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Aborigines, 20.

Early condition, 21.
Marital relations, 24.
Religious ideas, 24.
Mechanical skill, M.
Education, under missionaries, M.
Decrease of numbers, 27.
Origin of, 28, 31.

Customs, utensils, ornaments, etc., 30.
Language of, 31.
Traces of Christianity, 30.
Agriculture, 352.

Cereal crops, 353.

Wild oats, 353.

Rice, 335.

Grasses, 356.

Fruits and nuts, 362.

Berries, 365.

Dried fruits, 366.

Pickles, preserved fruits, etc., 366.

Vegetables, potatoes, etc., 368.

Large growths, 368.

Cattle, horses, mules, sheep, etc., 370.

Bees and honey, 372.

Insects, 373.

Wood planting, D.

Effects of sirocco, 375.

Implements, 375.

Irrigation, 379.

Under draining, 382.

Famine years, 382.

Farmer's troubles, 383,

Contrasts, 385.

Advantages, 336.

Farm labor, 386.
Alameda County, 145.

Town of, 152.

Warm Springs, 153.

Alcatraz Island, 79.
Alpine County, 257.
Alvarado, 152.

Juan Bautista, 48.
Alviso, Ill.

Amador County, MI, 424.
Valley, 149.
Mine, 253, 424, 578.
Amalgamation—Grass Valley method, 553.
In battery, 555.
Mariposa plan, 556.
American River, 41.
Amole, or soap plant, 361.
Anaheim, 107.
Ancient River Channels, 231, 428, 429, 542,

585.
Angel Island, 79.
Angel's Camp, 263.
Animals, 434.
Antioch, 16.
App mine, 271.
Areata, 201.

Arguello, Donna Concepcion, 37.
Armagosa River, 286.
Ashley, W. H., 42.
Astor, John Jacob, 35, 64.
Astoria, 35, 65.
Asphaltum, 109, 114, 117.
Asylum—Deaf, Dumb and Blind, 150.
Insane, 319, 652.

B.

Bald Hills, 192, 199.

Banner Mine, 238 .

Bag factories, 641.

Bay trees, 516.

Bays—San Francisco, 77, 80.

Suisun, 72, 154.

Bodega, 74, 86.

Bays—Tomales, 74, 85.

Drake's, 74, 85.

Half Moon, 74, 85.

Santa Cruz, 74, 83, 84, 85.

Monterey, 74, 83, 84.

Carmel, 74, 83, 84.

Estero, 74, 83.

San Luis Obispo, 74, 82.

Humboldt,'74, 87, 197.

Trinidad, 74, 87.

Crescent City, 74, 87.

Light, 87.

Pelican, 87.

San Diego, 80.

San Pedro, 80.

San Pablo, 154,156.
Bees, 372.
Begart, Falher, 8.
Behring, Vitus, M.
Benicia, 306.
Berryesa Valley, 176.
Bidwcll, John, 50.

Fort, 212.

Farm, 298.
Big Trees, 505.

of Calaveras, 265.

of Tuolumne, 267.

of Mariposa, 279.

of Tulare, 327.
Billiard tables, manufactory of, 635.
Birds, 448.

Scansores, (Climbers), 449.

Eaptores, (Birds of prey), 451.

Insessores, (Perchers), 455.

Insectivorous, (Perchers), 455.

Granivorous, (Perchers), 464.

Basores, (Scratching), 467.

Grallatores, (Wading), 468.

Natatores, (Swimming), 474.

Blackbirds, 463.
Black Rock Mines, 224.
Bleau, Jean, 10.
Blue gravel, 302, 542.

Claims, 302, 585.

Lead, 542.
Bodega Bay, 86.
Boiler Works, 615.
Boiling Lake, 218.

Boots and shoes, manufactory of. 630.
Borax lake and springs, 186, 410.
Botany, 502.

Sequoia, (Big Trees), 505.

Redwood, 506.

California Pines, 509.

Oaks, 512.

Botany—Cedars, 514.

Firs, 515.

Miscellaneous trees, 516.

Shrubs and plants, 517.

Grasses, 356, 521.

Flowerless plants, 526.

Flowering plants, 525.
Bovee Mine. 263.
Branciforte, Pueblo of, 47, 126.
Brannan, Samuel, 180.
Brass founderies, 616.
Pa w ;ries and distilleries, 635.
Briggs' orchard, 301, 366.
Brooklyn, 151.

Brooms and broom corn, 635.
Brown's Valley, 302.
Brui-h Creek Mine, 231.
Burnett, Governor Peter H., 59.
Butron, Manuel, 19. ■
Butte County, 291.
Buttes, Jackson, ML

Sutter, 298.

Downieville, 229.

C.

CabriUo, Juan Rodriguez, 5, 23.
California—Discoverer of, 5.

Origin of name, 1.

Boundaries of, 12.

Legends concerning, 2.

Supposed to be an island, 2.

