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There are three shops where billiard tables and their appendages are made, in San Francisco. The number of men employed is about forty-five; the value of tables manufactured, about $200,000 annually; number of tables turned out being from 120 to 130. Many of the native woods of the coast are used in making these tables.
BREWERIES AND DISTILLERIES.
There are about one hundred and twenty-five breweries in the State, of which number twenty-four are located in San Francisco. There is not a town in the interior of any considerable size but contains one or more of these establishments, though some are conducted on a small scale, making only enough beer to meet the local demand.
The quantity of malt liquor brewed in San Francisco during the year 1866 reached 2,500,000 gallons—the amount made the following year having been somewhat larger. Notwithstanding this immense production, the importations continue to be large, having summed up 1,398 hogsheads, 14,110 casks and barrels, 4,788 cases, and 360 tierces, for the year 1867. The malt is made wholly from California barley, while most of the hops now used are also of home growth.
While there are numerous small distilleries in the State, the two leading ones, at which three fourths of all the spirits manufactured are made, are located in San Francisco.
The works of J. Dows & Co., established fourteen years ago, have a daily capacity to make 1,000 gallons of pure spirits, to the production of which they are chiefly confined. The Pacific Distillery turned out, in 1867, 133,000 gallons of spirits, though it is capable of making more than four times that amount. The capacity of all the distilleries in San Francisco is set down at about 1,000,000 gallons per annum; the entire product for 1867 having been 700,000 gallons, as against 430,000 the preceding year. The material used for distillation consists of barley, wheat, Indian corn, and rice; Sandwich Island molasses being substituted when these cereals are scarce, or unusually costly.
BROOMS, AND BROOM CORN.
As already remarked, broom corn thrives on most of the rich alluvial lands of the State, the stalk growing vigorously, and the brush being straight, clean and heavy. The tule lands, where sufficiently dry, are especially adapted to its culture. The growing of this cane, entered upon some eight or ten years ago, is every year extending, patches of it being raised in nearly every agricultural county of the State —Yuba, Sutter, and Butte taking the lead.
There are now fifteen broom factories in California, ten of which are located in San Francisco. Some of these factories are extensive, while others are on a small scale, the whole number of brooms made in the State, during the year 1867, having been 40,000 dozen, valued at $150,000, The price of the corn ranges from $50 to $65 per ton, and of the brooms, from $3 to $6 per dozen, according to quality. With this extensive growth and home manufacture, everything in this line has ceased to be imported, California having a large yearly surplus to spare, which finds a market in all the adjacent States and Territories, many also being sent to British Columbia, the Amoor river, China, Australia, Sandwich Islands, Mexico, etc
WOOD AND WILLOW WARE.
There are two wooden ware factories in the State, both being in San Francisco. They employ about eighty hands, are driven by steam power, make every variety of article common in their line, and, it is conceded, of a quality equal to those imported; the quantity of which has been greatly diminished, some descriptions being wholly discontinued since the starting of these local factories, which have also reduced prices fully twenty-five per cent. The material used consists mostly of pine, cedar, and redwood; of California and Oregon growth, about 2,600 cords of which, besides 100,000 hazel hoops for powder kegs, eighty tons of hoop iron bands, and large quantities of other materials are consumed annually. The cheapness and excellence of the stock required for making these wares will always be such as to ^rrw the Pacific coast factories great advantages over those in most other p-ntmtries. The two San Francisco establishments turned out during Uh year 1867, 30,000 tubs; 8,000 dozen pails; 2,400 dozen washboards; "J*1 000 broom handles, and 70,000 powder kegs, besides large quant iw oi other wares pertinent to the trade.
CLOTHING, SHIRTS, ETC.
""%* value of these articles manufactured annually in this State ji«g.g- K> about one and a quarter million dollars. The greater poris made in the city of San Francisco, where there are t firms and companies engaged in the business. They depend 2»e local woolen mills for their fabrics, and as these are of «s«iority, the clothing made is always of marked excellence,
commanding extremely high prices. Most of the larger clothing manufacturers include shirtmaking in their business, though there are two or three establishments confined wholly to the making of these articles. The number of hands employed in these several branches is between four and five hundred, independent of those working in the tailor shops, of which there are the large number in the city.
CALIFORNIA TYPE foundry.
Although the manufacture of type, stereotyping, and electrotyping has been carried on in San Francisco for several years in a small way, not until January, 1867, was the business introduced on an extended and systematic plan, when Messrs. Wm. & Geo. L. Faulkner, having completed their foundry, entered vigorously on the manufacture of type of every description. This firm had for many years previously been engaged in importing type and printers' materials, having been among the first parties on the coast to embark in the business. Over 30,000 pounds of type were turned out at this foundry the first year, most of the metal used having been obtained from the mines of this State and Nevada. This firm also carries on the business of stereotyping and electrotyping in conjunction with the above branch of the business, the type on which this book is printed having been made at their foundry, as well also as the stereotype plates taken from the same.
