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The philosophica) apparatus and astronomical instruments are of the best kind and of the latest invention, but many more are required fully to illustrate the course of natural philosophy.
The building which contains the library and philosophical apparatus is boib unsafe and unstable, and the rooms are so small and inconvenient as not to admit of the necessary arrangement and display of them for useful purposes. Many instruments of the philosophical apparatus, which are delicate in their structure and uses, and require to be very nicely and accurately adjusted, are exposed to be injured by the constant and violent shaking of the edifice; and the finer astronomical instruments cannot be used, from the same reason, and from want of space. A large telescope is placed in a detached building entirely unsuited to its uses.
For these reasons, and from the intrinsic value of the books and instruments, the Board recommend the erection of a fire proof building, with an observatory annexed to it.
Upon a careful and ninute examination of the public buildings of the academy, it has been found that they are inadequate to the purposes of the institution, and are not only badly constructed, but entirely tou limit ed to afford comfortable or proper accommodations for the cadets who fare lodged in them.
A number of cadets are from necessity crowded into a small room, which must produce a prejudicial effect upon their studies, their inorals, and their health. That they have been exempt hitherto from the diseases which are engendered in confined and crowded apartments, is due altogether to the admirable system of internal police and strict attention to cleanliness which distinguish every department ot this institutious
There is, besides, a want of accommodations for the assistant profes. sors, and the quartermaster, paymaster, and adjutant are without offices. For all these purposes nearly fifty new rooms are required. The Board would recommend that the superintendent be instructed to furnish a plan of a building, capable of uniting all the accommodations required by the officers and cadets now at the academy, and of being extended whenever the Governinent may think it expedient to enlarge this institution, and render it proportionate to our vast territories and rapidly increasing population; and that, whenever it may be thought proper to erect the building now called for, it may be so constructed as to form part of an edifice hereafter to be completed with inore extensive accommodations.
On examining into the fiscal concerns of the academy, the Board have every reason to be satisfied that great economy has been exercised in the administration of this department of the institution, and cheerfully bear testimony to the order and regularity with which the books are kept, and the receipts and disbursements accounterl for, as well as to the in. tegrity and judicious economy with which the finances of the academy are administered,
There are several subjects, the importance of which is fully understood and acknowledged hy the superintendent and academic staff, but which are not taught in this institution, for want of time. In military and civil engineering, it is thought that the following might be introduced with great advantage in the cadets : A course of applied mechanics on the jo.
vestigation and description of some of the most useful machines emplorlęd in the coustrurlion of public works. Some practical exercises in the
tield, such as laying out and throwing up some of the works of a cama paign, which are most ordinarily used ; balleries, trenches, cavaliers, the anber of conducting saps. the construction of gabions and fascines, &r &c, and a course of topog a phy as applied to military reconnoissances ; indeed, such is the vast importance of this branch, that a new department, embracing the whole subject, could not fail to be very advantageous to the military student.
In the departinent of natural philosophy many important practical illustrations might be ar!vantageously introduced. At present the experimental part of the course is principally confined to the illustracion of such facts and general principles as may be established by experiments exhibited in the presence of the entire class. These illustrations are attended with the most beneficial effects, as they serve to make a very torcicle impression ou the mind of the student; but they are alone insuficient. It is frequently jaiportant that the student should not only be Jacquainted with the name and use of an instrument, but that he should be able to employ it hin,self. This can only be done when sufficient tine is allowed for each student to make frequent use of such instruinents, under the immediate direction of the professor.
This deficiency is particularly fell in the course of astronomy, where an intimate acquaintance with ihe use of instruments and the habit of submitting the data furnished by observation to the process of calculation are essentially necessary to enable the student to apply bis theoretical knowlerige to useful purposes. The instruction in practical astrrpoiny is altogether too limited ; the time which can be devoted to this object being scarely more than sufficient to permit the professor to make the students acquainted with the objects of the few instruinents in the posse-sion of this department. This is certainly a great defect : important lines are frequenily required to be established as boundaries brtween States and Territories of neighbouring nations, where the accurate use oi instruments is of the last importance, and the cadets of this academy ought to be practically taught to use them with perfect correctness.