Acquisition by United States, M.

Area of, 7L

Early commerce, 35, 59.

Geography and Topography, 71.

Harbors and Bays, 77.

Mountain system, 71.

Governors of, under Spanish and Mexi-
can rule, 57.

American Territorial Government, M.
California Steam Navigation Company, 676.
Calaveras County, 260, 422.
Calistoga Springs, 179.
Camptonville, 301.
Canada del Beynrando, 144.
Canals. (See Ditches.)
Candle factories, 628.
Canon de los Osas, 139.
Carp, 495.
Carpenteria, 113.
Carriage manufactures, 634.
Carson Hill, 264, 423.
Carson, Kit, 27.
Castle Peak, 280.

Castor bean, 299.

Castroville, 130.

Cat Camp, (Frankfort), 264.

Cathedral Peak, 272.

Cattle, 370.

Cave at Grizzly Flat, 251.

Cement, hydraulic, 306.

White, 543.

Auriferous, 585.

Mill, Cox's, 540.
Chico, 294.
Chiccory, 360.
Chinese, 31, 681.

Chlorination process, Plattner's, 558.
Cigar manufactures, 637.
Cinnabar, 174, 183, 186, 401, 402, 409, 415.
Clarigero, 3.
Clayton, 160.
Clear Lake, 184, 411.
Climate, 330.

Temperature, 330-37.

Land and sea, 330.

Tables exhibiting mean temperature,
333, 330.

Extremes of heat and cold, 332.

Of the Colorado Desert, 336.

Prevailing winds, 337-39.

Bains, storms, cloud and mist, 339 M.

Tables of rain fall, 340, 341, 343.

Snow and hail, 344.

Thunder and lightning, 345.

Aurora borealis, 346.

Dew, 347.

Belations of, to agriculture and other
industrial pursuits, 346-50.

As it affects health, domestic economy,
etc., 350-52.

Contrasted with Atlantic slope, 343.

Clothing, 350.
Clothing, manufacture of, 636.
Clover, 524.

Coal mines, 154, 158, 399.
Cocomungo, 104.
Coloma, 248.
Colorado Desert, 95, 336.
Columbia, ship and river, M.
Colusa County, 295.

Town of, 297.
Columbia River, discovery of, 35.

Town of, 209.
Commerce, 59, 663.

Early, 63.
Concentration of ores, 557.
Concentrator, Hendy's, 557.

Contra Costa County, 154.

Contra Costa Hills, 404.

Coombs, Nathan, 42.

Copper City, 291.

Cordage factory, 618,

Corral Hollow Coal Mines, 154.

Corte Madera Water Company, 145.

Copper City, 291.

Copperopolis, 264.

Cotton manufactures, 605.

Culture of, 357.

Oakland Mills, 151, 605.
Counties of California, 92.
Cox's Cement Mill, 540.
Cooper, J. B. E., 39.
Coralhtas, 129.
Coulterville, 273.
Crescent City, 207.

Harbor, 87.
Crescent Mine, 227.
Croix, Marquis de, 7.
Crown Lead Mine, 275.
Crystal Springs, 144.
Cutlery, 641.

Dairies, 163, 368.

Products of, 368.
Dana, Mount, 272, 280.
Dana, B. H., M.
Death Valley, 101, 285.
De Mofras, 62, 67.
Del Norte County, 208.
Deer, MT.
Diamonds, 256.
Ditches—Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal, 339.

South Yuba, 239.

Middle Yuba, 241.

Auburn and Bear River, 246.

Eureka, 250.

Pilot Creek, 250.

South Fork, 250.

Amador, 250.

Union, 261.

Big Oak Flat, 271.

Tuolumne County, 27L

Mono, 281.

Excelsior, 302.

Spanish Ranch, 228.
Donner Lake, 233.
Donner party, sufferings of, 52.
Doors and blinds, manufactory of, 641.
Downieville, 230.
Drake's Bay, 85.

Drake, Sir Francis, 5.

Draining tunnels, 382.

Dried and canned fruits, 610.

Ducks, 475.

Dutch Flat, 244.

Dutch (or Anthrax) Mine, 271.

Eagle, 451.

Eagle Lake, 222.

Earnings of miners, 565, 587.

Earthenware, 629.

Earthquakes, 648.

Educational system, 307, 653.

Eel River, 87, 190, 197, 198.

El Dorado County, 426, 246.

Elk River, 87.

Emigrants, 51.

Empire Mine, (Grass Valley), 238.

Enriquita Quicksilver Mine, 141.

Estero Bay, 83.

Eureka, (Nevada County), 210.

(Humboldt County), 210.

Mine, (Grass Valley), 238, 427.
Exports, merchandise and treasure, 665.

P.

Fairfield, 308.

Farallones, 89.

Finances, State and county, 678.

Fisheries, 680.

Fireworks, G41.

Fishes, 487.

Fitch—Family and mountain, 168.

