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POSTAGE. Rates of Postage, as established by act of Congress of 3d March, 1825,
and the amendatory act of 2d March, 1827. For single letters, composed of one piece of paper
Miles Cents) Any distance not excerdiog..
....30........ 6 Over 30 and not exceeding....
..80........10 Over 80..... do......
150.......12) Over 150 .....do......
.18% Over 400...
...25 Double letters, or those composed of two pieces of paper, are charged with double those rates.
Triple letters, or those composed of three pieces of paper are charged with triple those rates. 1
Quadruple letters, or those composed of four pieces of paper, are charge ed with quadruple those rates.
One or more peices of paper, mailed as a letler, weighing one ounce, are charged with quadı uple postage, and at the same rate should the weight be greater: and quadruple postage is cha.ged on all packets. containing four pieces of papir.
The postage on Shep Lellers, if delivered at the office where the vessel arrives. is six cents-if conveyed by post, two cents in addition to the ordinary postage.
Newspaper Postage. For each newspaper, not carried out of the State in which it is publisherl, or if carried out of the State, but carried not over 100 miles......
...1 cent. Over 100 miles, and out of the State in which it is published.....19.cents
Magazines and Pamphlets.--If published periodically, distance not exceeding 100 miles.........
................15 cents per sheet. Ditto..........do..........over 100 miles.... ..2.. do...... If not published periodically, distance not exceeding 100 miles ....................
......4.........do...... Ditto..........do........Over 100 miles....... .......6.........do......
Small på mphlets printed on a half or quarter sheet of royal, or less size, are charged with half those rates. Eight pages quarto are rated as one sheel, and all other sizes in the same proportion.
The number of sheets a hich it contains, niust be printed or written on one of the outer pages of every pamphlet or magazine to be sent by
Where the pumber of sheets is not truly stated, double postage is charged.
Every thing not coming under the denomination of newspapers or pamphlets, is charged with letier postage.
Letters to Cavada are forwarded through the agents of the United States at Kingston, Upper Canada, and Montseal, Lower Canada.
Any person, other than the Postmaster General, or his authorized agents, who shall set up a foot or horse post, for the conveyance of letters and packets, upon any post roar, whicn is, or may be established as p-uch by law, shall inrur a penalty of not exceeding fifty dollars for every Hlettes or packet so carried,
Privilege of Franking. Letters and packets to and from the following officers of the government, are by law received and conveyed by post, free of postage.
The l'resident and Vice President of the United States ; Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, and Navy; Attorney General; Postmaster Generaland Assistants Postınaster General; Comptrollers, Auditors, Register and Solicitor of the Treasury ; Treasurer; Commissioner of General Land Office ; Com nissioners of Navy Board; Comunissary General ; Adjutant General; Inspectors General; Quartermaster General; Paymaster General ; Superintendent of Patent Office ; Commissioner of Indian Aftairs ; Speaker and Clerk of the House of Representatives, and Secretary of the Senate ; and such individual who shall have been, or may hereafker be, President of the United States; and each may receive newspapers by post, free of postage.
Each member of the Senate, and each member and delegate of the House of Representatives, may send and receive, free of postage, news. pupers, letters, and packets, weighing not more than two ounces, (in case of excess of weight, excess alone to be paid for,) and all documents printe · by order of either House, from the period of sixty days before he takes his seat in Congress, until the commencement of the next Cougress.
Postmasters may send and receive free of postage, letters and packets not exceeding half an ounce in weight; and they may receive one uaily de wspaper, each, or what is equivalent thereto.
Printers of newspapers may send one paper to each and every other printer of a newspaper within the United Statcs, free of postage, under such regulations as the Postmaster General may provide.
Violation of Franking Pririlege. Any person who shall frank any letter or letters, other than those written by himself or by his order, in the business of his office, shall, on conviction thereof, pay a fine of ten dollars—and it is made the especial duty of Postinasters to prosecute for such offence. The law provides, however, that the Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, and Navy, and Postmaster General, may trank letters or packets on ufficial business, prepared in any other public office in the absence of the principal thereof.
If any person, having the right to receive letters free of postage, shall receive, enclosed to him, any letter or packet addressed to a persou vot having that right, it is his duty to return the same to the Post Office, .narking thereon the place from whence it came, that it may be charger with postage.
