalest place. This harbor is one of great importance; it must, from its local situation, be the great centre for business on the lake shore for the State of Ohio. The Erie and Obío canal enters this harbor, extending 330 miles to Portsmouth, at the month of the Scioto river. 12. Black River, Ohio.-These piers are extended into the lake 417 yards, with an opening of 200 feet; the shoal. st place in the channel is seven and a half feet. The works stand well; the stone in the pi-rs have settled nearly two feet on an average. The western pier has been extended 30 yards, filled in with stone and planked, and 150 yards of the easiern pier, which was in an unfinished stute, have been completed. The eastern pier is to be

extended 30 yards further, agreeably to the original plan. A dredging machine has been constructed for deepening the channel, by removing tbe hard clay pan at its bottom, and works to good advantage.

13. Huron Harbor. Ohio.The depth of watter in this harbor Atits shealest place is eight feet; the works are in good condition. The entrance to this harbor is only 140 feet.

14. Gennessee River.-The quantity of work finished in 1833, amounts to 28 piers or cribs, each 30 feet in length and 20 feet wide, sunk and extending from the existing range of piers into the lake

at the mouth of the river, in a depth of 12 teet water, the exireme crib being 30 feet square, the average height of these cribs from the bed of the lake to the top of the piers being 17 feet. The whole length of the pier amounts to 4,712 feet. 15. Big Sodus Bay.-There have been constructed and sunk, during the past year, 27 similar cribs or piers, of the dimensions of 30 feet by 18, in 12 and 13 feet of water, the cribs averaging a depth of 18 feet from the bed of the lake to the top of the pier. The whole length of the pier amounts to 5,378 feet.

16. Oswego Harbor, New York.–The mouth of the Oswego river is an open roadstead having no shelter from the dangerous winds which blow from the northern quarter; all winds from the west, round through the north to the northeast, driving the waves directly into the roadstead. Two opposite, low, sandy points make out from the shores at the immediate embouchure, narrowing the channel somewhat, and affording a partial shelter within. This sheltered space is, however, very circumscribed, quite shallow, and the access to it against a current that

is, at times, rapid ; so that this inner space very imperfectly answers the purpose of a harbor. To obtain a quiet and sufficiently capacious anchorage, a pier, beginning about 1,200 feet from the mouth of the river, has been run out from the western shore, first north 230 fret, then north about 550 'east, 1,555 feet, to the channel. The chnanel begins 250 feet broad, a pier to the east thereof continues on the prolongation of the west pier (North 55° East) 644 feet, and thence, in a southeasterly, direction, 222 feet, to the shore near old Fort Oswego. These may be designated harbor piers. From near the eastern extremity of the west barbor pier, and at right angles thereto, a channel pier runs a distance of 126 feet into the lake. These piers vary in their width at top, according to their situation, from 24 to 27 feet. They are built of side and central timbers, running longitudinally, and connected by numerous cross tjes; the sides next the lake, and the top, being covered with planks, and the interior space being filled with stones. . A number of buitresses, similar in construction to the piers, have been placed against the innerside of the harbor piers, to strengthen them against the shock of waves; and, with a similar object, stones have been thrown against the lake side of the west harbor pier, so as to form a mass, rising, next the pier, near to the surface of the water, and having a base of from twice to twice and a half the altitude. The effects

of these works just described is to give a capacious harbor, perfectly safe in all winds, of easy access, and deep channel and anchorage.

17. Kennebunk River, Maine.-The means provided for the works at the mouth of this river have been faithfully applied: the Hardin pier, so called, having been thoroughly repaired, with the exception, perhaps, of a small quantity of stone that may yet be required for the greater security of the work, which has been considerably extended, and which is much exposed to ice and drift wood. 18. Berwick Branch of the Piscataqua.-The improvement in this river at Quamplegau rapids has been completed. There is now an uns obstructed passage over the rapids, of nearly six feet at mean high water. 19. Merrimack River, Massachusetts.-Some additions have been made within the year to the breakwater in course of construction, to improve the navigation of the river at Newburyport. The work is represented as being in good condition. 20. Deer Island, Boston Harbor.-The works for the preservation of this island have been prosecuted with much success. Four thousand tons of rough stone have been placed in the break waterfin front of the sea wall during the year: 2,000 tons niore will be added during the present season, leaving only 4,000 tons to complete that work and the connecting break water between the principal walls. 21. Plymouth Beach, Massachusetts. The operations at this place have been of the same character as those of the previous year. They have been directed to the extension (about 510 feet) of the stone wall to the west of the break water, and to repairing the beach by planting grass. The grass is represented as doing well, and the condition of the

beach, generally, as being good. 22. Provincetown, Massachusetts.--About 220 acres of ground were planted with beach grass during the last spring,

besides repairing many places previously planted, but which had been injured by the encroachments of the and.

