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of 110 pounds, about eighty per cent. of which is cured into ham and bacon. The number of neat cattle annually slaughtered is also very large, though a smaller proportion of the meat is smoked or packed down.

DRIED AND PRESERVED FRUITS, VEGETABLES, ETC.

But a few years since everything consumed in this line upon the Pacific coast was sent to us from abroad. Now, although we still continue to receive certain kinds from the East, the importation of others has entirely ceased, and we are exporting considerable quantities every year, not only to the adjacent State of Nevada and the Territories beyond, but also to domestic Atlantic ports, our dried fruits being especially esteemed wherever they are sent.

The largest establishment in this line on the coast, that of Messrs. Cutting & Co., San Francisco, put up, during the year 1867, 5,000 cases of pickles; 6,500 of tomatoes; 3,000 of fresh peaches; 3,000 cases of jellies; 1,000 of jams; 1,000 cases of peas; 500 cases of beans, and 2,000 of assorted fruits—making a total of 22,000 cases of these articles, besides a proportionate quantity of ketchups, vegetables and canned meats. This firm have a capital of $165,000 invested in the business, and employ, during the active season, over one hundred hands, it being estimated that they do over two thirds of all that is transacted in this line in San Francisco.

The business of fruit drying is mostly carried on in the interior and bay counties, where the greater portion of it is grown, many nurserymen and families curing, besides enough for home use, a quantity for market.

MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES.

Besides the foregoing articles there are many others manufactured on a small scale in the State, or which are in other respects of but secondary importance. Among these, the following, confined to San Francisco, may be enumerated, as most entitled to notice.

Daniel Callaghan, manufacturer of yeast powders, made in the year 1866, 2,000 gross, and in 1867, 3,000 gross of this article; besides producing, in the latter year, 90,000 pounds of cream of tartar, and 250,000 pounds of soda and saleratus.

A beginning has been made at manufacturing oil cloths, a business that can hardly fail to increase, as the consumption of this article is large, and prices of the imported always rule high. Book-binding, and the manufacturing of blank books, is extensively carried on—a San Francisco firm having erected a shop at the State Prison, where they employ fifty of the convicts in the different branches of the business. Over a million dollars worth of coffee and spices are prepared in San Francisco annually—about fifty men being employed at the business. A company has lately been formed in that city with a capital of §100,000 to carry on the manufacture of chiccory, a root that can be grown with facility in all parts of the State. There are now several mills engaged in grinding it, and it is calculated that, after supplying all home demands, the State will produce 1,000,000 pounds for export the present year. Over half a million pounds of maccarroni and vermicelli are made every year—the home made article being preferred to the foreign.

There are also two shops at which blacksmiths' bellows and similar utensils are made; two gold-beaters' shops ; a large number of manufacturing jewelers; a factory for making buckskin gloves; soap-stone, starch, glue, soap-root hair, and straw works; several metallurgical works, whereat ores of all kinds are assayed and reduced, either on a large scale or in small quantities, as practical tests in prospecting mines; a number of large assaying establishments, where, besides the mere assaying and analysing of ores and metals, the latter are refined, parted and run into bars, preparing them for the uses of exchange and commerce; two or three companies engaged in laying down asphaltum sidewalks, roofs, etc.; also, others engaged in putting down the Nichol son pavement, with which large sections of the streets of San Francisco are now laid; fifteen factories where bags, sacks, etc, are made, mostly by sewing machines; two large shops where superior articles of cutlery are manufactured, the most of it being made to order; twelve extensive cooperages; two establishments for making fire-works, the products of which have been found so superior to all others as to have greatly diminished importations from China, at least for. the consumption of our own people. In 1867, 12,000 feet of hose and $10,000 worth of leather belting were made, requiring 3,000 sides of leather. The hose manufactured here is found to greatly outwear that of Eastern make, owing mainly to the superior character of California leather.

Mouldings, stairs, doors, sash and blinds, boxes, looking-glasses

and picture frames, show cases, etc., formerly nearly all imported, are

now extensively manufactured in California—the greater portion being

made in San Francisco. Early in 1868 a company was formed in that

city for the purpose of engaging largely in the manufacture of doors,

blinds, sash and mouldings, intending to start operations in the course

of a few months. There are several mills in San Francisco where one or more of the above branches is carried on—besides a number of smaller capacity located in different towns of the interior.

