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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1889, by


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


All Rights Reserved.

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authorities at second-hand. Doubtless writers will continue to give inaccurate dates and details for Oñate's conquest; to seek new locations for Coronado's Cíbola and Tiguex; to name Cabeza de Vaca as the discoverer of New Mexico, and speak of his descendants as still living in the country; to talk of the Aztecs and of Montezuma in this northern region; to describe Santa Fé as the oldest town in the United States, dating its foundation back to the sixteenth or fifteenth century, or that of Tucson to the sixteenth; to chronicle the expedition of Peñalosa to Quivira; to name the duke of Alburquerque and other viceroys among


gov. ernors of New Mexico; to derive the name of Arizona froin ‘arid zone,' or 'narizona,' the big-nosed woman; to accept the current traditions of rich mines of gold and silver discovered and worked by the Jesuits and conquerors, or by enslaved Indians under their cruel direction; and to repeat various other errors that have found place in the legendary annals of these provinces. However, I have presented the facts and the evidence on which they rest. My statements should be accepted or disproved.

rizona and New Mexico are properly presented together in one volume, as they have historically and physically much in common. In Spanish and Mexican times they were practically or to a great extent one country, and their annals are accordingly somewhat intermingled; but the chapters devoted to each, though mixed in the order of presentment, are kept distinct in substance, so that the record of each province may be read continuously. Since their organization as territories of the United States the history of each is given separately in consecutive chapters. As between the two there is no difference in scale or treat

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