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and the tendency to retain land in large tracts. This, however, is less apparent than it was a few years ago. Nearly all the Spanish titles have been finally adjudicated, and fair progress is making in settling the many vexatious disputes as to the large tracts of land granted by the United States Government, which the State authorities too hastily and carelessly put into market. Large bodies of land are coming into possession of railroad companies ; but under the regulations adopted by Congress, these cannot be withheld from occupation, even if it were not to the interest of the grantees to sell them. Many holders of Spanish grants, which embrace some of the most extensive and fertile districts, could greatly benefit the State, and themselves, by dividing these estates into small farms and selling them to actual settlers at a fair price. It will be a grand day for California when the word " ranch," like the idea and system it represents, has only a historical meaning, and when small farms, well tilled, dot the lovely plains now abandoned to herds of cattle. The floods and droughts of 1802, '63 and '64, compelled many ranch owners to adopt the sensible policy above recommended; and if all would do so to the extent of offering half or two thirds of their property in alternate lots, they would grow wealthy on the remainder, and help to enrich the State.

In conclusion, the publishers of the Natural Wealth of California submit it to the public with the earnest wish that its chief aim, which is to help California in the direction of a substantial and healthy progress, may be fully realized.

The author desires to make special acknowledgment to J. G. Cooper, SI. D., of the State Geological Survey; to Henry Gibbons, M. D.; and to Mr. J. S. Silver, for valuable assistance rendered by them in the several departments of Zoology, Climate, and Agriculture.

Prof. B. Silliman, Dr. Louis Lanszweert, Messrs. Henry DeGroot, Monroe Thompson, T. A. Blake, W. A. Goodyear, F. BretHarte, and Wm. Henry Knight, have also aided in the preparation of material for this volume, and the author's thanks are due to these gentlemen for the efficient manner in which their duties have been performed. San Francisco, March 31, 1808.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

EARLY HISTORY.

Introduction—Origin of the Name—By Whom Discovered—The Changes in its Boundaries

—The Missions—Their Beginning and End—The Aborigines of California—The Early

Settlers—Commerce of California while under Spanish and Mexican rule —The Acqui-

sition of California by the United States Page 1

CHAPTER II. .

GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY.

Outline of Geography—The Harbors of California—San Francisco Bay—Tidal Influences—

San Diego Harbor—San Pedro Bay—The Santa Barbara Channel—San Luis Obispo

Bay—Monterey Bay—Santa Cruz Harbor—Half Moon Bay—Drake's Bay—Tomales

Bay—Bodega Bay-- Humboldt Bay—Trinidad Bay—Crescent City Harbor—Improve-

ments to be Made—Islands on the Coast . 71

CHAPTER III.

THE COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA.

Southern, Coast, Northern, Mountain and Valley Counties. Southern Counties: San Diego

—San Bernardino—Los Angeles—Santa Barbara—San Luis Obispo—Kern. Coast Coun-

ties: Monterey—Santa Cruz—Santa Clara—San Mateo—San Francisco—Alameda—

Contra Costa—Marin—Sonoma—Napa—Lake—Mendocino. Northern Counties: Hum-

boldt—Trinity—Klamath—Del Norte—Siskiyou—Shasta—Lassen. Mountain Counties:

Plumas—Sierra — Nevada — Placer—El Dorado—Amador—Alpine — Calaveras—Tuol-

umne—Mariposa—Mono—Inyo. Valley Counties: Tehama—Butte—Colusa—Sutter—

Tuba—Yolo—Solano— Sacramento—San Joaquin—Stanislaus— Merced—Fresno—Tu-

lare. 92

CHAPTER IV.

CLIMATE.

General Remarks—Temperature—Extremes of Heat and Cold—Winds—The Sea Breeze—

Northers—Southeasters—Bains—Storms—Cloud and Mist—Snow and hail —Thunder

and Lightning—Relations of Climate to Agriculture and other Pursuits—Health, Do-

mestic Economy, etc 330

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zoology.

General Plan. Mammalia: Bears—Raccoons-- Skunks—Glutton—Fisher—Marten—Weasel

Otter—Cougar—Jaguar—Ocelot—Wild Cats—Wolf—Coyote—Foxes—Sea Lions and

Seals—Sea Elephant—Shrews—Bats—Beaver—Marmots—Squirrels—Rats—Gophers—

Porcupine—Hares—Elk—Deer—Antelope—Bighorn—Whales and Porpoises. Birds:

Paysano—Cuckoo—Woodpeckers—Eagles—Hawks—Owls—Vultures—Crows—Magpies

Jays—Kingfishers—Flycatchers—Nighthawks—Humming Birds—Swallows—Waxwings

Thrushes—Mocking Birds—Grosbeaks—Linnets—Goldfinches— Sparrows — Pigeons—

Do ves—Cranes—Herons—Ibis —Plover—Snipe—Curlews- - Quail—Swans- - Geese—Brant

Ducks —Pelicans—Cormorants—Albatross —Fulmars—Petrels—Gulls—Loons—Grebes

—Sea Parrot—Sea Pigeon—Murre. Reptiles : Tortoise—Turtles—Lizards—Iguana—

Horned Toads—Glass Snake—Battlesnakes—Harmless Snakes—Frogs, etc.,—Salamau-

ders—Four-legged Fish. Fishes : Perch—Kingfish—Bass—Moonfish—Goldfish—Vivi-

parous Fish—Redfish — Kelpfish — Mackerel—Bonito —Albicore —Barracouta—Flying

Fish—Panther Fish—Sticklebacks—Rock-Cod—Sculpin—Wolf-Eel—Gobies—Toad Fish

—Lump Fish-Flat Fish—Halibut—Turbot—Sole—Cod—Whiting—Codling—Tom-Cod

—Snake Fish—Salmon Trout—White Fish — Smelts—Killies—Herring—Anchovies-

Chubs—Suckers—Conger-Eel—Balloon Fish—Sea Horses —Pipe Fish—Sturgeons—Rays

—Sharks—Torpedo—Angel Fish — Stingrays — lampreys —Worm Fish. Mollcsca:

Oysters—Clams—Date Fish—Mussels. Ceustacea: Crabs—Lobster—Shrimps—Cat

fish. 434

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