23. Hyannis Harbor, Massachusetts. The ter at this place has been much improved. The ad. fitional lingth constructed within the year is about 230 feet, giving a length of 820 feet completed. Its entire length, when finished, will be 1,320 feet. 24. Mill River, Connecticut.- The additions to this work have been completed, and are represented as having accompiished the objerts for which they were made. 25. Harbora lof New Castle, Marcus Hook, Ch ster, and Port Penn, Delaware River. The operations at the harbors on the Delaware river have been confined to the harbor of Marcus Hook, from which, by means of a steam dredging machine. 15,369 cubic yards of earth have been excavated and removed, forming a safe and secure ir triat for about twenty sail of vessels. Some progress has been made in repairing one uf the piers forming this barbor, using stone for all ihat part above the low water mark,

138

Improvement of Harors und Rivers

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26. Ocracock inlet.-The operations at this place have been attended with considerable success A dredging machine has been kept at work when the weather would permit in Waliace's channel, from which about 34,000 cubic yards of earth have been removed within the year. A navigation of eight feet has been obtained through this channel. 27. Cape Fear river.-The jettee near Barnhard's creek, on the eastern side of the river, and the one near Old Town, on the wtstern side, bave been completed: that near Barnhard's creek continued to wash up during the last winter; and nearly the whole of the labor applied this year has been for the purpose of keeping these two jettees in repair. 28. Savannah river, Georgia.-An officer has been engaged during the year in making an examination of this river between its mouth and Savannah, with a view to obtain the data necessary to enable the superintending engineer to apply the funds appropriated therefor to the best advantage. This examination is nearly brought to a close, when active operations wilil be commenced for the removal of obstructions, suitable preparatior:s in the way of boats and machinery being in the conrse of preparation for the purpose. 29. Inland navigation between the St. John's and St. Mary's.-The improvement contemplated here requires the agency of a steam dredging machine. To have purchase d ore from the small appro

priation placed at the disposal of the department, would have so far exhansted it as to have left little or nothing for the prosecution of the work. Under these circumstances, it was thought advisable to do nothing till the improvement of the Savannah river, and that at the St. Mark's or Appalachicola, would admit of the boats employed at these places being transferred to the St. John's and St. Mary's. Nothing, therefore, has as yet been done. 30. St. Mark's harbor and river, Florida. A canal has been opened through the natural bridge on the St. Mark's. Owing, however, to the unexpected appearance of rock at this places much of the inoney which it was hoped mighư be applied io the improvement of the river above, has been expended on it. 3i. Ochlochney river, Florida.-The appropriation for the improvement of this river has been applied to the rewoval of the logs and trees which obstruct its navigation from its channel. 32. Appalachicola river and harbor.-The improvements at this place have been prosecuted under many disadvantages, yet, what has been done is of a character altogether satisfactory. The part of the channel that was deepened to ten feet has been increased by the action of the current to from 12 to 14. 33. Escambia river Florida.-This river was surveyed in July lest. In August the work was let out on contract, and has been completed. 34. Harbor of Mobile, Alabama.-The pro gress here has been satisfactory. The breadth of the bar at Choctaw pass, or length of chan nel to be cut through it, is 620 yards ; 580 were executed with a width of 100 feet, on the 30th September; and the remaining 90 yards have been since finished. 35. Pascagoulat river Mississippi.-Owing to a diffieulty with the contractor, the operations at this place have not been of a satisfactory character. The work was not n sunied till the 17th June

last, since which time fnothing has been done further than to make some repairs of boats machinery, &c.

36. Red river, Louisiana.--The removal of the great Raft from the bed of this river has been shown, by the operations of Capt. H.M. Shreve, during the last summer to be per fectly practicable. The navigation is now good for Stean Boats, as high up as the Cado

Agency, seventy one miles above the point to which the Raft extended in April last, when the mass of timber covered nearly one third the whole surface of the water, and in many places was quite solid to the bottom of the river, which was found to be on an average twena iy five feet deep. There yet remains about seventy miles in length of the Raft to be re moved. 37. Arkansas river, Arkansas Territory.-The examination of this river was made by an officer of the engineers early in the spring, and the boats, machinery, &c. under the personal direction of Captain Shreve, commenced the removal of obstructions to its navigation in the early part of August last. At the latest advices, not much had been done, however, owing to the unfavorable state of the water. 38. Mississippi river.-In the months of October, November and Deceinber, 1832, January, February and March, of this year, the steam snag boats Helepulis and Archimedes removed from the bed of the Mississippi river 1,293 snags. The same boats, in August and September, 1833, removed from the bed of that river 667 snags, in all 1,960 snags during the year. The crews of the ame boats have within the year felled from the falling in banks of the Mississippi (at times when the water was too high to remove snags, and when the engines of the boats were out yf repair) about 10,000 trees. 39. Ohio river.-There was a dan built in the fall of 1832, 1 French island, 'one at Three Mile island, nearly completed: the dams commenced at he Scuffletown bar and the Three Sister islands are finished. They were formerly the

ost difficult and shoalest bars on the Ohio river, at which no difficnlty is now ex. perienced by any boat that passes. At the head of Cumberland island a dam which was

commenced in September, 1832, is nearly completed. The rock of which it is construct-d has been qnarried out of a solid lime stone reek. The length of the dam is about hafa unile. the average depth of water at its lowest stage about twelve feet; the top of the dam is aised four feet above the surface of low water; its base will average thirty feet. The ad vantage gained by its construction is to make the Ohio river navigable on that side of the Island in which the Cumberland river enters, which has heretofore been obstructed by and bar severa feet ahove the level of low water. 40. Cumberland river Tennessee.-Oprations were commenced on this river 16th October, and continued till the 7th December,

832. The work was resumed on the 1st of January 1833, since whieh time the operations have been directed with much success to improving the river at Harpeth shoals and their

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