Flax, 357.

Flora, 502.

Flouring mills, 606.

Flowers, wild, 233.

Folsom, 312.

Forbes, Alexander, IL

Forbestown, 295.

Fort Miller, 325.

Fos-ils, 267, 406, 421, 424, 430.

Foundries, 609.

Frankfort, 264

Franklin Point, 128.

Fremont, John C, 56, 58.

Fremont, Town of, 304.

French Camp, 41.

French Corral, 236, 428.

Fresno County, 322.

City, 325.
Frisbie, J. B., 55.

Fruitvale, 152.

Furniture, manufactories of, 633.

Furs, 638.

Fur Companies—early history of, 31.

Russian American, 31, 65.

Pacific, 35.

Hudson Bay, 62, 63, 638 .
Fuse factory, 621.

Gas Springs, 201.
Gavilan Mountains, 121.
Gaviota Pass, 114.
Geography, 71.
Geology, 396.

General outline of topography, 396.

Coast Ranges, 397.

South of Monterey Bay, 412.

Peninsula of San Francisco, 405.

North of San Francisco Bay, 403.

Monte Diablo Range, 398.
Coal beds of, 399.

Sierra Nevada, 416.

Great Auriferous Belt, 418-.

Southern portion of the gold field, 418.

Mariposa County, 419.

Tuolumne County, 420.

El Dorado County, 424.

Calaveras County, 422.

Amador County, 424.

Sierra County, 426.

Nevada County, 426.

Plumas County, 430.
Georgetown, 249.
Geysers, 171, 410.

Little, 173.
Gilroy, John, 26, 38.

Town of, 139.

Springs, 139.
Gold, 530.

Early legends concerning, 31.

Discovery of, 57.

Product of, 678.

Bluff, 205, 207.

Beaches, 569.

Run, 245.

Lake, 229.

Bearing Slate and gossan deposits, 583.

Placer, 531.

Bearing quartz, 531.

Early finding of, 109.
Golden Rule Mine, 271.
Golden Gate, 77, 405.
Goose Lake, 212.

Goose, 474.

Government, American Territorial, M.

Governors of California under Mexican and

Spanish rule, 57.
Gophers, 415.
Grant, Capt. C. S, 200.
Grass Valley, 234.

Quartz mines, 426, 579, CSO.
Grasses 356, 525.
Graham, Isaac, 48.
Gravel deposits, 302, 542. 5S5.
Griialva, Hernando, 2.
Grizzly Bears, 435.
Grouse, 467.
Gulls, 478.

Eggs, 89.
Guadalupe Quicksilver Mine, 591.

Halfmoon Bay, 85.

Halleck, Capt . H. W., 56.

Harbors, 77. (See Bays.)

n.irpending, or Banker Mino, 585.

Hartnell, W. E. P., 39.

Havilah, 119.

hawks, 452.

Haywards, (Alameda County), 152.

Hayward, or Amador Mine, 253, 424, 578.

Heald, Harmon, 168.

Ilealdsburg, 167.

Heron, 169.

Herring, 495.

Hieroglyphic?, 30.

Hoffman, Mount, 272.

Honey Lake and Valley, 222.

Hops, 359.

Iloopa Valley,. 204.

Horse-, 370.

Hospitals, 651.

Humboldt County, 19a

Bay, 87, 197.
Humboldt, Baron Von, 196.
Humming bird, 457.
Hydraulic mining, 541.

Immigrants, suffering of 51.

Hints to, 384.
Immigration, inducements to, 680.
Independence Mine, 231.
Indians, 219.

Reservations for, 28.
Insects, 373.

Internal Revenue receipts, 667
Inyo county, 284.

Mountains, 284.
lone Valley, 252.
Iron ores, 588.

Works, coo.

San Saba Mine, 589.
Irrigation, 379.
Islands—Verba Buena, (Goat), 79, 645.

Alcatraz, 79.

Angel, 79.

Molatc, (Red Rock), 79, 407.

Bird Rock, 79.

Mare, 79, 307.

Deadman's, 81.

Farallone--, 89.

San Miguel, 89.

Santa Rosa, 89.

Santa Cruz, 89.

San Nicolas 90-

Santa Barbara, 90

Santa Catalina, 90.

San Clemente, 91.

Jackson, 53.

Jewelers, MI.

Jone:, Commodore, M.

Jo-cphinc Mine, 275, 419.

Jurapa Ranch, 104.

K.

Kearny, General Stephen W, 56, 58.
Kearsarge Mine, 287.
Kern County, 117.

River, 119.
KernviUe, 120.
Keystone Mine, 254.
Klamath County, 204,

River, 205.
Knight's Valley, 176.

Landing, 304.

Ferry, 320.

L.

Lake County, 184.
Lakeport, 185.
Lakes—Tulare, 326.

Clear, 184-188, 410.

Klamath, 73.

Pyramid, 73.

Mono, 73, 282.

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