Works have been erected in Marysville, Tuba county, for the manufacture of pitch, rosin, and turpentine, the raw material being obtained by tapping the trees in the extensive pineries that exist along the foot-hills of that and adjacent counties. The quantity made last year reached but little over twenty thousand gallons, not much more than half the amount produced the preceding year, and scarcely one third of what it is expected will be turned out in 1868. The home made article is equal to the imported, and could be produced in almost any quantity and at less price than the Eastern, were it not for the cost of freight from the interior to San Francisco, the central market.

WOKKS PROJECTED, OR IN PROGRESS.

The machinery for a silk factory has been imported into the State, and although its erection may be deferred for a time, owing to the silk growers preferring to sell their eggs rather than rear the worms for making the textile, there is, no doubt, but this mill will eventually be put up and run with profit.

Early in 1868 the Oakland Cotton Mill Company had taken preliminary measures for putting up in San Mateo county a mill for manufacturing fabrics from flax; and as some three or four hundred acres had that year been sown in the bay counties with the seed of this plant, besides a considerable area in the interior, it is very probable that the proposed mill will in good time be erected. As bags can be furnished from flax at about half the cost of burlap sacks, and as the construction of this mill will make a market for their lint, the farming community will, no doubt, extend to the project every possible encouragement.

The Natoma Water Company, an association directed by sagacious and energetic men, and possessed of ample means, having secured a franchise to all the water of the American river, are now engaged constructing a canal of sufficient capacity to carry the entire stream at ordinary stages, it having thus been appropriated and made available for propulsive purposes. The point selected for diverting the river is situated one mile and five-eighths above the town of Folsom, through which the canal is to extend, having a fall in this distance of one hundred and fifteen feet, whereby a three thousand horse power will be generated, with the river at its lowest stage, and nearly double that amount for more than one half the year—being, it is estimated, equivalent to that which propels the immense factories at Lowell. The canal of this company having nearly reached completion in the spring of 1868, the dam, a substantial structure to be built wholly of granite, was expected to be finished the following summer. It is their design to sell portions of the water power to such parties as may be desirous of using it for manufacturing purposes; and as this locality is central and accessible by railroad, besides being near the extensive granite quarries of Folsom, whence the best of building material can be easily obtained, there is every likelihood that a large and prosperous manufacturing town will ultimately grow up at this place.

In reference to the manufacturing interests of California, it may, in conclusion, be observed, that under the tendency to cheaper labor and capital, the growing confidence felt in the future of California, and the expectation of its rapid and permanent settlement, a variety of new branches are constantly being introduced, while many of the earlier established and more important are being extended. And, yet, so broad is this field that some important departments of manufactures have thus far been wholly overlooked or are but feebly represented, affording here many excellent openings for capital, skilled labor and well directed enterprise.

CHAPTER XII.

CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO.

Situation, Topography, etc.—Early Settlement and Subsequent Progress—Street Grades, Public Grounds, etc.—Improvement of Water Front—Style and Peculiarities of Buildings—Fear of Earthquakes, and its Effects—Churches, and Places of Public Worship— Theatres, and other Places of Amusement—Scientific, Social, Literary, and Eleemosynary Institutions—Number of Inhabitants—Diversity of Races, Ideas and Customs— Juvenile Population—Manufacturing Status, etc.—Educational System—Public Schools, Colleges, Seminaries and Private Institutions of Learning—-Value of City Property— Municipal Income, Debt and Expenditures—Buildings, Improvements, etc.—Police and Fire Departments—Cemeteries, Public Gardens, Homestead Associations—City Railroads—Gas Works and Water Works—Markets—Banking Institutions and Insurance Companies—United States Branch Mint—Advantages of Position—Foreign Commerce and Domestic Trade—Bullion Products—Passenger Arrivals, etc.

situation, TOPOGRAPHY, ETC.

The city and county of San Francisco embrace one municipality, the act of consolidation having taken effect July 1, 1856. The county comprises the northern end of a peninsula, about twenty-five miles long, formed by the bay of San Francisco on the east and the Pacific ocean on the west, its entire area covering a space of 26,861 acres, including the Presidio reservation, of 1,500 acres, belonging to the general government. The city occupies the extreme northern point of this peninsula, which is here about four miles wide, being covered for the most part with high hills and sandy knolls, separated by small valleys, ravines, and elevated plateaux, the bay being at most points bordered by extensive stretches of sand-beach and salt-marsh, or overlooked by high hills, terminating on the water side in steep bluffs and rocky headlands. The loftier of these hills, composed of solid earth and rock, vary from 250 to 400 feet in height, the sand-knolls being from 60 to 100 feet high. Owing to these inequalities, the grading of the streets has been expensive, and in places long delayed, it being, even in densely peopled localities, but partially completed.

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