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and pharmacutists to make more careful ment of botanical science.
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These are wide spread and numerous ir ~-T— native all differing from the same species it on»sr *-varieties of the wild rose grow here, none of -r^. J. ing types elsewhere. A number of foreign lands, are found growing wild. Li.. this State, which were originally, no So numerous are these flowers in feature, not only in the botany, but California. In the spring of the year. I bloom, they cover not only the plains auc places to the very tops of the monittamt. "Z. where filled with them, and even the adorned by their presence. The £ht usually intermix, but grow acres, and sometimes even more gorgeous than these vast full perfection. In the months of decked with its floral jewelry, set a picture not easily found Iiiimh af feature of the flowers of this cows. elegance of form, as well a* a general thing deficient in in a high degree, the coeawjtia*. when in bloom with their will aid in developing in fully established by practical supply this defect, at least a however, inherent in the other accident, is shown do not loose the perf
Among the more the Lily and Syringi ing largo trees; with cone-like c resting on the ant odor pee the most del'"
are so generally inodorous, the atmosphere, owing to their incredible numbers, and the fact that a few are highly fragrant, is fairly oppressed with the rich aroma thrown off by them in the spring and early summer.
This class is noticeable for its numbers and variety; already over one hundred species of mosses having been described. Some of these mosses, drooping from the forest trees, add much to the beauty and picturesqueness of the scenery in many of the interior valleys of the State. Any reference to these more simple and lowly products of the vegetable world is apt to suggest in the popular mind the idea of inutility and worthlessness; yet, many individuals of this class attain great size, such as the ferns and sea-weeds, the former where humidity, heat and shade are present to favor their growth, sometimes attaining a height of forty feet or more; while the latter, especially on the northern coast, often grow to a prodigious length. In the harbor of Victoria, and in the bays around the island of Vancouver, the AlgsB often reach a length of a hundred feet or more, covering the bottom so completely as to hide it from sight, and swaying in the most graceful manner with the tide.
Polyporus, Fungi or Mush-rooms.—The largest species found in California is the "Touchwood, or Hard Tinder," of a semi-circular shape, between one and two feet across, and from six to eight inches long; found generally on the trunk of the Laurel Tree. The common small species, with variegated, concentric rings (P. Versicolor), is used to lure insects for examination with the microscope. We find also, generally in meadows and after a rainy night, large quantities of the Agaricus Compestris, or "Edible Mushroom." As mushrooms vary in quality with climate, meteoric conditions, soils, etc., the safest way is to eat only those raised in gardens.
Lichens.—The barks of most of our trees are covered with several varieties of lichens, characteristic of the species, the Evernia Yulpina, (Ach.), being found on the bark of our mammoth trees.
Among the parasitic fungi we find the white and black Mildew, (Puccinia and Antennaria), which ruins wheat fields in the north, and orange orchards in the south. Rust, or red mildew, (Uredo rubigo), which, however, is not so injurious as some others. Smut, (Uredo segetum). Bunt, (Uredo caries), where the grain looks well, but is a mass of black sporidia when crushed. The ergot of grasses, but chiefly of rye, better known as '' spurred rye," is poisonous in its effects.
CATALOGUE OF THE NATIVE TREES OF CALIFORNIA.
Tuolumne, Mariposa, Tulare and Calaveras counties.
Coast; Latitude 36° to 40."
Latitude 39*. California.
San Pedro to Fort Yuma.
San Pedro to D river.
near San Diego.
San Pedro, (tributary Gila.)
San Pedro river.
Laredo to Pecos river.
Colorado river. £1 Paso.
San Pedro river.
West of the Colorado river.
Interior of the State.
San Luis Rey.
Coast of Cal.; San Francisco.
Slopes of foothills.
Santa Cruz mountains.
Santa Rosa valley.
Valleys of California.
San D I
San Diego mountains.
MINING AND METALLURGICAL PROCESSES.
Gold—Placer Mining—The Shallow Placers—River Mining—The Deep Placers—Tunnel Mining— Hydraulic Mining — Blue Gravel — The Great Blue Lead—White CementQuartz, or Vein Mining—Mining Operations—Milling Machinery and Processes—The Grass Valley System of Amalgamation — Amalgamation in Battery — The Mariposa Process—Concentration—Plattner's Chlorination Process.
Although California is by no means wanting in the variety of its metallic ores, yet the number of different metals which, either in the native state, or mineralized as ores, have hitherto been made the object of successful and profitable exploitation, is comparatively small, comprising only gold, mercury, copper, and silver. Platinum and iridosmine are also incidentally obtained in small quantities, associated with placer gold. Deposits of lead ore have been found, but as yet are undeveloped. Iron ores of very superior quality have been discovered at several localities in great quantity. Some of these deposits are in many respects favorably situated, and although their distance from market, and the high prices of labor, transportation, etc., have so far prevented their being advantageously worked, yet, with additional railroad facilities, and the introduction of cheaper labor, this useful metal will no doubt shortly be produced in California in ample supply for all home demands.
Among other metallic ores known to exist within the State, and which possess a greater or less prospective commercial value, are zinc, chromium, manganese, nickel, cobalt, arsenic, antimony, and tin.
Of the non-metallic mineral products already contributing to the wealth of the State, the coal of the Monte Diablo mines is of primary importance. Next to this is the borax of Clear Lake, to which may be added native sulphur, and common salt, obtained in considerable quantities—the latter, as yet, chiefly from the evaporation of sea water, although extensive deposits of it exist in the solid form at various