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Sassolin—(Boracic Acid)—Clear Lake, Lake county. (W. P. Blake.)

Scheelite—In the Mammoth district, Nevada. (Dr. C. T. Jackson.)

Serpentine—Abundant throughout the State.

Sdenite—In shales of Lone Tree Canyon, east side of Monte Diablo range. J. D. Whitney.)

8Uver—(Native)—It is of comparatively rare occurrence in California, but found frequently in the mines of Nevada, Idaho and Arizona.

Silver Stance—abundant in the silver mines of Nevada.

Sphene—In the granite of the Sierra Nevada. (W. P. Blake.)

StephanUe—The crystals have been taken from the mines on the Comstock lode, Nevada.

Siibnite—In large masses near the San Emidio Canon, also in aciculur crystals and granular masses at the Lake quicksilver mine. 'Stromeyerite—Heintzleman mine, Arizona.

Sulphur—In large deposits at foot of Clear Lake. In considerable quantity at several localities in Colusa county, and at other points within the State.

Tetrahedrite—Occurs in the Veto, Madre of California ; abundantly in the Sheba mine, Nevada.

Tellurium—Native, and associated with silver and gold, in some of the auriferous quartz veins of California. Native tellurium occurs foliated in a mine at Angel's Camp, Calaveras county. It is also associated with silver and gold in a mineral which is probably to be referred to a new species, containing more silver than gold. (B. SillimaD, M. D., Dec. 2d, 1867.) It appears that Mr. G. Kustel had previously noted the peculiar composition of this mineral, in a communication to the Mining and Scientific Press, May 20th, 1865.

Tourmaline—San Diego county, north side of valley of San Felipe, in feldspathic veins.

Tungstate of Manganese—Mammoth District, Nevada. (Proc. Cal. Acad., a, p. 199, C. T. Jackson.)

Wulfenite— (Molybdate of Lead)—Found in small yellow crystals in the upper part of the

California Mine, Comstock lode, Nevada. (W. P. Blake.) Zircon—Occurs with garnets in mica slates of Monte Diablo. (Geology of Cal.; vol. I, p. 22; J. D. Whitney.)

CHAPTER XI.

MANUFACTURED INDUSTBIES.

Introductory Remarks. Woolen Mills : The Pioneer Mills—Mission Mills—Pacific Mills— Mary sville Mills. Cotton Manufactures—Flouring Mills—Sugar Henneries. Ironworks: The Pacific Rolling Mills—Union Iron Works—Miners' Foundry, etc.—Boiler Works. Brass Foundries—Saw Mills and Lumber—Wire and Rope Works—The Pacific Cordage Factory—Tanneries—Powder Works—Fuse Factory—Paper Mills—Glass Works—Manufacture of Salt—Soap Factories—Candle Factories—Glue Factory—Chemical and Acid Factories—Matches—Oil Works—Rice Mills—Lime and Cement—Lead Works—Marble Works and Quarrie-—Potteries—Boots and Shoes—Saddlery and Harness—Wagons, Carriages, Cars, Agricultural Implements, etc.—Furniture—Matting—Pianos, Organs, Billiard Tables—Breweries and Distilleries—Brooms, and Broom Corn—Wood and Willow Ware—California Type Foundry—Cigar Manufactories—Manufacture of Clothing, Shirts, etc.-—Furs—Meat Packing and Curing—Dried and Preserved Fruits and Vegetables, etc.—Miscellaneous Manufactures—Works Projected or in Progress.

The State of California possesses such marked and manifold advantages, aside from its geographical position, as to insure the rapid building up of large manufacturing interests within its limits. Foremost among these advantages is the vast and widely diffused water-power found in all the hill and mountain districts throughout the northern and eastern sections of the State. Extending along the western watershed of the Sierra, and following the lateral range that, near its northern end, sets off toward the coast, is a belt of country five hundred miles long and seventy-five miles wide, crossed by more than twenty large rivers, many of them formed from several forks—each, for a good portion of the year, a fair sized stream. Besides these rivers, there are many creeks flowing in like manner across this belt, and which, though not perennial, carry heavy bodies of water for at least one half the year. All these rivers have their sources about the summits of the lofty Sierra or its outlying ranges, whence they descend rapidly towards the great interior plains, a portion of them flowing directly into the sea; many of them making a fall of more than six thousand feet in flowing a distance of seventy or eighty miles. The amount of propulsive power that may be generated by an entire and economical appropriation of these waters would, to one unacquainted with their volume and the favorable condition under which they exist, seem incredible. To state it as being equal to the force exerted by five hundred thousand horses would be to keep well within bounds. Already nearly two hundred quartz mills, over fifty flour, and one hundred and fifty saw mills, are driven by such inconsiderable portions thereof as have been diverted for this purpose. If all the water power existing in the New England States were added to that of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, it would scarcely exceed that still running to waste down the side of the Sierra.

The generally open character of the country, the deep alluvial soil and its freedom from stones, and the facility with which lumber can be obtained for fluming, render the construction of ditches a matter of comparative ease throughout this region. Already a costly and wide extended system of aqueducts is to be found in the mining canals that ramify nearly all parts of it, supplying water to many of the quartz mills, as well as to hydraulic, sluice, and other modes of earth washing. This water, after having been used for the latter purposes, could, in many cases, be made subservient to the propulsion of machinery; and it will doubtless happen hereafter that as the auriferous earth becomes exhausted in different localities, the water once used for washing will be afterwards availed of for milling and manufacturing purposes.

