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and the tendency to retain land in large tracts. This, however, is less apparent than it was a few years ago. Nearly all the Spanish titles have been finally adjudicated, and fair progress is making in settling the many vexatious disputes as to the large tracts of land granted by the United States Government, which the State authorities too hastily and carelessly put into market. Large bodies of land are coming into possession of railroad companies ; but under the regulations adopted by Congress, these cannot be withheld from occupation, even if it were not to the interest of the grantees to sell them. Many holders of Spanish grants, which embrace some of the most extensive and fertile districts, could greatly benefit the State, and themselves, by dividing these estates into small farms and selling them to actual settlers at a fair price. It will be a grand day for California when the word " ranch," like the idea and system it represents, has only a historical meaning, and when small farms, well tilled, dot the lovely plains now abandoned to herds of cattle. The floods and droughts of 1802, '63 and '64, compelled many ranch owners to adopt the sensible policy above recommended; and if all would do so to the extent of offering half or two thirds of their property in alternate lots, they would grow wealthy on the remainder, and help to enrich the State.
In conclusion, the publishers of the Natural Wealth of California submit it to the public with the earnest wish that its chief aim, which is to help California in the direction of a substantial and healthy progress, may be fully realized.
The author desires to make special acknowledgment to J. G. Cooper, SI. D., of the State Geological Survey; to Henry Gibbons, M. D.; and to Mr. J. S. Silver, for valuable assistance rendered by them in the several departments of Zoology, Climate, and Agriculture.
Prof. B. Silliman, Dr. Louis Lanszweert, Messrs. Henry DeGroot, Monroe Thompson, T. A. Blake, W. A. Goodyear, F. BretHarte, and Wm. Henry Knight, have also aided in the preparation of material for this volume, and the author's thanks are due to these gentlemen for the efficient manner in which their duties have been performed. San Francisco, March 31, 1808.
General Plan. Mammalia: Bears—Raccoons-- Skunks—Glutton—Fisher—Marten—Weasel
Otter—Cougar—Jaguar—Ocelot—Wild Cats—Wolf—Coyote—Foxes—Sea Lions and
Porcupine—Hares—Elk—Deer—Antelope—Bighorn—Whales and Porpoises. Birds:
Thrushes—Mocking Birds—Grosbeaks—Linnets—Goldfinches— Sparrows — Pigeons—
Do ves—Cranes—Herons—Ibis —Plover—Snipe—Curlews- - Quail—Swans- - Geese—Brant
Ducks —Pelicans—Cormorants—Albatross —Fulmars—Petrels—Gulls—Loons—Grebes
—Sea Parrot—Sea Pigeon—Murre. Reptiles : Tortoise—Turtles—Lizards—Iguana—
Horned Toads—Glass Snake—Battlesnakes—Harmless Snakes—Frogs, etc.,—Salamau-
ders—Four-legged Fish. Fishes : Perch—Kingfish—Bass—Moonfish—Goldfish—Vivi-
parous Fish—Redfish — Kelpfish — Mackerel—Bonito —Albicore —Barracouta—Flying
Fish—Panther Fish—Sticklebacks—Rock-Cod—Sculpin—Wolf-Eel—Gobies—Toad Fish
—Lump Fish-Flat Fish—Halibut—Turbot—Sole—Cod—Whiting—Codling—Tom-Cod
—Snake Fish—Salmon Trout—White Fish — Smelts—Killies—Herring—Anchovies-
Chubs—Suckers—Conger-Eel—Balloon Fish—Sea Horses —Pipe Fish—Sturgeons—Rays
—Sharks—Torpedo—Angel Fish — Stingrays — lampreys —Worm Fish. Mollcsca:
Oysters—Clams—Date Fish—Mussels. Ceustacea: Crabs—Lobster—Shrimps—Cat
MINES AND MINING.