The principles of strategy or grand tactics might be taught with advantage
It is true, that there is no work treating of those subjects which is sufficiently condensed, and at the sanje time perfectly unexceptionable in its principles and illustratious; but the same industry and talent which bas furnished text books in other departments of military science, might be employed for this purpose with great success, and furnish a series of lecLures embracing a definition of the technical terins employed, and such general principles as admit of the clearest and most exact illustration.
It appears always to have been desii able that cavalry tactics should be taught at a great national military academy. This branch has hitherto been totally reglected, but it has become inore essentially necessary since this arm has been added to the regular army of the country. Tne
service of cavalry and horse artillery ought to form a part of the practic cal instruction of this academy, and the Board respectfully recommend this subject to your consideration. As tne cadets are now occupied sedulously every hour of the day in the prosecution of the studies now taught in this institution, it will be necessary, if these subjects are deemed of sufficient importance to be added to the present course, that the term
of the acariemic siurly shoul: be extended, or the qualifi: a'ions requiring on entering the acadey should be marie much greater than they now ar. They are lower than is required by any literary instilution in this country, and wo dourt the frequent dismissal of those young men who cannot keep up with their class arises principally from this cause. Parents ought to be informed of the great advantage their sons would nerive the fir+t year of their course at this academy, by bring vell grounded in the classics in arithinetic and Algebra, and in rudjonents of lihe French language
The manner in which the cadets are furnished with clothing was a subject of inquiry by the Board, who were satisfied that this was done in the most economical manner Their mess-1001 was inspected while the cadets were at iheir meals, and the Board were satisfied that the steward fulfilled his contract faithfully, and supplied the tables with abundance.
Ao inquiry having been made into the manner in which cadets are supplied with the class books and stationery, the Board are satisfied, after a complete investigation, that the cadets are supplied with all such articles at a lower price than they can be purchased for in New York, and in the most convenient, just, and economica) manuer, and that the arrangement made by the superintendent in this particular is marked by the saine prudent economy, order and intelligence which characterized the management of the institution.
The Board having learnt that the present superintendent of the Military Academy, whose health has suffered from his close attention to the affairs of the institution, has been called to the performance of other du. ties, cannot forbear to express the very high sense they entertain of his merit and services, durmg the long period of his command at this station.
To the knowledge acquired with this view by Colonel Thayer, the Military Academy of the United States owes its present admirable organization ; and to his zeal, capacity, and unwearied attention to his duties, is to be attributed the high state of discipline and iniprovement of the institution. To his exertions we owe, in a great measure, the success of this establishment, the extensive usefuloesss of which needs only to be understood by the nation to be sully appreciated.
lodependently of serving to disseminate over the vast territories of the United States knowledge of a description which cannot enter into the usual course of studies in other academies, and furnishing the means of rendering most effective our army and militia, of securing our frontier, and improving the communication throughout the States, it is calculated to eleyate the moral state of the military profession in our country, the importance of which to the general interests of the natiov cannot be too much insisted upon.
The aunals of history prove that success in arms is one of the niost truittul sources of personal poprilarity ; aut in a country where the soldier is still a citizen, and may be called upon to share in the civil governmeut, or rise to the highest bogors of the state, the standard of study and discipline cannot be too high, which develops his talents and forms his character. The same anuals show that, at the close of successful wars, the liberties of a country depeud, in a great measure, upon the caracter of the armies ; at such a period, the fortunate soldier possesses
power, and great, and probably, well earned popularity ; and if his cbaracter is not as elevated by nature or education as to lead him to prefer the solid fame of having preserved the liberties of his fellow citizens to the glitter of false ambition, and to sacrifice all personal views of aggra.dizemneut to the good of his country, he way plunge the state into anarchy or rivet upon his fellow citizens the chains of despotism. If ever the liberties of the states of Europe shall be recovered, 11 will be effected through the improved condition, character, and education of their officers and soldiers; and while we indulge the hope that the liberty of these States rests upon too form a basis to be overthrown by the ambitiou of those who conipose our armies, it cannot be concealed that, if they were not instructed, their ignorance and depravity might seriously endanger the peace of the country.
The Board have observed with some regret that tho old works in the neighbourhood of the academy have been, in some instances, disturbed.