Locating manufactories, foundries, and machine shops in this well watered district, will be but to bring them to the door of the consumer; since, in the mining communities to be planted here in the future will be found the best customers of these industrial institutions, which will thus be saved the expense attendant on the carriage of their wares to distant markets. These streams run directly across the principal mineral belt of the State; a country rich in every species of agricultural, as well as mineral and other kinds of natural wealth—wherefore, it is obvious, that all these several interests must be blended, growing up in harmony, mutually depending upon and aiding each other.

In case it should be found expedient, however, to locate these establishments further down where the fall is insufficient to create a water power, then the magnificent forests on the mountains above will afford an unfailing fuel supply—the construction of short railroads, only, being necessary to insure the delivery of lumber and firewood at the points where needed in endless quantities, and at very low prices. It is, furthermore, worthy of remark in this connection, that many kinds of stone suitable for the foundation works, and where required for the superstructure also of buildings, abound in almost every part of this region, and generally under very favorable circumstances for quarrying and removal. While in the coast and other mountain ranges of the State the water power, as well as the wood and lumber supply, is much more restricted than in the region just considered, there is still a sufficiency of both in many places to enable the business of manufacturing to be carried on to a considerable extent, some of these streams having already been appropriated for driving machinery.

In the larger towns, more especially in San Francisco and its suburbs, destined, from the advantages of its position, to become a point at which more manufacturing will probably be concentrated than at any other on the coast, coal can be obtained at rates that will render the cheap generation of driving power, through the agency of steam, always practicable. Or what is still more probable, petroleum, now promising to be brought into use so successfully as a steam fuel, will come to be extensively introduced in these localities. Should the result anticipated from the experiments now being made with this fuel be ultimately realized, the coast region of California will be rendered quite independent of other sources of fuel supply—the deposits of this substance being widely diffused, easily obtained, and wholly inexhaustible. In addition to this immense power already created, and so convenient to hand, or that can be so cheaply generated, California enjoys in her genial and salubrious climate another great advantage over most manufacturing countries. In that part of the State where these multifarious industries are likely to grow up, it can almost be said that there is no winter. The heat of the summer in the interior is long continued, and in many localities for a time oppressive, though never debilitating, owing to the cool nights that prevail throughout that season. During the remainder of the year the weather there is for the most part delightful, out door laborers seldom suffering from either heat or cold. In California the mill-wheel is rarely ever pinioned by frost, or the paths that lead to the workshops and factories obstructed by snow and ice. Neither is the craftsman ever forced to go shivering to his task, or to labor in a chilled and freezing atmosphere—the benignant climate invigorating the system and relieving toil of its greatest hardships. Here the shops, and factories do not require to be kept constantly closed to economise the heat within, compelling the operative to labor in a foul, fasted and debilitating atmosphere, destructive to health and depressing to the spirits. Except in the more elevated districts, the temperature is such that even in winter all active employments may be comfortably pursued in the outer air or with open doors. In this mildness of the climate the artisan classes will ever find a safeguard against sickness and discomfort while it reduces materially the cost of living, in the saving of fuel, clothing and shelter. The quantity of fuel required for a small family does not amount to more than half as much in California, take the year through, as is necessary anywhere throughout the Northern and Middle States of the Union; while the cost of clothing, notwithstanding somewhat higher prices, is considerably less than in the Eastern States; the difference in the expense of constructing dwellings being still greater in favor of California. It is estimated by competent judges that at least twenty per cent. more service is rendered the employer here than in most other countries, in consequence of the greater mildness and salubrity of the climate. Food, including an abundance of the most delicious fruits, must always be cheap in this State, while in most country localities the employe's of the workshops and factories can, if so inclined, each be the owner of a house and lot, the latter of sufficient size to enable him to raise his own fruits and vegetables. Land is everywhere cheap, already cleared for the plough, and generally of good quality, while firewood and lumber must remain at very moderate prices for many years to come, in tho districts designated by nature as the great manufacturing field of California—especially along that portion of it that covers the western slope and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. In the heavy expense that must always attend the transportation hither of manufactured commodities, particularly the more low priced and bulky, from countries of cheaper production, the California maker of these articles will enjoy a perpetual tariff, which alone will go far towards protecting him against the superior skill, and cheaper labor and capital, not only of the Eastern domestic, but also of the foreign manufacturer, to say nothing of the duties imposed by the general Government upon the imported wares of the latter. Again, nearly all the staples that constitute the raw materials required for manufacturing, are found existing native in California, or can be raised here with the utmost facility, the soil and climate, being well adapted to the growth of a wide range of such reductions as are most needed for this purpose. For anything requiring to be made of wood, metal, wool, leather, or of any of the more common fibres, except cotton, California has, or can produce the material, generally of the primest quality, and at scarcely greater cost than the most favored countries on the globe. Of the substances most essential in making chemicals, paper, powder, glass, cordage, stone and earthenware, we have an abundance. The country is prolific in nearly everything most required for the operations of the forge, the foundry,

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