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The annexed table exhibits the annual and total export of merchandise and treasure from the port of San Francisco, from 1848 to 1867 inclusive:
These exports include shipments to domestic Atlantic ports as well as to foreign countries. The merchandise exports for the period prior to 1855 are estimated. The same is true of the treasure exports prior to 1851. The annual average exports of merchandise since 1848 is $7,126,285, and of treasure, $43,080,508, or, combined, $50,206,703. During the six years ending with 1867, the United States Sub-Treasurer at San Francisco shipped thence $50,000,000 on Government account, making an aggregate treasure export of $891,610,170, from 1848 to 1867 inclusive.
The combined exports of treasure and merchandise during 1867, as compared with 1865 and 1866, were as follows:
1865 186« 186T
Treasure Exports $45,308,228 $44,364,394 $41,676,292
Merchandise Exports 14,355,399 17,303,018 22,465,903
Totals $59,663,627 $61,667,412 $64,142,195
The receipts of treasure of San Francisco from all sources, through regular public channels during the years 1866 and 1867, were as follows:
From California and Nevada. $38,715,340 $40,927,309
From California, Southern Mines 5,149,749 4,477,MI
From Coastwise Ports, Oregon, etc 5,940,536 6,192,734
Imports, Foreign, British Columbia, etc 2,887,028 3,969,322
Totals $52,692,653 $55,566,826
To the above sums total should be added about ten per cent . for bullion arriving in private hands. From the foregoing table it will be seen that there was a very considerable increase in the bullion receipts of 1867 over those of the preceding year; the increase in the receipts from the northern mines, over $2,000,000, was mainly due to gains made in the State of Nevada, the product of which amounted to nearly $18,000,000 for that year.
The value and destination of treasure shipments from San Francisco, during the fourteen years ending with 1867, were as follows: To Eastern domestic ports, $428,159,455; to England, $150,548,502; to China, $55,368,810; to Panama, $7,755,344; to other ports, $9,930,338, making a total of $651,762,466.
The amount of coin transmitted to the interior by Wells, Fargo & Company's Express, during the year 1867, was $10,326,639; the amount brought by them from the interior during the Same time was $5,340,184, adding $4,886,445 to interior circulation.
From the foregoing, it appears that the total receipts of uncoined treasure from the interior during the year 1867 amounted to $46,257,320, and of coined to $5,340,184, to which add foreign imports $3,968,322, and we have a total of $55,566,826 to represent the receipts at San Francisco for that year, total exports for the same period having been $41,676,292.
The army disbursements on this coast during 1867 were, on account of Quartermaster's department, 5,810,708.65; Paymaster's department $2,288,142.85, and for Commissary department, $1,671,421.88, making a total of $9,770,272.33.
The total receipts of Internal Revenue in the State of California during the year 1867 amounted to $6,747,624.87, of which $4,021,284.25 were derived from manufactures, $1,773,326.46 from incomes, $12,460.73 from legacies, and the balance from various other sources.
The passenger arrivals by way of the sea for 1867 were 35,683, and the departure 20,419, showing a gain of over 15,000. The gain in 1866 was less than 5,000. Of the arrivals for the past year, 27,500 came by the Panama and San Juan steamers, principally from New York. The departures by the same steamers were 14,000. The arrivals from Asia during the year were 4,300, and the departure 4,500. Our gain from Australia was 1,146, from British Columbia 857, from the Hawaiian Islands 289, and from Mexico 162. The net gain to the port from all sources, by way of the sea, for the ten years ending December 31, 1867, is 115,866. Fully 75 per cent. of the passengers which have arrived at this port seawards since 1848 came from the Atlantic States.
Railroads—Central Pacific Railroad—Western Pacific Railroad—San Jose' Railroad—Sacramento Valley Railroad—Placerville and Sacramento Valley Railroad—California Central Railroad—Yuba Railroad—Northern California Railroad—Various Short Railroads —Railroads Recently Commenced—Railroads Projected—Steamship Lines—Ship Building—Telegraphs—State and County Finances—Gold Product—Fisheries—Immigration —Population —Voters — Races, etc. —Chinese in California—Libraries—Literature, Journalism, etc.—List of California Publications.
After a series of years of disastrous delay, during which, though numerous enterprises were planned but few were carried beyond the mere work of projection, the era of active railroad building seems about being inaugurated in California. During the session of the Legislature ending March 30th, 1868, a large number of franchises for laying down railway tracks in different parts of the State, were granted to the various companies applying for the same, the most of whom, it is supposed, will at once proceed with the work of their construction. There are now about three hundred miles of railroad completed and in operation in the State, a very small extent considering the urgent necessities as well as unexampled facilities that exist for making these improvements.
CENTRAL FACma RAILROAD.
This, though not the first entered upon, is the longest, as it is also by far the most important piece of railway yet constructed in the State. The Central Pacific is one of the companies authorized by act of Congress to build a railroad from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean, designed to form a part of the road spanning the entire continent. Starting at Sacramento, it is to be pushed eastward until it meets the Union Pacific road, advancing from an opposite direction. This junction, it is supposed, will be a little to the eastward of Salt Lake, perhaps in the vicinity of Fort Bridger, 917 miles from its western terminus.
Ground on this road was first broke in the year 1863. It is now complete and in running order a distance of 105 miles, carrying it over the Sierra Nevada, the most difficult and expensive part of the route—and across which many parties, inimical to this enterprise, affected to believe it could not be built, or if built that it could not be successfully operated. The completion of this section in the most substantial manner, within a period much shorter than that originally assigned for it, and its successful operation throughout one of the most inclement winters ever known on the mountains, while it attests the energy of the company, and demonstrates the entire feasibility of the route selected, has wholly dissipated these ill founded forebodings.
The heavy and expensive work of carrying their road over the Sierra, at an altitude of 7,242 feet, and of cutting fifteen immense tunnels an aggregate distance of nearly one mile and a half through solid granite, having now been accomplished, this company will find the work of construction hereafter comparatively easy; the greater part of the route lying across a hard, dry and level country, almost entirely free from rocks, trees and other obstructions. With their present working force, over eight thousand men and one thousand mules and horses, it is calculated that they will be able during the dry season to grade the road-bed and lay down track at the rate of about two miles a day until they reach the valley of Great Salt Lake, six hundred miles east of the base of the Sierra, where the level country begins. It is believed that upwards of five hundred miles of the road will be completed by the end of 1868, and the whole distance to Salt Lake by the fall of 1870.
The business of this road has steadily increased from the time it was first opened—the gross earnings during the year 1867 having reached as high as $212,000 per month. As it is extended east, commanding the traffic of Nevada and Idaho, and ultimately of Utah and portions of Montana, its business must be largely augmented, until such time as it finally effects a junction with the Union Pacific road, establishing unbroken communication by rail across the continent, when it must at once expand into the most magnificent proportions.
Of such moment did the General Government consider the early completion of a trans-continental railroad, that it was deemed good policy to extend to the several companies undertaking this great work a liberal aid in the shape of loans, grants and franchises. To the Central Pacific Company was granted a money subsidy at the rate of $48,000 per mile on that portion of their road extending eastwardly