Any persou who shall counterfeit the hand writing or frank of any person, or cause the same to be done, in order to avoid the payment of postage, shall, for each offence, pay five hundred dollars.
No Postmaster or assistant Postmaster can act as agent for lottery offices, or under any colour of purchase or otherwise vend lottery tickets, or can any Postmaster receive free rif postage, or frank any lottery schemes, circulars, or tickets. For a violation of this provision of th: law, the persous offending hall suffer a penalty of fifiy dollars.
No Postmaster, assistant Postmaster, or clerk employed in any Pos Office, can be a contractor, or concerned in any contract for carry tre mail.
THE JUDICIARY. Tho Judiciary power of the United States is vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as Congress, from time to time, establiish. The present Judicial establishment of the United States consists of a Supreme Court, of thirty-one District Courts, and seven Circuit Courts, which are thus organized : the Supreme Court is composed of one Chief Justice and sıx Associate Justices, who hold a Court in the City of Washington, anoually ; besides which, each of these Justices aliends a certain Circuit comprising two or more districts, appropriated to each, and together with the Judge of the District compuse a Circuit Court, which is holden in each District of the Circuit. The District Courts are held respectively by the District Judge alone. Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Court, and from the Circuit to the Supreme Court; anit in some cases, where the inconvenience of attending a Court by a Justice of the Supreme Court is very great, the District Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. Each State is one District, for the purpose of holding District and Circuit Courts therein, with the exception of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Alabama, each of which is divided into two Districts. There are, besitles, Territorial Courts, which are temporary, and lose that character whenever a Territory becomes a State. In addition to the District Court for the District of Columbia, there is a Circuit Court for that District, which exercises, under the authority of Congress, similar common law and equity jurisdiction as the County Courts of Maryland and Virginia. Each Court has a Clerk, a Public Attorney or prosecutor, and a Marshal; all of whom are appointed by the Executive of the United States,
with the exception of the Clerks, who are appointed by the Courts. The compensation of the Judges are fixed by law ; that of the clerks, Attorneys, and Marshals consists of fees, and in a few instances, as it regards Attorneys and Marshals, of a yearly salary of about $200
By an act of Congress of the 15th of May, 1820, District Attorneys are to be appointe. for four years only, removable al pleasure. Marshals have always held their offices for four years, removable at pleasure, in
pursuance of the 27th section of the Act of the 24th of September, 1789. The Judges hold their offices during good behaviour, and can only be re moved on impeachment. The appointments are made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. The Supreme Court of the United States has exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of a civil nature, where a State is a party, except br tween a State and its citizens; and except, also, between a State and citizens of other States or aliens, in which latter case it has original, but not exclusive jurisdiction-and has exclusively all such jurisdiction of suits or proceedings against ambassadors, or other public ministers, on neir domestics, or domestic servants, as a court of la can have or exi. (ise cousistently with the law of nations—and original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by anossadors, or other public ministp.8. s in which a consul or vice consul shull be a party. The Supreme Court aas also appellate jurisdiction froin the Circuit Courts and Courts of the several States, in certain cases : and has power to issue writs of probin
tion to the District Courts, when proceeding as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and writs of mandainus, in cases war aurd by the principles anii usages of law, to any couris appointed, or persons holding office, under the authority of the United States
A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a State in which a decision in tre suit could be had, where is Arawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority pxercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity-or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised wder any State, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constituton, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of such iheir validity-or wiere is drawn in question the construction of any clause of the constitution, or of a treary or statute of, or commission held under the Unite:1 States, and the decision is against the titl', right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or claimed hy either party, under such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute or comunission-inay be re-examined anıt reversed or affirmned, in the
Supreme Court of the Unite: States, upon a writ of error, the citation being signed by the chief justice, or judge, or chancellor, of the court rendering or passing the juilgment or decree complained of, or by a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ has the same effect, as if the judge ment or decree complained of had bren rendered or passed in a Circuit Court-mand the proceeding upon the revisal is also the same, except that the Supreme Court, instead of remanding the cause for a final decision, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have been once remanded before, proceed to a final derision of the same, and award execution. But no other error can be assigned or regaried as a ground of reversal in any such case, than such as appears on the face of the record and immediately respects the beforementioned questions of validity or construction of the sair! constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions or authorities in dispute. The following is the mode of suing out a Writ of Error.