There being about three hundred printing offices on the coast, the demand for the supplies in this line is large and rapidly increasing. These requirements the Messrs. Faulkner expect to meet with home made material, equal in quality, and at prices below that of the imported. Already they have furnished full suits of type for most of the newspapers on the coast, and it seems probable that the importation of printers' material, heretofore large, will for the future be much curtailed by the products of this foundry.
This business is carried on extensively in San Francisco, there being over one hundred shops in the city, employing seven hundred and sixty hands, nearly all of them Chinese. The rapidity with which this trade has grown up is indicated by the fact that scarcely any cigars were made here in 1860, while the number had increased to 11,000,000 in 1865; to 23,500,000 in 1866; and to 35,000,000 in 1867; in addition to which 4,000,000 Havana cigars were that year imported, and nearly as many more smuggled into the country—making an aggregate of nearly 45,000,000. If to this is added 5,000,000, on account of cigars made in the interior, we have a total stock accumulated in the country approximating 50,000,000 of these articles within a single year.
The tax paid upon cigars made in the State amounted, in 1864, to less than $2,000. In 1866 it reached $212,500; while, in 1867, though the manufacture had largely increased, the revenue from it fell off) in consequence of a reduction in the excise duty.
Of the 40,000,000 cigars manufactured in the State during the year 1867, about 25,000,000 were made from pure seed leaf; 11,000,000 from seed leaf and Havana; and the balance from pure Havana. Nearly the whole of the raw material used here is imported—the most of it coming from the Eastern States and Havana ; over 3,000 cases of tobacco are imported annually. The experiments made at cultivating this plant in California have failed to prove remunerative to the grower, or wholly satisfactory to the consumer. The causes of the failure are variously attributed to defects in the soil and climate, and to carelessness and ignorance in the curing of the leaf—justice, perhaps, requiring that the agencies of this failure should be about equally distributed among the several causes thus assigned for it.
As our manufacturers have been able to place upon the market, at a less price, fully as good an article as that imported from domestic Atlantic ports of supply, shipments from the latter have nearly ceased; those imported consisting of Havana, brought in under a duty of $65 per thousand.
Prior to the American occupation of California, the business of trapping and hunting fur-bearing animals, and bartering in their peltries, constituted one of the leading pursuits throughout the countries west of the Rocky Mountains—San Francisco having been formerly one of the centres of this trade on the North Pacific. The men engaged in these pursuits were the first to explore these extensive regions, and to acquaint the world with their resources and geography; their labors having meanwhile enriched the companies in whose service they were employed. This traffic, which at one time attained to large proportions, was suddenly curtailed by the discovery of gold in California, that event having drawn away most of the employe's of these companies, and otherwise interfered to check their operations. The latter, however, were still continued on a diminished scale in the British and Russian possessions to the north, though the quantities of furs reaching San Francisco was much less than formerly. Still, about $500,000 worth have arrived at that market annually, from various points on the northern coast and in the interior, the supplies from the latter source having been on the increase for the past several years. Of the furs reaching that city, about $40,000 worth of the choicer kinds are selected and made up to meet the requirements of the domestic trade, the balance being shipped abroad. These furs comprise a very broad range, the more valuable kinds consisting of otter, beaver, silver fox, sable, mink, and martin, though the wolf, squirrel, common fox, and almost every other wild animal, contributes towards filling up the variety. There are three houses engaged in this line of manufacture in San Francisco, the whole employing sixty-five hands, and turning out products valued at about $200,000.
Since the purchase of Alaska by the United States, the duty on Russian furs having been removed, our local furriers are able to supply all home demands, at prices that forbid competition. Since the acquisition of this territory, a company having a large capital has been formed in San Francisco, to prosecute the fur trade in that region, a movement that promises to largely increase the products from that quarter in the future.
MEAT PACKING AND CUEING.
This branch of business is now largely carried on, not only in San Francisco, but throughout many parts of California and Oregon; the quantity of bacon, pork, ham, lard, and salt beef produced increasing rapidly every year. Already this coast, which, but a few years ago, drew the bulk of these articles from the East, is independent of all outside sources of supply, and it seems probable that shipments to California will hereafter be small. Swine, it is found, can be raised here with great facility, the tule and other wild roots, and the oak mast, being ample, in the localities where met with, to subsist and fatten these animals with but little expense or care on the part of the owners. For the California and Oregon cured meats, a great preference is generally given over all other kinds; the government commissariat, finding them more fully up to the requirements of the department, regard them with special favor.
The climate of San Francisco, from its low and equable temperature throughout the year, being particularly well suited for the business of meat packing and curing, most of the larger establishments in this line have been located there. It is estimated that there are slaughtered in that city annually 58,000 hogs, of the average weight