They ought, in their opinion, to be preserved as monuments of the glorious struggle which secured, our independence, The coolemplation of such memorials cannot fail to have a beneficial effect. They are calculated to inspire all Amercians with sentiments of exalted patriotism, ant to remiod them of the extraordinary efforts and great sacrifices made by our forelathers to achieve the liberty and independence of the country, and cannot fail to lead them to forin virtuous resolutions, ann to reflect that, as heirs of the immortal fame of their ancestors, they are bound to emulate their glorious career, and preserve their bright inheritance with the same inflexible courage and unreviating purpose.
STEPHEN VAN RENNSELAER, President. JOHN FOSYTH,
1. S. SKINNER,
JOHN K. FENWICK, Brig Gen.
JAMES BANKHEAD, Col USA.
J. R. POINSETT,
JOHN VORVELL, Secretary.
An act to improve the condition of the non-commissioned officers and
privates of the Army and Marine Corps of the United Stales, and to prevent desertion.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Uniled States of America, in Congress assembled, that from and after the passage of this act, all enlistments in the army of the United States, shall be for three years; and that the inonthly pay of the won-commissioned officers and soldiers, shall be as follows, viz : to each sergeant inajor, quarter master sergeant, and chief musician, sixteen dollars; to the first sergeant of a company, fifteen doilars ; to all other sergeanın, twelve dollars each ; to each artificer, teo dollars; to each corporal eight dollars ; and to each musician and private sol·lier, six dollars; and that all eplistments in the marine corps, shall be for four years; and that the monthly pay of the non-commissioned officers and soldiers in said corps, shall be
as follows, viz: to each sergeant major and quartermaster sergeanı, seventeen dollars ; to the drum major, file major, the orderly sergeants of posts, and first sergeants of guards at sea, sixteen dollars each ; to all other sergeants thirteen dollars ; to each corporal, nine dollars; to each musician, eight dollars: and to each private, seven dollars.
Sec 2. And be it further enacted, That one dollar of the montbly pav of every musician and private soldier, shall be retained until the expiration of the two first years of their enlistment, when each shall receive ine twenty-four dollars retained pay which shall have so accrued : Prorided, He shall hape served honestly and faithfully that portion of the term of his first enlistment.
SFC. 3. And be it further enacted, That every able bodied musician or private soldier, who may enlist into his company or regiment, within iwo months before, or one month after, the expiration of his term of service, shall receive two months' extra pay, besides the pay and other allowances which may be due to him on account of the unexpired period of any enlistment.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That every able boilied musician or soldier who shall re-enlist into his conipany or regiment, as specified in the third section of this act, shall receive his full pay, at the rate of six dollars per month, without any temporary deduction therefrom.
Sec. 5. And be it further enacled, That no premium 10 officers, for enlisting recruits, nor bounties to recruits for enlisting, shall be allowed after the passage of this act.
SEC. 6 And be il further enacted, That no person who has been convicted of any criminal offence, shall be enlisted into the army of the United States.
Sec. 7. And be it furlher enacted, That the seventh section of the act entitled “an Act making further provision for the army of the United
States,” passed on the sixteenth of May, one thousand eight hundred and twelve, be, and the same is hereby repealed, so far as it applies to any eulisted soldier, who shall be convicted by a general court martial, of the crime of desertion.
[Approved March 2, 1833.]
Act for the more perfect defence of the frontiers. Approred March 2, 1333.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Unit ed States of America, in Congress assembled, That in lieu of the battal. lion of mounted rangers authorized by the act of the fifteenth of June. one thousand eight hundred and thirty two, there be established a regiment of dragoons, to be composed and organized as follows, to wit: one colonel, one lieutenant colovel, one major, one quarterınaster sergeant, and two chief buglers, one adjutant, who shall be a lieutenant, one ser. geant inajor, one chief musician, and ten companies; each company to consist of one captain one first lieutenant, aud one second lieutenant, exclusive of the lieutenant who is to be the adjutant of the regiment; four sergeants, one of whom shall act as quartermaster sergeant to the company, four corporals, two buglers, one farrier and blacksmith, and sixty privates.
SEC. 2. And be il furlher enacted, That the officers, non commissioned officers, musicians, and privates, when mounted, be entitled to the same pay and emoluments as was allowed to dragoons, during the war,