In cases of writs of error to a Federal Court, the writ should be allowed, citation signed, and bond approved, by a Circuit Judge ; where the writ is to a State Court, the same must be done either by a Justice of the Supreme Court or by the presiding Judge of the Court whose jurigment is complained of, With the transcript of the record for the Supreme Court should be returned the writ, citation with service, and a copy of the bond, filing in the office below the bond and copies of the wric and citation.
JUDGES AND OFFICERS OF THE SUPREME COURT. John Marshall................chief justice Richmoud Va. 5000 00 Willian Johnson..........associate justice Charleston....S.C. 4500 00 Gabriel Duval............. associate justice Marietta ...... Md. 4500 00 Joseph Story ..............associate justice Salem ....... Mass. 4500 00 Smith Thompson...
...... ..associate justice New York....N.Y. 4500 001 John McLean ......... ..associate justice Cincinnati.... Obio 4500 00 Henry Baldwin........ ..associate justice Pittsburg....
..... Pa. 4500 00 Benj. Franklin Butler..... attorney general Washington..D.C. 4000 00 William T. Carroll.. ................clerk Washington., D. C. Fees, &c. Henry Ashton..... .......... marshal Washington..D. C./Fees, &c. DISTRICT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES, The District Courts of the United States, have, exclusively of the Courts of the several States, cognizance of all crinies and offeuces that are cognizah e under the authority of the United States, committed within their respective districts, or upon the high seas, where no other punishment than wiipping, not exceering thirty s:ripes, a fiue noi excreding one huudred dollars, or a tem of imprisonment vot exceeding six ownths is in be inflicted, and also have exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of adıniralty and maritime jurisdiction, incluring all sei. zures under laws of impost, navigation or trade, of the United States. where the seizures are made on waters which are navigable from the sea by vessels of ien or more ions of burthen, within their respective districts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common law remedy, where the common law is competent to give it; and also have exclusive original cognizance of all seizures on land or other waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties, ani forfeitures incurred, under the laws of th- United States. And they alo, have cognizance, concurrent with the Courts of the several Stales, or the Circuit Court, as the case ma be, oi all causes where an alieu sues for a tort only in violation of ihe law of nations or a treaty of the United States. And also have cognizance, concurrent, as last mentioned, off all suits of common law, where the United States sue, and the inatter in
dispute amounts, exclusive of cosis, to the sum or value of one hundred dollars. And also have jurisdiction, exclusively of the Courts of the sev. eral States, of all suits against consuls or vice consuls, except for offences above the description aloresaiit. The trial of issues in fact, in the Dis trict Courts, in all causes except civil causes of adiniralty and maritime jurisdiction, are by jury.
The act of 18th December, 1812, requires the district and territorial judges of the United States to reside within the districts and territories respectively, for which they are appointed; and makes it unlawful for any judge appointed under the authority of the United States, to exrr. cire the profession or employment of counsel or attorney, or to be engaged in th- practice of the law. And any person offending against the injunction or prohibition of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misde
An act of April 5, 1832, provines, that in any cause of admirally and maritime jurisdiction, or other cause of seizure, depending in any Court of ihe United States, any Judge of the said Court, in vacation, shall have the same power and authority to order any vessel, or cargo, or other property, to be delivered to the claimants, upon bail or bond, under the statute, as the case may be, or to be sold, when necessary, as such court has in 'erm time, and to appoint appraisers, and exercise every other incidental power necessary to the complete execution of the authori. ty granted by the act. JUDGES, &c. OF THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS. Maine.
New Hampshire. Ashur Ware, Jurige, Portid, $1800 M.Harvey, Judge, Hopkinton, $ 1000 John Anderson Attorney, Portland Daniel M. Durell, Attorney, Dover. Albert Smith, Varshal, Damariscota P. Cogswell, Marshal, Gilmauton. John Mussey, Clerk, turtland. C. W. Cutler, Clerk, Portsinouth.